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Comment-AMCC-III.e-Training

De
6 pages
File: < http://www.secureav.com/Comment-AMCC-III.e-Training.pdf >Last Updated: October 20, 2005THE AVIATORS’ MODEL CODE OF CONDUCT(AMCC) is available at < http://www.secureav.com >.About the Commentary: The Commentary addresses selected issues within the AVIATORS’ MODEL CODEOF CONDUCT(AMCC) to elaborate on their meaning, provide interpretive guidance, and suggest ways ofadopting the AMCC. It is intended primarily for implementers, policy administrators, aviation associationmanagement, and pilots who wish to explore the AMCC in greater depth. Please send your edits, errata,and comments to . Terms of Use are available at .COMMENTARY TOAMCC III.e – TRAINING AND PROFICIENCYe. accurately log hours flown and maneuvers practiced to satisfy trainingand currency requirements.1 2 3Accurately logging flight time requires sound judgment, ethical conduct, and disciplineby aviators. It demands great discretion and voluntary compliance. Logging by pilots has ahistory of uncertainty, regulatory confusion, and worse.One AMCC reviewer cited a colloquialism among some aviator: fly what you can; log what youneed! Bob Buck recounted one of his early checkouts –[the examiner] never looked at my logbook or mentioned my flying time. I guess herealized the fallacy of logbooks that they were, and I suppose still are, suspiciousbecause it’s easy to write in hours that have never been flown and to phony up theendorsement—“Parker ...
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T
HE
A
VIATORS
M
ODEL
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ODEOF
C
ONDUCT
(AMCC)isavailableat<
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>.

AbouttheCommentary
:
TheCommentaryaddressesselectedissueswithintheA
VIATORS
M
ODEL
C
ODE
OF
C
ONDUCT
(AMCC)toelaborateontheirmeaning,provideinterpretiveguidance,andsuggestwaysof
adoptingtheAMCC.Itisintendedprimarilyforimplementers,policyadministrators,aviationassociation
management,andpilotswhowishtoexploretheAMCCingreaterdepth.Pleasesendyouredits,errata,
andcommentsto<
PEB@secureav.com
>.TermsofUseareavailableat<
http://secureav.com/terms.pdf
>.

C
OMMENTARYTO
AMCCIII.e
T
RAININGAND
P
ROFICIENCY

e.accuratelyloghoursflownandmaneuverspracticedtosatisfytraining
andcurrencyrequirements.
Accuratelyloggingflighttime
1
requiressoundjudgment,
2
ethicalconduct,
3
anddiscipline
byaviators.Itdemandsgreatdiscretionandvoluntarycompliance.Loggingbypilotshasa
historyofuncertainty,regulatoryconfusion,andworse.
OneAMCCreviewercitedacolloquialismamongsomeaviator:
flywhatyoucan;logwhatyou
need!
BobBuckrecountedoneofhisearlycheckouts
[theexaminer]neverlookedatmylogbookormentionedmyflyingtime.Iguesshe
realizedthefallacyoflogbooksthattheywere,andIsupposestillare,suspicious
becauseitseasytowriteinhoursthathaveneverbeenflownandtophonyupthe
endorsementParkertimewecalledit,aftertheParkerpen.Whenpilotsbragabout
havingthousan
4
dsandthousandsofhours,moreworldlypilotsoftensmileknowingly
atsuchfacts.
TheFARsprohibit[a]nyfraudulentorintentionallyfalseentryinanylogbook,record,orreport
thatisrequiredtobekept,made,orusedtoshowcompliancewithanyrequirementforthe
5issuanceorexerciseoftheprivilegesofanycertificate,rating,orauthorizationunderthispart.
NTSBReportCHI98FA296
OnAugust1,1998...aCessna340A,N5340F[atwinengineaircraft],operatedbya
privatepilotcollidedwithLakeMichiganwhiletakingoff...fromtheMerrillC.Meigs
Field...Onepassengerdrownedasaresultoftheaccident.Thepilotandtwoother
passengersreceivedminorinjuries....Hereportedtheairplanestalled,hitthewater,and
flippedover....
Thepilotheldaprivatepilotcertificatewithaninstrumentrating....OnhisAirman
Certificateand/orRatingApplicationforhisinstrumentcheckridethepilotreportedhehad
atotalflighttimeof177.6hours,ofwhich88.7hourswerepilot-in-commandtime.Onthe
NTSBForm6120.1/2thepilotreportedhavingatotalflighttimeof1,600hours,ofwhich
1,450hourswereaspilot-in-command.Inaddition,hereportedhaving500hourstotal
flighttimeinCessna340airplanes,ofwhich400hourswaspilot-in-command.
Thepilotstatedthathehadreceivedamulti-engineratinginMarchorAprilof1997.No
record(s)ofthepilothavingreceivedamulti-engineratingwerelocated.Thepilotreported
hereceivedthemajorityofhismulti-enginetrainingfromaflightinstructorinOhio.When
thisflightinstructorwascontactedhestatedthathehadnotgiventheaccidentpilotmulti-
enginetraining.
6
LoggingisprobablyoneofthemostmisunderstoodportionsofFARPart61.Itisanareaof
aviationregulationthatappearstocreatemuchconfusionamongpilots.Thiscanbeobservedby

