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A study on the Behavior under multitasking conditions in a dynamic task scenario in the context of human-machine-interaction [Elektronische Ressource] / vorgelegt von Jürgen Kiefer

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93 pages
A S T U D Y O N T H E B E H AV I O R U N D E RM U LT I TA S K I N G C O N D I T I O N S I N AD Y N A M I C TA S K S C E N A R I O I N T H EC O N T E X T O FH U M A N - M A C H I N E - I N T E R A C T I O Nvorgelegt vonDipl.-Psych. Jürgen Kiefervon der Fakultät V - Verkehrs- und Maschinensystemeder Technischen Universität BerlinGRK PROMETEIzur Erlangung des akademischen GradesDr. phil.genehmigte DissertationPromotionsausschuss:Berichterstatter: Prof. Dr. Ing. Leon Urbas Prof. Dr. Phil. Manfred ThüringTag der wissenschaftlichen Aussprache: 05.10.2009Berlin 2010D 83This document was created using the tools:• MikTex 2.7 (Freeware)• WinEdt v5.60 (Shareware)• Ghostscript, Ghostview, GSviewSpecial thank to Tony Jameson for providing the style-files:• sfb378.sty• sfb378-apacite.sty• sfb378-apacite.bstDipl.-Psych. Jürgen Kiefer: A Study on the Behavior under MultitaskingConditions in a Dynamic Task Scenario in the Context of Human-Machine-Interaction , vorgelegt von , © Tag der wissenschaftlichen Aussprache:05.10.2009pour JULESA B S T R A C TThe work presented here is focusing on the behavior of participantsin situations of daily life, in which several demands apparently at thesame time need to be dealt with. After introducing into the topiclabeled as "human multitasking", embedded in situation of routine life,reasons for choosing the topic and approaching it are provided (chapter1).
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A S T U D Y O N T H E B E H AV I O R U N D E R M U LT I TA S K I N G C O N D I T I O N S I N A D Y N A M I C TA S K S C E N A R I O I N T H E C O N T E X T O F H U M A N - M A C H I N E - I N T E R A C T I O N
vorgelegt von Dipl.-Psych. Jürgen Kiefer
von der Fakultät V - Verkehrs- und Maschinensysteme der Technischen Universität Berlin GRK PROMETEI zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Dr. phil. genehmigte Dissertation
Promotionsausschuss: Berichterstatter: Prof. Dr. Ing. Leon Urbas Berichterstatter: Prof. Dr. Phil. Manfred Thüring Tag der wissenschaftlichen Aussprache:05.10.2009
Berlin2010 D83
This document was created using the tools:
MikTex 2.7(Freeware)
WinEdt v5.60(Shareware)
Ghostscript, Ghostview, GSview
Special thank toTony Jamesonfor providing the style-files:
sfb378.sty
sfb378-apacite.sty
sfb378-apacite.bst
Dipl.-Psych. Jürgen Kiefer:A Study on the Behavior under Multitasking Conditions in a Dynamic Task Scenario in the Context of Human-Machine-Interaction ,vorgelegt von , © Tag der wissenschaftlichen Aussprache: 05.10.2009
pour JULES
A B S T R A C T
The work presented here is focusing on the behavior of participants in situations of daily life, in which several demands apparently at the same time need to be dealt with. After introducing into the topic labeled as "human multitasking", embedded in situation of routine life, reasons for choosing the topic and approaching it are provided (chapter 1). In chapter2, an overview of the history in human multitasking and task switching is given. First approaches starting at the beginning of last century up to recent approaches and ideas are presented and their impact for psychological science is displayed. Entering chapter3, the empirical work is presented: study1portrays a driving simulation in a driving simulator, in which a primary task (driving) plus a concurrent task (a test of attention which was adapted for the in-car scenario) are applied. The secondary task featured three different levels. The first study gives an impression about how people manage such scenarios. Please note that the main task (driving in the simulator) was considered a dynamic task. The second study mimics study one and is a replication with the additional aspect of training and its impact on performance. With the help of study two, strategies how to handle the scenario are derived and a heuristic is described which is applied by a bunch of people. Setting of the study was taken from study one. As task configuration was expected to strongly moderate the behavior of the participants during the task scenario, main task (driving) and secondary task (test of attention) were varied: applying the lane change task (LCT), a computer-simulation for driving behavior, it was possible to better analyze the lane derivation during driving (which was taken as a measure of performance for the main task). As for the secondary task, the variations of the test of attention used in the previous two studies were systematically extended. Results of study3were used to illustrate the impact of task configuration for the scenario. In the last study, time pressure as additionally component was applied and its impact was measured on task performance both for main task (driving) and secondary task (test of attention). The last chapter (chapter4) resumes the results and provides design recommendations. The work closes with a conclusion and mentions aspects that were not considered due to time constraints.
