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Detection of glutamate in vivo in the human brain using 2D zero-quantum coherence _1hn1H NMR spectroscopy at 3 Tesla [Elektronische Ressource] / put forward by Sarah Rebecca Snyder

152 pages
thofsubmittedin:toDiplom-Phtheexamination:ComforwbinedeccaFennsylvacultieser,forSciencesthebNaturalSarahSciencesyderandork,forUSAMathematicsofofctortheNaturalRupPuterto-CarolaardUnivyersitysicistyRebofSnHeidelbBornerg,YGermanPyania,forOralthe15DissertationdegreeOctobof2009Do1ChristophofProf.Glutamate3InBacVivorineslathePHumanDr.Brainmusingat2DTZero-QuanReferees:tumDr.CoherenceeterDetectionhertProf.HDr.NMRCreSpeectroscopy110± ±± ±311±±± ±3four.GehirneH-NMR-Spwhicektroskandopieeidbar.bthisetomograph.ito3h.Tten-Kesla2D-Null-QuanGlutamat2-DunddelGlutamin,frequencyzw1.095)eiourierJ-gekinoppundeltetheMetabToliten,hemistrydietoeinehowicrecordhectra.tigvivoeh,Rolleitsinatderundersam-Neuroincthehemievivospielen,fromsindSignaleaufdamitGrundateihrer2Dstarkectroscop?bglutamine,erlapptialendentoReso-clinicalnanzenvin(Stimderuan1D-wimandH-MRSfrequenciesbereeihkliniscThentimeFmittelseldst?rkbenHzscofhHzwshortenerused,zuofunconrmterscused.heiden.yInrsadieseraArbiseitrecordedwurdesinddieonSTEZaufgel?stQC-2Dtersc(StimofulatedVivoEcBrainhotumZero-QuanNMRtumatCoherence-Glutamate2-Dimensional)-Sequenzmetabbareenneuro-utzaret,inumMRSdiestrengthscstronglyhemiscresonances.hentheVlatederscro-hiCoherenceemensional)bungenusedundhemicaldietumMomod-2DulationsfrequenzectraderfromNull-Quanandten-Kbrainoh?renzena(ZoQC)anmittels4:2D-SpmeasuredektroskHz)opieglutamateaufzunehmen.distinguishedSphenektrenCwurdenhovmeasureonMenscMo(202.
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ChristophofProf.Glutamate3InBacVivorineslathePHumanDr.Brainmusingat2DTZero-QuanReferees:tumDr.CoherenceeterDetectionhertProf.HDr.NMRCreSpeectroscopy1
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four.GehirneH-NMR-Spwhicektroskandopieeidbar.bthisetomograph.ito3h.Tten-Kesla2D-Null-QuanGlutamat2-DunddelGlutamin,frequencyzw1.095)eiourierJ-gekinoppundeltetheMetabToliten,hemistrydietoeinehowicrecordhectra.tigvivoeh,Rolleitsinatderundersam-Neuroincthehemievivospielen,fromsindSignaleaufdamitGrundateihrer2Dstarkectroscop?bglutamine,erlapptialendentoReso-clinicalnanzenvin(Stimderuan1D-wimandH-MRSfrequenciesbereeihkliniscThentimeFmittelseldst?rkbenHzscofhHzwshortenerused,zuofunconrmterscused.heiden.yInrsadieseraArbiseitrecordedwurdesinddieonSTEZaufgel?stQC-2Dtersc(StimofulatedVivoEcBrainhotumZero-QuanNMRtumatCoherence-Glutamate2-Dimensional)-Sequenzmetabbareenneuro-utzaret,inumMRSdiestrengthscstronglyhemiscresonances.hentheVlatederscro-hiCoherenceemensional)bungenusedundhemicaldietumMomod-2DulationsfrequenzectraderfromNull-Quanandten-Kbrainoh?renzena(ZoQC)anmittels4:2D-SpmeasuredektroskHz)opieglutamateaufzunehmen.distinguishedSphenektrenCwurdenhovmeasureonMenscMo(202.252delll?sungenTundacquisitionvwomhGehirnalinresonancesvivoTanfrequencies,einemwGanzkreduc?rptimeer-TfactoromographenthisbaneiectrumBoVivoh=ell3wTnaufgenommen.ektrumDiediegemessenev(208.730GlutamatInGlutamin0.830)undHzunZQC-FhrequenzDetectionvGlutamonInGlutamatinkHumanonnusingteZero-QuanvCoherenceonHderSp(203.125yGlutamat30.488)eslaHandzJ-coupledZQC-FolitesrequenzhvessenoninGlutamatcund,dendicultZQC-Fdistinguishrequenzen1DvHonatGlutamineld[(197.427dueontheir0.700)oHzerlappingundIn(202.252thesis,vSTEZQC-2D1.095)u-Hz]EcunZeterscQhiedentumw-erden.iDiesequenceMasetosszeitchierf?rshiftsbzero-quanetrugcoherenc4:33(ZQC)h.dulationUmindiespAufnahmezeitSpzuwvobtainederk?rzen,mowurdesolutionsUthenumanterabtastunginbonen3utzt,whole-bwdyelcWithheacquisitionjedoofc33hthezu(208.730Einfaltungsartefakten0.830f?hrte.ZQCDieseofwurdencouldanhandevfromon(203.125F0.488)ourier-ShiftingZQidenfrequencytiziert.tDieseseMethoglutamine,dedv(197.427e0.700)rringerteanddiedesAufnahmezeitHz.umoeinentheFtime,aktorplingvier.asMitwhicderleadsTtheeciasinghnikthewurdeofinterest.1:08ohtheireinFIn-vivoshifting-SpasektrumThisausedeinemacquisitionVboaxelofvUsingonunde30x30x30mplingmminoh?renz-spvfromxel30x30x30-mmtheDetektionoainear-oldbrainyfolun27-yimhealthGehirnveinesteergesundenwhicProbandenglutamate(27wJ.)distinguishableaufgenommen.glutamineImasresultierendeni2D-1:08in-vivo-Sp1
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STEAMof.Figures.andSTEAMTolutionables.ix.1.In.troctraduction.3.1.1.One-dimensional.vii.H29NMR.Sp.ectroscop.y........14.............Spins.ectroscop.....the.....The3.1.2ShiftT.w.o-dimensional.UnitsCouplingH.NMR.Sp.ectroscopMRSy......2.3.1.................Ev.2D.olution.the......3.1.3Magnetization2D.and.H32MRSeof.Glutamate.viawSTEZQC-2D....2.2.1...............2.2.2............4.1.4LoList2D.ols.H.MRS.of.Glutamate.via.undersampled.STEZQC-2D................195.2.Nuclear.Magnetic.Resonance,.Magnetic.Resonance.Sp.ectroscop3yof,1-andectroscopDetectionMagnetization91D2.1wibPRESSH.NMR..............29.olution.Sequence...STEAM.....Magnetization.2D.y.......41.of.Sp.......42.14.Chemical..............9.2.1.1.Sym.H.N.MR....14.Scalar.............................2.3.calized.H......................10.2.1.2.v.H.NM19RPRESS.................................2.3.2............................10.2.1.3.Abbreviations21HMagnetizationNMRolution.J-Coupled.in.and.Sp.y.3.1.Ev.in.Sp.y.th.Sequences.and...................................3.1.111Ev2.2inContentsPRESS....3.1.2.Evin.H30MRSMagnetization.olution.the.Sequence.........3.2.Ev.in.Sp.ctroscop.................3.2.1.Creation.T.o-dimensional.e...............i.1
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F.of.102.........7.2.2.....Vivo...del.81................42.4BibliographGlutamateResultsand.Glutami.nedelanddelthe.STEZQC-2D.Sequence.47.4.1.TheGlxRole.ofSolutionGlutamate.and.Glutamine.in.the.Brain....ariation.....with.TE.a........47te4.2.The82H.Sp.ectroscop.ySolutionsof.Glutamate.andComparisonGlutamiandne......98.......7.3.1.......Mo......49F5.Materials.59.5.1.Hardw.are..............Discussion.133.Com.STEZQC-2D.77.7.1.er.................Individual.Glutamine.......Glutamate.............Mo..59.5.2.Mo.del.Solutions90andZQCVofolun.teers..............Brain.del.............Mo.............7.3.260Solution5.3.Soft.w.are......Undersampling.Shift...........7.5...................7.6.TE...............114.Publications.127.ts.Optimal.binations.TE62andSequence.6.Metho7ds8167W6.1tTheoreticalMoEv.aluation.of.the.ZQC.of.the.3.2.2...CH.using.the.Pro.duct.Op.er-.ator.F7.2ormalismGlutama.and.Mo.Solutions...........7.2.1.Mo.Solutions.....................82.Glutamine.del................67.6.2.In.Vitr7.2.3oofMeasuremenResonancetsrequenciesvGlutamatearyingGlutamineTM..............................7.3.and.Mo.Solutions....75.6.2.1.A.cc.o.r.di.ng.to.the100NyquistBrainTheoremdel.........................100.Glx.del....75.6.2.2.Undersampling.and.F.ourier.Shift..........7.4.and.ourier......................761056.3InIn.Vivo..................................110.V.of.................................8761216.4125InyVitrGratitudeoiiMeasuremeniiiiv