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Development, fabrication and characterisation of atom chips [Elektronische Ressource] / presented by Sönke Groth

150 pages
ctorDissertationHamsubmittedDiplomPhtothethepresenComGrothbined15.11.2006FofacultiesNaturalforbtheS?nkNaturalornSciencesOralandforfordegreeMathematicsDoofoftheSciencesRuptedertoCarolayUnivysicist:ersiteybofin:Heidelbburgerg,examination:GermanyhmiedmaDevProf.elopmenDr.t,J?rgFerabricationBarJosephandDr.CharacterisationScofyAProf.tomIsraelChipsReferees:< 207 2> 10„<207 210„ts,AwtomxesChipstsinderimendieofGrundlagetactfreef?risvieleinstructionsquanChipstenoptisccreatehehip.Expereerimenete,moredaduringsiefurtherdieanErzeugungt,vextremelyonsincesehrwithgenauanddeniertenymagnetiscurthermorehenultilaFhipallenhipf?rZusammenfassungneutraleaActomeusedmitthisminimalenandFedeld-ts.modargestellt.dulationenCharacterisationerm?glichipshen.erfulDieopticalpr?ziseitManipulationtrapsderdulations.Aistomeonwirdhipsdurcwhklung,aufatomdemlikActomsubmicronChipatomerzeugtetsmagnetiscthehetosovwieoelektriscxidehequaliedFatomelderverm?glicsuccessfulhresults.t.basicsDaf?rinwurdenandimofRahmenasdiesertoArbEx-eitwADevtomabricationChipsAmittomeinerrobustsehrohohenolbObquaner?cerimenhenqualit?tmakundossiblepr?ziseprecisedeniertenneutralDr?heldtenccuratevedonwithChipseldstomatomnmatomRauhigkhigheitandhergestellt.denedDeswbuildeiterennm).wurdengenerationsneuehipsGenerationenelopvtheonerAwithtomcrossings,Chipsatommitthesichip.hharacterisationkatomondemonstratedtaktfreistandkreuzendenofDr?
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ctorDissertationHamsubmittedDiplomPhtothethepresenComGrothbined15.11.2006FofacultiesNaturalforbtheS?nkNaturalornSciencesOralandforfordegreeMathematicsDoofoftheSciencesRuptedertoCarolayUnivysicist:ersiteybofin:Heidelbburgerg,examination:GermanyhmiedmaDevProf.elopmenDr.t,J?rgFerabricationBarJosephandDr.CharacterisationScofyAProf.tomIsraelChipsReferees:< 20
7 2> 10

<20
7 210

ts,AwtomxesChipstsinderimendieofGrundlagetactfreef?risvieleinstructionsquanChipstenoptisccreatehehip.Expereerimenete,moredaduringsiefurtherdieanErzeugungt,vextremelyonsincesehrwithgenauanddeniertenymagnetiscurthermorehenultilaFhipallenhipf?rZusammenfassungneutraleaActomeusedmitthisminimalenandFedeld-ts.modargestellt.dulationenCharacterisationerm?glichipshen.erfulDieopticalpr?ziseitManipulationtrapsderdulations.Aistomeonwirdhipsdurcwhklung,aufatomdemlikActomsubmicronChipatomerzeugtetsmagnetiscthehetosovwieoelektriscxidehequaliedFatomelderverm?glicsuccessfulhresults.t.basicsDaf?rinwurdenandimofRahmenasdiesertoArbEx-eitwADevtomabricationChipsAmittomeinerrobustsehrohohenolbObquaner?cerimenhenqualit?tmakundossiblepr?ziseprecisedeniertenneutralDr?heldtenccuratevedonwithChipseldstomatomnmatomRauhigkhigheitandhergestellt.denedDeswbuildeiterennm).wurdengenerationsneuehipsGenerationenelopvtheonerAwithtomcrossings,Chipsatommitthesichip.hharacterisationkatomondemonstratedtaktfreistandkreuzendenofDr?hEnten,secondsAdierencestom500ChipsermitsiliconDrahytabmessungenbimforBereicfabrication.hhipsvthesisonb100mannmeri-sonwievAestablishedtommanChipserimenausphhalbleitendentumMaterialienersenthewicdevkcelt.ellUmfangreictroheexpMessungenerigenzurpCharakterisierungtedererdenaufgedampftenAbstractDr?helopmenteFhabandenofergebtomen,AdasscdieseareStromdicandhptenwbistozuoAforontumvexpA/cmts,Charakterisierungtheyunebpesctohadetexceedingly?bmagneticerforSekundenatomsleitenminimalundmoSpan-Anmanipulationungsuntrappterscatomshiedenfeasiblevmagneticonelectric?bcreatederthe500cVThereforezwiscchenwith10qualitundsurfacesmextremelywiderstehen.ellDabwireseierestellte(roughnesssicwichFdotiertesnewSiliziumofmitceinerwd?nnendevSiliziumdioed,xideScmhicyhatomthipalscondaswiref?rtheAstructuredtomcChipsandgeeignetstesemiconductingSubstratcheraus.ExtensivMitcdenmeasuremeninofdiesercArbwireseitthathergestelltenwiresAcurrentomdensitiesChipsupktonnA/cmtenforvieleandHerstellungoltagem.ofromthandierenVmaterialsvdop10siliconExpFerimentheteterfolgreictestedheddurcwithhgef?hrtthinwdioerden.laDar?bererthehinausesthatsubstratedieseatomArbhipeitThediecGrundlagefabricatedf?rthisvielehaweeitereeenEx-inpyerimenexptemenaufyieldingdemumerousGebietMoreodererAthesistomphtheysikforundyderexpQuantstenoptikatomgescysicshaen.quanDetailierteopticsAnleitungendelivzumcompleteBauforallerfabricationenalltelopwicatomkhipseltenwAastominChipsductionundtheErkl?rungenerimenderIzugehoII.Con.ten.ts.AbstractcI5.1Figures.V.Abbreviations.VI.I.1.In.tro.duction.1.2.Theoretical.bac.kgroundc3282.1.The.magneto.opticalatomtrap........Precise.......Mask.....acuum.............5.....Names................3.2.2.The.magnetic.trap......an.................23.4.1.........Moun.........er.........atom.hips........5hips2.3.The.quadrup.ole.trap........5.4.........ap.........5.6...........c.......I...3.2.c..........6.2.4.Magnetic21wire.traps................A.setup.high.................28.the.................Solid......6.2.5.Wire.cross.section....abrication.hips.atom.................31.atom.................5.3.hips.................lithograph10.2.6.T.rap.connemen.t......5.5.........................................40.of...............I..11.2.7.Disorder19pDesigningotenatomtialship...............................3.3.fabrication................................12.2.84Atomtomhippreparation:27theUltratrappved.quan.tum.states............................4.2.ting.atom.hip13.2.9.Ev.ap.orativ.e.co.oling.to.quan.tum.degeneracy........4.3.copp.wires..........................14.2.10.Detection.of30neutralFatomsof.c.31.Cutting.c...................................5.2.of.c..........14.2.11.F.ermions.and.Bosons............32.Cleaning.c.................................33.Optical.y..........15.2.12.Semiconductors..................34.Ev.oration.....................................38.Lifto........16.3.Design.of.atom.c.hips.19.3.1.The.dw-2000.program..........5.7.cutting.atom.hips...........................41.I..7
40 87
.Material.vtariations.inotassiumpro97cessing......c.atom.sample.........erimen...........for.C.1.Pro.m.eb...List...7.5..43.6ThePreparation.of.sp.ecial8.3atom.c92hips.51.6.1.A.tomDatacBhipsandwith.thin.wirecgrids........Pro...Diculties.pro.................c.erimen.......8.2.......ion.t51.6.2.CoatedIatom.c.hips..94.erimen.......outlo.of.la.long.Pro.la.regular.......w.....C.3.atom.....C.4.c.....atom.....prop.this.Bibliograph..52.6.3.Doublela.y.er.atom.cthips................8.with.91.Lithium.................IV.erimen...........fo.eam.exp..54.6.4.Multila.y.erTheatomexpc.hips............The.hip...............Summary.101.yp.dw-2000.c.outs.of.ap.107.recip.c.outs.cess.c......55.6.5.Submicron109structuredparameter:atomgridc.hips........cess.y.hip...........cess.patterned.........116.parameter:.hip........62D6.6122Semiconductorteredatom123cpublicationships129.cess.........................85.Dieren.substrates..........................68.6.7.Microoptic.atom87cExphipsts.atom.hips.8.1.CONTENTS.exp.t.............................91.The.P5.8Rubidium.exp.t..........73.6.8.F.o.cussed92ionThebcusedeambpatternedatomatomhipcerimenhips....................8.4.Rubidium.I.erimen................76.7.Thermal.prop.erties.of.atom8.5cbrehipsc79exp7.1tT.est.measuremen.ts....................9.and.ok.A.t.es.the.program.atom.hip.y.105.Calibration.the.ev.oration.holder.C.cess.es.atom.hip.y.10979Pro7.2parameter:Materialatomprophiperties......................C.2.cess.narro.wire.atom.hip.................114.Pro.parameter:.ultila.er.c......82.7.3.Heat.transp.ort......115.Pro.parameter:.eam.atom.hip.................C.5.cess.semiconductor.c...................119.Material.erties.E.encoun.during83thesis7.4FSimofulation127ofytheheating„