1

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(AMCC)isavailableat<
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>.
presentingaparticularscenariotoagroupofpilotsorflightinstructorsfortheiropini
7
ononhow
thescenarioshouldbelegallylogged.Immediatelyconflictingopinionsareraised.
LoggingApproaches:
ConsiderFAR61.57(c)(1),whichrequiresthecompletionofsix
approaches,holdingprocedures,andtheinterceptingandtrackingofcourseseverysixmonths.
8
In1992aFAAcounselissuedanopinionletterdeclaringthatapilotcannotcountanapproach
forthepurposeofFAR61.57unlessitisflowntothepublishedMinimumDescentAltitude
(MDA)orDecisionHeight(DH)oraltitudetowhichthecontrollerorderedittobebrokenoff.
9
Mostpilotsareneitherawareofthisinterpretationnorconformtoit.Considertheseperspectives
ontheloggingofapproachesbyvariousaviationexperts:

Therulesarenotspecificastowhatconstitutesflyinganinstrumentapproach
underactualIFRconditions,butiftheweatherisbel
1
o
0
wVFRminimumsforany
partoftheapproachthatisgoodenough,wethink.

Itismyunderstandingthatyoucanloganactualinstrumentapproachifany
cloudispenetratedoncetheapproachcommencesorifthevisibilityislessthan
threemiles.Basedonthat,inthelast400hoursinmylogthereare24actual
instrumentapproacheslisted.Ofthose,14wereinmarginalVFRconditions...
.FourteenwereinIFRconditions....Onlyfiveofthelatter14wereinlow
IFR,visibilityofamileorlessand/oraceilingof500feetorless.
11

[Y]oucanloganapproachasactualwheneveryoucloud-flyintheapproach
phaseofflight.
12

InmymanyyearsexperienceasanFAAinspector,Ineveronceaskedan
airmenduringaninvestigationifhisloggedapproacheswerecomplete
approachesflowntominimums,itjustwouldntmatte
1
r
3
tomebecausewhatever
thepilottellsmeiswhatIwouldhavehadtobelieve.
LoggingPICTime:
RulesforloggingPilot-in-Command(PIC)timearevitaltoallpilots
1

4
andyetcomplex,demandingcloseattention.
15
Theruleshaveprovenconfusingwithregardto
actingasPICversusloggingPICtime,pilotandinstructorloggingofPICtimeduringinstrument
trainingflights,andstudentpilotloggingofPICtime.
LoggingMaintenance:
Recordspertinenttothemaintenanceofonesaircraftrequire
accuratelogging.
16
AsNeilD.VanSickleasserts,theycontributesignificantlytosafeand
economicalflightinanytypeofaircraft,operatingunderanyconditions.
17
Withfreedom
comesresponsibility...[for]ownerswhoperformpreventativemaintenancetomake
maintenancerecordentriesofallworkperformed.
18
Althoughownersofamateur-built
experimentalaircraftarenotrequiredtokeepaircraftmaintenancerecords,
19
voluntaryrecord
keepingisimportantbecausedocumentationisakeyingredientofsafety.
2

