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Conducting polymers
as charge dissipator layers
for electron beam lithography

Den Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultäten
der Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades

vorgelegt von
Rafael Abargues López
Valencia, Spanien

Als Dissertation genehmigt
von den Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultäten
der Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg.

Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 23.06.2006

Vorsitzender der Promotionskommission: Prof. Dr. D-P. Häder
Erstberichterstatter: Prof. Dr. U. Nickel
Zweitberichterstatter: Prof. T. Clark

Dedicated to my family

This thesis is the result of four years of work at the Physical and Theoretic
Chemistry chair of the Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg and at
the Research and Development Department at Infineon Technologies AG in
Erlangen (Germany).
With sincere gratitude, I wish to express my sincere thanks to Prof. Dr. Ulrich Nickel,
for accepting me into his group as a Ph.D. candidate. His guidance,
encouragement, and sincerity were of invaluable importance in helping me to
complete my work, to accomplish my goals and to improve as a person.
I am especially grateful to Dr. Klaus Elian from Infineon Technologies AG for
providing guidance and profound expertise throughout the course of this research.
This work would not have been possible without his assistance.
I would like to thank Dr. Jörg Schumann from Infineon Technologies AG for his
valuable contribution with part of this thesis.
I wish to extend my sincere gratitude to all my colleagues at Infineon Technologies,
especially to the Litho-group, for the excellent working conditions, helpful advice and
for many profitable discussions. Among them, I would like to especially thank Dr.
Oliver Kirch not only for his priceless technical help but particularly for lending me a
hand in the most critical moments.
The episode of acknowledgement would not be completed without the mention of
my colleagues at the University for their friendship, integration and helpfulness:
Elvira Fernández, Patricia Santamaría, Pedro Rodríguez, Dr. Àngela Jutglà, Dr.
Oliver Kirch, María de Gracia García, Elisabeth Cancio, Marcela Pinto, Dr. Marcela
Pöhmerer, Dr. Maribel Carrizo and Dr. Ute Ramminger.
My years in Erlangen would not have been as gratifying without the daily
cohabitation with my flat mates Lorena Cagigas, Patricia Santamaría, Luis
Fernández, José Antonio García Tello, José Ángel Díaz and Pedro Rodríguez, as
well as Dr. Àngela Jutglà, Alexandra Alemany, Elvira Fernández, Fernando Pérez,
Luisa Ramírez, Simón García, María de Gracia García, Victor Valdivia and Javier
Díez. I thank all of them for their invaluable friendship support and patience. They
were like a family during my stay in Germany.
I sincerely thank Elena García for her unconditional support, encouragement and
motivation during the most part of the PhD period. Somehow, she made this
endeavour and everything else easier than expected.
I would like to thank my parents and siblings for believing in me and for rendering
me constant love, absolute support and a great education. Without their sacrifice
and the help of my friends I would not be what I am today.
Finally, I would also like to acknowledge the financial support provided by Infineon
Technologies AG, the Erlangen-Nuremberg University and hence by the Federal
Republic of Germany. Science is the proof that a world without borders is feasible.
To all of them, thanks.


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