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Community mobilization and energy as a tool for development [Elektronische Ressource] : impact of rural energy programme in Nepal / Merina Pradhan

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306 pages
Community Mobilization and Energy as a Tool for Development - Impact of Rural Energy Programme in Nepal - submitted by Merina Pradhan, M.Sc. PhD-Thesis submitted as a partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Dr. rer. pol. Supervisor: Prof. Dr. phil. habil. Wolfgang Teschner International Institute of Management University of Flensburg, Germany October 2006 Acknowledgement First and foremost, I would like to express my sincere and profound gratitude to Prof. Dr.-Ing. Uwe Rehling, Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Teschner and Prof. Dr. Olav Hohmeyer for their invaluable support, motivation and untiring guidance during the entire period of my research. I am very obliged to all of them for their faith on my research work. I would also like to acknowledge my special thanks to University of Flensburg for providing me with special research funds for the initial six months to begin my Ph.D. research in the first place. My genuine gratefulness and special appreciation goes to Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung for their generous financial assistance for three years to complete my Ph.D. programme in Germany. I am wholeheartedly indebted to the foundation without whom my dream of completing my doctorate level wouldn’t have been fulfilled. This dissertation is a result of intensive research in remote villages of a very difficult topographical country, Nepal, which was not an easy task by any means.
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Community Mobilization and Energy as a Tool for Development
- Impact of Rural Energy Programme in Nepal -





submitted by

Merina Pradhan, M.Sc.







PhD-Thesis submitted as a partial fulfilment

of the requirements for the degree of Dr. rer. pol.



Supervisor: Prof. Dr. phil. habil. Wolfgang Teschner


International Institute of Management

University of Flensburg, Germany



October 2006

Acknowledgement
First and foremost, I would like to express my sincere and profound gratitude to Prof. Dr.-
Ing. Uwe Rehling, Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Teschner and Prof. Dr. Olav Hohmeyer for their
invaluable support, motivation and untiring guidance during the entire period of my
research. I am very obliged to all of them for their faith on my research work.

I would also like to acknowledge my special thanks to University of Flensburg for providing
me with special research funds for the initial six months to begin my Ph.D. research in the
first place.

My genuine gratefulness and special appreciation goes to Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung for their
generous financial assistance for three years to complete my Ph.D. programme in
Germany. I am wholeheartedly indebted to the foundation without whom my dream of
completing my doctorate level wouldn’t have been fulfilled.

This dissertation is a result of intensive research in remote villages of a very difficult
topographical country, Nepal, which was not an easy task by any means. In view of this
reality, I would like to offer my special thanks and appreciation for the research teams,
mainly the six community mobilizers and the local support organizations, who have helped
me to successfully gather all empirical data from the concerned villages. My honest
thankfulness also goes to the communities of Pinthali, Piughar, Ghumlekh, Sarkuwa,
Taman and Arman villages for providing their precious time for the research. I also would
like to express my gratefulness to all Community Organizations (both male and female) for
participating in the intensive focus group discussions and expressing their unbiased
views.

I also extend my deep gratitude to Mr. Kiran Man Singh, National Programme Manager of
Rural Energy Development Programme for giving me an opportunity to conduct research
in the programme districts and providing necessary baseline information of the research
villages along with all other information and facilities in Nepal.

This acknowledgement would certainly be incomplete without mentioning the tireless
support, in all aspects, provided to me by my parents and the rest of my family members.
Their unconditional love, constant encouragement and untiring help have been the driving
force behind the successful completion of my dissertation. My honest gratitude goes to
Muhan and Ruchi for extending all necessary help and support as and when required.

i I would like to take this opportunity to express my heartfelt love and appreciation to my
young son, Maryada, who has been very cooperative and understanding all through my
difficult study period. His boundless love and affection has added an unparalleled impetus
for my quest for success in the Ph.D. programme.

Finally, I would like to extend my sincere gratitude to all who have directly or indirectly
supported me during all my study period.