0
Someloggingrequirementshavebeencriticizedasunnecessarilyimpingingonpilotprivacy.
21
Nonetheless,evenifyouactuallyhavetherecentexperience,nothavingitloggedjustinvites
FAAskepticism.
22
Moreover,loggingtimemayalsobestrictlyconstruedbyinsurers
requiringhoursactuallyflowntobereliablyrecordedinapilotsflightlog.
23
Because[o]ur
entireaviationsystemreliesonthetruthfulnessofitsparticipantstoagreatdegree,
24
pilots
shouldexercisegreatcareinbothunderstandingandaccuratelyrepresentinghoursand
maneuversloggedandaccuratelycompletingotherrecordsassociatedwithflightoperationsand
aircraftownership.

2

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T
HE
A
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(AMCC)isavailableat<
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>.
C
ODE
E
XAMPLES
:
25

[Apilot]willnotknowinglyfalsifyanylogorrecord,norwillhecondonesuch
actionbyothercrewmembers.
PilotsCodeofEthics
,AirLinePilots
Association
26

**1
FilghtTimeis(1)Pilottimethatcommenceswhenanaircraftmovesunderitsownpowerforthe
purposeofflightandendswhentheaircraftcomestorestafterlanding....FAR1.1,
availableat
<
http://www.faa.gov
>,
alsoavailableat
<http://risingup.com/fars/info/part1-1-FAR.shtml>.Pilot
timemeansthattimeinwhichaperson--(i)Servesasarequiredpilotflightcrewmember;(ii)Receives
trainingfromanauthorizedinstructorinanaircraft,flightsimulator,orflighttrainingdevice....FAR
61.1(b)(12),
availableat
<
http://www.faa.gov
>,
alsoavailableat
<http://risingup.com/fars/info/part61-1-
FAR.shtml>.Theloggingofflighttimeinflightsimulatorsrequiresfurtherconsideration.
See
FAA,
FlightSimulationTrainingDeviceQualificationGuidanceAdvisoryCirculars
,
at
<http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/aircraft_aviation/nsp/flight_training/ac/>.
Currencyitemstobetrackedmayinclude:pilotincommand(PIC),proficiencychecks,complexaircraft
time,flightevaluations,requiredtraining,takeoff/landing(includingnight),actualinstrumenttimeand
approaches,dateandclassoflastFAAmedical,additionalqualifications(e.g.,international).
See
NBAA,
M
ANAGEMENT
G
UIDE
,§1.9
PilotLogbook
(Sept.1999),
availabletomembersat
<http://web.nbaa.org/member/ops/adm/mgmtguide/1/>;CommentarytoAMCCIII.b.,notes27-29and
accompanyingtext,
availableat
<http://www.secureav.com/Comment-AMCC-III.b-Training.pdf>
(concerningcurrency).
2
[A]ctualinstrumentconditionsmayoccur...[duringaflighton]amoonlessnightovertheoceanwith
nodiscerniblehorizon,ifuseoftheinstrumentsisnecessarytomaintainadequatecontrolovertheaircraft.
Thedeterminationastowhetherflightbyreferencetoinstrumentsisnecessary[andthuscouldbelogged
underFAR61.51]issomewhat
subjective,
andbasedinpartonthe
soundjudgmentofthepilot
...Thelog
shouldincludethereasonsfordeterminingthattheflightwasunderactualinstrumentconditionsincasethe
pilotlaterwouldbecalledontoprovethattheactualinstrumentflighttimeloggedwaslegitimate.Letter
ofInterpretationfromJohnH.Cassady,AsstChiefCounsel,Regs.andEnforcementDiv.,FAA,toJoseph
P.Carr,No.1984-29(Nov.7,1984)(copyonfilewithauthor)(emphasisadded).
See
Commentaryto
AMCCI.c,
Developandexercisegoodjudgment,availableat<
http://www.secureav.com/Comment-
AMCC-I.c-General-Responsibilities.pdf
>
.
3
Considerthefollowing
TestPilot
question,AprivatepilotdepartsSeattleat1955UTConaVFR,
nonstopcross-countryflighttoSaltLakeCity,wherehelandsat0005UTC.Howmuchflyingtimemay
helog?Answer:Thereisnolimit.Hemaylegally
b
,
utnotmorally
,logasmuchflyingtimeashe
desires.However,onlyfourhours,10minutesmaybeloggediftheexperienceistobeusedforan
additionalratingorcertificate.BarrySchiff,
TestPilot
,AOPAP
ILOT
,Jan.2004,pp.107,116(emphasis
added).
4
B
OB
B
UCK
,N
ORTH
S
TAR
O
VER
M
Y
S
HOULDER
69(Simon&Schuster2002).
Cf.
BrianM.Jacobson,
LogbookProficiency
,IFRR
EFRESHER
,May2003,pp.1,4(The[accident]pilot...apparentlyloggedas
instrumenttimeanytimethathespentflyingonanIFRflightplan...).W
ILLIAM
K.K
ERSHNER
,
L
OGGING
F
LIGHT
T
IME
170(IowaStatePress2002)(Somepilotsweresounimaginativeastoputrow
afterrowofentrieswiththeexactsamecolorink,whichlookedliketheentriesofarecalcitrantgrade
schoolstudent....).IamawareofonespecificgroupofpilotsthatIbelieveviolatestheregulationsfor
loggingInstrumentTimemorethanmost.Ihavespokenwithseveralformermilitarypilotswhobuilt
timeinthemilitary,butwithnocivilianFAArating.UponacquiringaconventionalInstrumentRating,
thesepilotshavetoldmethattheyimmediatelybegintoaddactualinstrumenttimetotheirlogbooksto
reflectthetimethattheybelievetheyreentitledtofromtheirmilitarycareers(oftentwenty,thirtyor
moreyearspast).EmailfromMichaelRadomsky,Pres.,CirrusOwnersandPilotsAssn(Oct.18,2005).

