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A Brief Tutorial on Power Management in Computer Systems

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28 pages
A Brief Tutorial on Power Management in Computer SystemsDavid Chalupsky, Emily Qi, & Ilango Ganga Intel Corporation March 13, 2007Objective & AgendaObjective:• Establish a common foundation for EEESG work by providing an overview and history of PC power management and LAN use in that context.Agenda:• High Level overview of PC power management– Links to additional information• How Ethernet is utilized in Contemporary PC Power Management• Making Power Management and Ethernet more effective in the future2 March 11, 2007 File: chalupsky_01_0307PC Power States circa 1990• ON• OFFSounds nice & simple. What’s wrong with that?• Time to boot the PC from a cold start took too long, and got longer as PCs became more complex.• As a result, people left their PCs on all the time, wasting energy.3 March 11, 2007 File: chalupsky_01_0307Historical (1990’s) Motivation for Power Managementby market segmentLaptops & Battery Powered Devices– Battery Life is a key product feature, thus– Commercial incentive has always been there– Vendor-specific solutions preceded standardsDesktop PCs– Little end user benefit perceived for PM. – Initial attention to PM in 1992 with the release of EPA’s Energy Star program and international counterparts.Server Systems– Historically, a very performance oriented segment– Always on & ready for maximum performance– Recent, market-driven, attention to power due to high cost of electricity & cooling in Data Centers– EPA ...
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A Brief Tutorial on Power Management in Computer Systems
David Chalupsky, Emily Qi, & Ilango Ganga Intel Corporation March 13, 2007
Objective & Agenda
Objective: Establish a common foundation for EEESG work by providing an overview and history of PC power management and LAN use in that context.
Agenda: High Level overview of PC power management – Links to additional information How Ethernet is utilized in Contemporary PC Power Management Making Power Management and Ethernet more effective in the future
2 March 11, 2007 File: chalupsky 01 0307 _ _
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3 March 11, 2007 File: chalupsky_ _ 01 0307
OFF
got longer as PCs became more complex. energy.
Sounds nice & simple. What’s wrong with that?
PC Power States circa 1990
 ngtias we,imt eht lla no sCP
Historical (1990’s) Motivation for Power Management by market segment
Laptops & Battery Powered Devices – Battery Life is a key product feature, thus – Commercial incentive has always been there – Vendor-specific solutionsprecededstandards Desktop PCs – Little end user benefit perceived for PM. – Initial attention to PM in 1992 with the release of EPA’s Energy Starprogram and international counterparts. Server Systems – Historically, a very performance oriented segment – Always on & ready for maximum performance – Recent, market-driven, attention to power due to high cost of electricity & cooling in Data Centers – EPA just beginning to focus on Servers in 2006/2007
4 March 11, 2007 File: chalupsky_01_0307
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Enter the Sleep State–
To reduce PC energy consumption during periods of inactivity, the industry introduced the concept sleep, or standby, states.
5 March 11, 2007 File: chalupsky_01_0307
Waking the System Return to active stat Keyboard, Mouse, Power Button
Goals Powe
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OW(Na )LO ekAL nteystom owll sed tinhg ts elpea t rsFiaeera ppcustrpdo
March 11, 2007 File: chalupsky_01_0307
In corporate environments, PCs were STILL being left on all night. performed at night, over the LAN. IT needed system availability. and be turned on remotely for management.
Enter Wake On LAN
6
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Power Management Standards
nItiai lfeoftr :PAM 
For multi-vendor interoperability, standards were required – Advanced Power Management – Early-mid 1990’s
uCrrnet: ACPI 
– Advanced Configuration and Power Interface – 1996 – present – ACPI is still evolving to comp rehend new system capabilities – Coordinated with supportinginterfacespecifications: PCI Power Management, USB, Cardbus, PCI Express, etc. – Coordinated with supportingDevice Classspecifications: Network, Storage, Graphics, etc.
7 March 11, 2007 File: chalupsky_01_0307
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March 11, 2007 File: chalupsky_01_0307
8
Advanced Power Management (APM) The Legacy Method
– No uniform user experience
BIOS code/IP
 sup LAN
–Operating System has no knowledge of what APM does
devices into low power states
porttivirPmi enOWekay itcnitnola sna dufentationf implemo yteirav ediW PM Aatniamnina dni e refmustdor  ven
ty
Allows OS-directed Power Management (OSPM)
An “interface” specification
– Configuration tables – Interpreted executable function interface (Control Methods) – Motherboard device enumeration and configuration
Defines
9
March 11, 2007 File: chalupsky_01_0307
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
ACPI
sys  metapaciliblis nociOIBni Srfteesacgesietsr- milpmeented in chipsetSetsytiSelod Malrmhehtiw gnivlove ll powviced dem anIPT sCAatetres l ki eniA MP.Hardware rolg ilabht nys eemstno, hit enddPnB dnP pSceOI SawarPM s isenesO/IPCAlper MPSPM Aesac aS,MP, 
oPewer ty analictio funderiuqer dna setta sntmegenaMar 
defined for multiple levels of the system – Global view: Gx states – System: Sx states – Processor: Cx states – PCI / PCI-X Bus: Bx states – PCI Express Links: Lx states – Devices: Dx states General Trend of the state numbers –0is the Active state - G0, S0, D0 – System is available to User –1-nare sleep states –highernumber corresponds tolowerpower. – User perception is OFF for all of these sleep states.
System Hierarchy of Power Management under ACPI
10 March 11, 2007 File: chalupsky_01_0307
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11
In the Interest of Time…
File: chalupsky_01_0307
March 11, 2007
in the Backup section for the interested student.
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