Merina Pradhan
Flensburg, Germany
ii

Table of Contents
Abbreviations………………………………………………………………………………i
List of Tables……………………………………………………………………………… iv
List of Illustrations…………………………………………………………………………v
Technical Units…………………………………………………………………………… viii
Summary………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
Zusammenfassung………………………………………………………………………. 5
Chapter 1 Development of Nepal
1.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………. 9
1.2 Understanding of “Development”……………………………………………… 11
1.3 Development in Nepal………………………………………………………….. 17
1.3.1 Nepal’s Efforts…………………………………………………………………… 17
1.3.2 Where is Nepal now ?.................................................................................. 26
1.4 Development for Nepal: a Vision……………………………………………… 32
1.5 Hypothesis and Significance of the Study……………………………………. 40
Chapter 2 Research Structure
2.1 Basic Information of the Project……………………………………………….. 42
2.2 From Hypothesis to Research Design………………………………………… 43
2.2.1 Antithesis through Comparative Studies……………………………………… 43
2.2.2 Study Objectives and Research Design………………………………………. 54
2.3 Research Method: Mixed Methods Approach………………………………. 56
2.4 Methodological Structure of the Research…………………………………… 59
2.5 Limitations of the Research……………………………………………………. 62
Chapter 3 The Country and the Project
3.1 Country Data at a Glance………………………………………………………. 64
3.2 The Programme…………………………………………………………………. 79
3.2.1 Rural Energy Development Programme (REDP)……………………………. 79
3.2.1.1 Background……………………………………………………………………… 79
3.2.1.2 Why choosing REDP ? Paradigms and Objectives………………………… 79
3.2.1.3 Promotion Strategy…………………………………………………………….. 83
3.3 Community Participation and Mobilization…………………………………… 87
3.3.1 Interpretations…………………………………………………………………… 87
3.3.2 Community Mobilization of REDP…………………………………………….. 92
3.3.2.1 Six Principles……………………………………………………………………. 92
iii

3.3.2.2 Process of REDP Community Mobilization…………………………………... 94
3.3.2.3 Real Participation by Community Mobilization………………………………. 99

Chapter 4 Research Area and Research Questions
4.1 Inception………………………………………………………………………….. 101
4.2 Sample Size and Survey Design………………………………………………. 103
4.3 Key Indicators……………………………………………………………………. 113
4.4 Research Areas…………………………………………………………………. 115
4.4.1 Description of Research Village 1: Pinthali (Kavre)………………………... 115
4.4.2 of Research Village 2: Piughar (Tanahun)……………………. 123
4.4.3 Description of Research Village 3: Ghumlekh (Tanahun)…………………. 125
4.4.4 of Research Village 4: Taman (Baglung)……………………… 128
4.4.5 Description of Research Village 5: Sarkuwa (Balung)……………………... 130
4.4.6 of Research Village 6: Arman (Myagdi)……………………….. 132

Chapter 5 Research Findings …………………………………………………… 133
5.1 Functional Institutions…………………………………………………………… 134
5.1.1 Grass-root Organizations and Leadership……………………………………. 134
5.1.2 Organizational Capacity Building……………………………………………… 139
5.2 Technological Changes………………………………………………………… 146
5.3 Skilled Human Resources and Local Capacity Building……………………. 150
5.4 Economic Empowerment………………………………………………………. 159
5.5 Environmental Benefits…………………………………………………………. 168
5.5.1 Activities………………………………………………………………………….. 168
5.5.2 Health, Hygiene and Sanitation………………………………………………... 169
5.5.3 Energy Consumption……………………………………………………………. 174
5.6 Social Transformation……………………………………………………………182
5.6.1 Impact on Education…………………………………………………………….. 182
5.6.2 Workload of Women… 185
5.6.3 Socio-Political Profile of Women’s Position…………………………………... 193
5.7 The Village of Pinthali (Part 2): The Peak Phase……………………………. 198

Chapter 6 Conclusions
6.1 The Village of Pinthali (Part 3)…………………………………………………. 203
6.2 Testing the Hypothesis…………………………………………………………. 206
6.2.1 Achievement of Project Goals………………………………………………….
iv

6.2.2 The Hypothesis………………………………………………………………….. 210
6.2.2.1 Testing on Findings……………………………………………………………... 210
6.2.2.2 Proof of Hypothesis against Vision of Development………………………… 217
6.2.3 Reviewing the Vision of Development for Nepal…………………………….. 221

Glossary…………………………………………………………………………………… 226
Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………. 231
Declaration………………………………………………………………………………... 242
Annexes…………………………………………………………………………………… 243