3

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5
FAR61.59(a),
Falsification,reproduction,oralterationofapplications,certificates,logbooks,reports,or
records,availableat
<
http://www.faa.gov
>,
alsoavailableat
<http://risingup.com/fars/info/part61-59-
FAR.shtml>.
6
Availableat
<http://www.ntsb.gov/ntsb/brief2.asp?ev_id=20001211X10781&ntsbno=CHI98FA296&akey=1>.One
aviationexpertcommented,[thelogbook]isadocumenteasilyfalsified,sowhyshoulditconstituteproof
ofanykind?[W]edonthaveaproblem,soletsnotcreateonebyrequiringalogbooktobeshown.
EmailfromFrankHofmann,Secy,CanadianOwnersandPilotsAssn(June3,2003).Iforgedmy
motherssignatureonmyapplicationforastudentpilotcertificateandworkedduringeverysparehourto
accumulatethecoinsneededtobuyflyingtime.BarrySchiff,
Thanks,Paul
,AOPAP
ILOT
,Nov.2003,p.
.447
EmailfromR.C.Morton,FAA(Ret.)(Sep.25,2002).Separately,electronicrecordkeepinghasdistinct
requirementswhichmaycreateconfusionorspecialchallengesforneophytes.
See
FAA,AC120-78,
AcceptanceandUseofElectronicSignatures,ElectronicRecordkeepingSystems,andElectronicManuals
(Oct.29,2002);CommentarytoAMCCVI,
UseofTechnology
.
8
Recentflightexperience:Pilotincommand,availableat
<
http://www.faa.gov
>,
alsoavailableat
<http://risingup.com/fars/info/part61-57-FAR.shtml>.
9
OrtheapproachcouldbecountedifabandonedbeforetheDHorMDAifduetosafety.
See
14C.F.R.
pts.1,61,141,and143,
Pilot,FlightInstructor,GroundInstructor,andPilotSchoolCertificationRules
(FinalRuleeffectiveAug.4,1997),
availableat
<http://www.avweb.com/news/news/184484-
1.html#PREAMBLE>(includesrevealingpubliccommentsandFAAresponsesregardingloggingof
approaches,andstatesthatthedefinitionofinstrumentapproachwasmodifiedtoremoveany
requirementthattheapproachbeconductedtoDH,MDA,ortoahigheraltitudeselectedbyATCinorder
tobeconsideredaninstrumentapproach.).
Compare
Asforlogginganactualapproach,itwouldpresumetheapproachtobetotheconclusionof
theapproachthatwouldmeanthepilotgodowntothedecisionheightortotheminimumdecentaltitude,
asappropriate.FAA,AFS-600Part61FAQfile,
availableat
<http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/afs/afs800/afs810/part_61/media/p
t61FAQ.doc>.Ifthatstheruling,VERYFEWpeoplearecurrentulensstheygettheirfullapproachesin
astraining.IliveinOhio,andeventhoughtheweatherisntgreat,havingtoflyanapproachtominimums
israre,becausethatmeansyoumadeaplanningdecisiontoflytoanairportwithweatheratminimums,
planningforanalternate,etc.Thatsnotthenormforprivatepilots.EmailfromDougStewart,Pres.,
Aircraftlogs.com(Oct.13,2005).NotethatapilotneednotbeinFAR91.155IMCtobeinactual