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ich hatte nur diese zeit(rainer werner fassbinder)
A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S
thank you: • Dr. Dirk Schulze-Kissing ("Ulysses") • Joachim ("Jolle") Wutke • Prof. Leon Urbas • Prof. Manfred Thüring • Prof. Hartmut Wandke • Prof. Anthony Jameson • Prof. Werner H. Tack
• Dipl.-Ing. Marcus Heinath • Dipl.-Psych. Robert Lischke • Daniel Doering
• Dipl.-Psych. Tobias Katus • Dipl.-Psych., Dipl.-Ing. Holger Schultheis • Dipl.-Psych. Cordula Krinner ("Miss LateX") • Dipl.-Psych. Nicola Fricke
• Dipl.-Psych. Diana Woelki (apt pupil) • Dipl.-Psych. Necla Soyak • (cand.) Dipl.-Psych. Bob Kaldasch • (cand.?) Dipl.-Psych. Michael Schulz • Antti Oulasvirta (PhD) • Adam Chuderski (PhD) • Jing Qian (PhD)
• Joscha Bach (PhD) • Inessa Seifert (PhD) • Dipl.-Psych. Nadya Dich • Michal B. Paradowski (PhD) • Stefan Mattes (Daimler) • Dirk Weishaar (pour Messiaen) • Karin Scherinsky-Pingel • Birgit Trogisch • Elke Fadel
• Mario Lasch ... and a few others
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2.2.1Characteristics of task interruption 2.2.2The task switching question25 2.2.3A grammar for task scheduling
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21 26 Single or multiple resources?26 Summary and criticism28 2.4.1Need for continuous tasks in multitasking stud-ies29
2.3 2.4
theory11 theoretical background 15 2.1A short historical survey16 2.1.1The1920‘s16 2.1.2The1930‘s17 2.1.3The1940‘s17 2.1.4The1950‘s17 2.1.5The1960‘s18 2.1.6The1970‘s18 2.1.7The1980‘s19 2.1.8The1990‘s20 2.1.9 2001: The cognitive bottleneck20 2.1.10 2005: A general multitasking component 2.2Multitasking or task interruption?23
ii 2
C O N T E N T S
ix
7
i introduction1 1 introductory note 5 1.1Preface5 1.2Multitasking and human-machine interaction 1.3Technology can do multitasking8 1.4An excerpt of recent studies9 1.5An ability to multitask?10
39
52
3.4
3.3.1Method in study III47 3.3.2Hypotheses for study III50 3.3.3Results of study III51 3.3.4Discussion of study III52 Study IV: Amplification via time pressure
35
iii 3
studies31 empirical studies 35 3.1Study I: Identification of multitasking heuristics 3.1.1Method in study I36 3.1.2Hypothesis: D2-Drive under multitasking 3.1.3Results of study I40 3.1.4Discussion of study I41 3.2Study II: Practice - multitasking heuristics42 3.2.1Method in study II42 3.2.2Hypotheses for study II44 3.2.3Results of study II44 3.2.4Discussion of study II46 3.3III: The role of task configurationStudy 47
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2.4.2 2.4.3
Training and task repetition29 Cognitive heuristics - human multitasking