Annex 1: Baseline Survey Forms used by REDP in 1996/97
Annex 2: Household Questionnaire (English)
Annex 3: Example of Household Survey
Annex 4: Rural Community Questionnaire
Annex 5: Organizational Capacity
Annex 6: Socio-Political Profile of Women’s Position
Annex 7: Access to and Control of Resources
Annex 8: Nepal Country Data
Annex 9: UNDP HDR 2005- Country Fact Sheets













v


Abbreviations
ADB/N Agricultural Development Bank of Nepal
AEPC Alternate Energy Promotion Centre
BPPT Ministry of Research and Technology
BSP Biogas Support Programme
CBS Central Bureau of Statistics
CEF Community Energy Fund
CM Mobilizer
CO Community Organization
CRT Centre for Rural Technology
DDC District Development Committee
DDC: REDP District Development Committee: Rural Energy Development Programme
DEA District Energy Advisor
EFG Energy Functional Group
EUR Euro
FFG Forestry Functional Group
FG Functional Group
FNCCI Federation of Nepalese Chamber of Commerce
FO Functional Organization
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GNI Gross National Income
GNP Gross National Product
GOPP Goal Oriented Planning Workshop
HBS Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung
HDI Human Development Index
HH Household
HMGN His Majesty’s Government of Nepal
HPI Human Poverty Index
HRD Human Resource Development
hrs hours
ICS Improved Cooking Stoves
ILO International Labour Organization
IMF International Monetary Fund
INGO International Non-governmental Organization
IRDP Integrated Rural Development Programme
vi

KMI Kathmandu Metal Industries
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas
MHDS Micro Hydro Demonstration Scheme
MHFG Functional Group
MHP Micro Hydro Plant
MHS Systems
MOPE Ministry of Population and Environment
NGO Non-governmental Organization
NHDR Nepal Human Development Report
NIC Newly Industrialized Countries
NLSS Nepal Living Standards Survey
NPM National Programme Manager
NPC National Planning Commission
NRs Nepalese Rupees
OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
Ph.D. Doctor of Philosophy
PPP Purchasing Power Parity
PSOs Private Sector Organizations
R & D Research and Development
REDP Rural Energy Development Programme
RES Rural Energy Systems
RESC Rural Energy Service Centre
RET Renewable Energy Technologies
SHS Solar Home System
SOs Support Organizations
SSMC Survey of Socially Mobilized Communities
TOP Terms of Partnership
TPC Trade Promotion Centre
TV Television
UK United Kingdom
UML United Marxist Leninist
UN United Nations
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNRISD United Nations Research Institute for Social Development
USA United States of America
VDC Village Development Committee
VND Currency in Vietnam (dong)
vii

WB World Bank
WECS Water and Energy Commission Secretariat
WTO World Trade Organization
viii

List of Tables

1.1 Transnational Comparison of Selected Economic Indicators in 1950s….... 20
1.2 Real GDP Growth Rates……………………………………………………….. 24
1.3 GDP by Sector of Origin…………………………24
1.4 Transnational Comparison of Selected Indicators...................................... 26

3.1 Economically Active Population……………………………………………….. 66
3.2 Literacy Rates 2003-2004……………………………………………………… 72
3.3 Estimated Energy Consumption of Nepal (Mio GJ)…………………………. 78

4.1 Names and Locations of REDP Districts……………………………………… 101
4.2 Household Questionnaire………………………………………………………. 107
4.3 Rural Community Questionnaire………………………………………………. 108
4.4 Sample Distribution Parameters……………………………………………….. 109
4.5 Distribution of Sample Size…………………………………………………….. 111

5.1 Organizational Capacity in Research Area after 5 to 6 Years of Implementation
……...143
5.2 Measures of Capacity Building under REDP………………………………… 150
5.3 Technological Interventions in Research Area ……………………………… 152
5.4 Human Resource Development in Pinthali Village…………………………... 154
5.5 ource Development in Sarkuwa Village………………………… 155
5.6 Electricity Based Enterprises in Sarkuwa Village……………………………. 163
5.7 Environmental Activities under REDP………………………………………… 168
5.8 Main Diseases and Distance to Clinic in Research Area…………………… 172
5.9 Daily life of a Gurung Girl of Piughar Village…………………………………. 185
5.10 Daily life of a Gurung Boy of Piughar Village………………………………… 186
5.11 A Daily Life of a Housewife of Pinthali Village……………………………….. 187
5.12 A Daily Life of a Male of Pinthali Village………………………………………. 187
5.13 Gender Division of Labour for Various Activities…………………………….. 190
5.14 Impact on Gender Strategic Needs……………………………………………. 194
5.15 Impact on Gender Practical Needs……………………………………………. 195
5.16 Access to and Control of Resources………………………………………….. 197

6.1 Achievement of Project Goals…………………………………………………. 207
6.2 Paradigms………………………………………….... 208
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