instrumentconditionstobeflyingsolelybyreferencetoinstruments(suchasextremelyhazydayswithno
visiblehorizonandmarginalgroundview).FAA,AFS-600Part61FAQfile,
Id.
10
TomBenenson,
Areyouflyinglegally?,
F
LYING
,June2003,pp.68,71.
11RichardL.Collins,
HowtoFlyInstrumentApproaches
,F
LYING
,July2003,pp.84,85.
12
RichardL.Collins,
FlyingTime,CalendarTime,
F
LYING
,Feb.2004,pp.35,37.
13
TelephoneInterviewwithAnonymous(Sept.20,2002)(namewithheldbyrequest).
14
H
OWARD
F
RIED
,B
EYONDTHE
C
HECKRIDE
104(McGraw-Hill,1997)(providingadetailedanalysisof
manyloggingrequirements).
15
See
FAR61.51(e),
availableat
<
http://www.faa.gov
>,
alsoavailableat
<http://risingup.com/fars/info/part61-51-FAR.shtml>(loggingpilot-in-commandflighttime);AOPA,
LoggingPilotinCommand(PIC)Time,at
<http://www.aopa.org/members/files/topics/pic.html>
(assertingthatitisacontroversialsubjectandcanbeveryconfusing).
Seegenerally
FAR61.51,
availableat
<
http://www.faa.gov
>,
alsoavailableat
<http://risingup.com/fars/info/part61-51-
FAR.shtml>(Pilotlogbooks).

4

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16
Forexample,aircraftrecordsregardinginoperableinstrumentsandequipmentmustbediligently
maintained.FAR91.213(a)(4),
availableat
<
http://www.faa.gov
>,
alsoavailableat
<http://risingup.com/fars/info/part91-213-FAR.shtml>(Inoperativeinstrumentsandequipment);FAA,
AC91-67,
availableat
<http://www.airweb.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/13c094a06437c
5fa862569d900744d86/$FILE/Chap1-2.pdf>(MinimumEquipmentRequirementsforGeneralAviation
OperationsUnderPart91).OtherrecordsrequirementsincludethosespecifiedinFAR43.9,
availableat
<
http://www.faa.gov
>,
alsoavailableat
<http://risingup.com/fars/info/part43-9-FAR.shtml>(Content,
form,anddispositionofmaintenance,preventivemaintenance,rebuilding,andalterationrecords),FAR
43.11,
availableat
<
http://www.faa.gov
>,
alsoavailableat
<http://risingup.com/fars/info/part43-11-
FAR.shtml>(Maintenancerecordentries),andFAR91.417,
availableat
<
http://www.faa.gov
>,
also
availableat
<http://risingup.com/fars/info/part91-417-FAR.shtml>(Maintenancerecords).
17
N
EIL
D.V
AN
S
ICKLE
,M
ODERN
A
IRMANSHIP
710(D.VanNostrandCo.,1976).
18
StevenW.Ells,
Do-it-yourselfmaintenance
,AOPAP
ILOT
,Aug.2005,pp.161,165.JimCavanagh,
quotedin
DavidKowalski,etal.,
Convention&Fly-in2005GetsHighMarks,
P
IPERS
,Sept.2005,p.40
(Whatgetsintoalogbookcomesdowntopersonalethics.).
19
FAR43.1(b).
20
ScottM.Spangler,
HomebuiltLogbooks
,EAAS
PORT
A
VIATION
,July2005,p.128.(Anaphorismused
inallaspectsoflifeisthattheJobisnotcompleteuntilthepaperworkisdone.
I

d
.).
21
ConsiderthefollowingexcerptfromanarticlebyoneCanadianaviationexpert:
6.1ItisrecommendedthatLogbooksnolongerberequiredforRecreationalAircraft.
ItisquestionablethattheJourneyLogBookOrderisconstitutionalvisavistheCanadian
CharterofRightsAndFreedoms.Section8oftheLegalRightschapteroftheCharter
protectscitizensagainstunreasonablesearch,i.e.,againsthavingtodeclareones
constantanddailymovements.Section15oftheEqualityRightschapterprotectsagainst
discriminationandguaranteesfreedomofassociation:inwhatwayisthiscompatible
withtheregulationrequiringdisclosureofnamesandnumbersofpassengers?
Isitanunconstitutionalintrusionintothepersonallivesofpilotstorequirethatpersonal
logsbekept,andbepresentedupondemand?Whatpurposeisservedbylogs?Whyare
automobiledriversnotrequiredtokeepandproducelogs?
Howisthepublicinterestservedbyrequiringlogsofanykindtobekeptonanyprivate
aircraft?IstheGovernmenttreadingonerouslyonCanadiansrightsandfreedomsifit
makessuchdemands?
FrankHofmann,CanadianOwnersandPilotsAssn,
FreedomtoFly,
R
ECOMMENDATION
R
EPORT
(Aug.,
1994),
availableat
<http://www3.sympatico.ca/fhofmann/art_free_fly1.html>.
Seegenerally
Tom
Gilmore,MCFI,
KeepingRecords,
NAFIM
ENTOR
,Aug.2002,pp.10-12(urgingthatlogsshouldserveas
an
essentialsafetytool
ratherthanexclusivelyasamechanismtoviolatepilots).
Separately,querythepublicsafetybenefitsunderthePilotRecordsImprovementActof1996(PRIA),Pub.
L.No.104-264§502,49U.S.C.§44703(h),
availableat
<
http://www.faa.gov
>,andFAA,AC120-68C,
PilotRecordsImprovementAct
(Jan.28,2003),
availableat
<http://www.airweb.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/23aaac333cc9b
b0886256e370075f9c9/$FILE/AC120-68C.pdf>.
22
JohnS.Yodice,
Recent-experiencerequirements,
AOPAP
ILOT
,Nov.2004,p.58.
23
MelvinPotterv.UnitedStatesSpecialtyInsuranceCo.,
2CA-CV2003-0182,(Ariz.Ct.App.2004)
[_P.2d_2005],
availableat
<http://www.omlaw.com/attachments/11.pdf>.
See
JohnS.Yodice,
Your
InsuranceandLoggedFlightTime,
AOPAP
ILOT
,Feb.2005,pp.56,58.

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24
BrettD.Venhuizen,
TheLegalAftermath:LyingtotheFAAHoldsGraveLegalConsequences
,F
LYING
,
Oct.2004,pp.82,84.
See
CarolynMarshall,
U.S.Says46PilotsLiedtoObtaintheirLicenses,
N.Y.
T
IMES
,Jul.20,2005,p.A13;CommentarytoAMCCVII.e,
PromoteethicalbehaviorwithintheGA
community
,
availableat
<
http://www.secureav.com/Comment-AMCC-VII.e-Ethics.pdf
>
.
25
CodeExamples
areexamplesfromrelevantcodesofconductthatarepresentedforbackground,
perspective,andcomparison.CodeExamplesarenotnecessarilyendorsedbytheAMCCCommentary.
26
Availableat
<http://www.alpa.org>.

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