aof.Figuresatom2.1.Laser.b.eamsGrainin.a.MOT......................36.................of...........in.Reduced.remo.61....5.2.2.Sidesampleguide......5.6.............Surface.............c.........y.........................wires...V.image8.2.3.U.andapZwire.trap....pro.........Si.......of...........................size.......49.erio......8522.4.Double.wire.side.guide53.c.......view.hip.....y.........La.........clim.....58.y.......bing........9ulti2.5.Magnetic.eld.and.gradienUndercuttersaldep.endence.on.the.wire.cross.section5.4.with............115.52.6.T.rap.connemen.t..........breaking...............5.7.grains...............45.of.................47.of..12.3.1.Old.atom.c.hip.design5.10.palladium...............Wire.m.................Coated...................Section.y....20.3.2.New.atom.c.hip6.4designa.atom...........6.5.c.................57.out.pattern.............58.section.wires......21.3.3.AlignmenPtalmarking.on.a.m.ultila.y.er.atomGoldcolyimidehip..............6.10.a.y.hip..............225.33.4ofZorevomresistin.ring.atom.c.hip.la.y.out.I........37.Ev.orator.long.holder.......................39.Preparation.cess........24.3.5.Zo.om.in.ring.atom.c.hip.la.y.out.I40IPrecise.of.samples...........................42.Columns.gold..............25.4.1.F.ull.atom.c.hip.moun.ting..5.8.size.gold...................................5.9.roughness.gold..............27.4.2.Old.atom.c.hip.moun.ting48.Grain.of.gold.............................6.1.grid.2List.p.d................28.4.3.New.atom.c.hip.moun.ting6.2.atom.hip...................................6.3.of.doublela.er.hip..........29.4.4.Clamps.v.ersus.wire.b.ond.connections55.Side.on.doublela.er.c.wire...................56.Doublela.er.hip........30.4.5.Solid.copp.er.wires................6.6.y.xing.resist.............................6.7.cross.for.bing........30.5.1.Image.rev.ersal.resist.heigh.t6.8vsolyimidespinningvspbeedozonation...........................6.9.clim.p....35.5.2.Resist.remo.v.al.b.efore.exp.osure........62.Crossing.on.m.la.er.c.....................63..ofVI.LIST.OF.FIGURES.6.11depEbDisordeream.lithograph.yyfabricated.structures..Disorder...........out.c........................65.6.12.Eb.eamatompattern.with.crossings......atom.117...substrate...................e.............98......66.6.13ofF.abricationatomin.pictures......and...112.........atom.........out...7.7.t...guide.........Electrostatic.........FIB..67.6.14.Underexp.osed.eb.eam.sample8.5.........8.6.........RF.........splitting.......A.1.es.........oration....681086.15yFinished.GaAs.sample....y.......112.c.......atom.......113.out.......113.y.......C.7.y.......c..70.6.16.P.artlytempalloonyyed.GaAs.metal8.1con.tacts................92.................93.b.olishing..........70946.17BECSemiconductor.fabrication..............tom...................microscop.................97.of....71.6.18.W.edge.holder....Coheren.BECs...............y.t.................B.1.ev.............T.hip............72.6.19.SemiconductorC.2atomhipc.hip..............F.oson.la.............In.hip...............Fibre.la......73.6.20.Optical.bres.moun.tedEbonhipan.atom.c.hip..........eb.hip...............Semiconductor.la............741216.2187FibreWireatomeraturecendencehipcurren.densit.and.........88.Spiral.......................................8.2.splitting............75.6.22.F.resnel.zone.plate.for.alignmen.t....8.3.reduction.y.p.........................8.4.splits..............75.6.23.Optical.bre.hold.b.y.SU8.resist..95.A.microscop...................................96.BEC.e....76.6.24.A.tom.c.hip.patterned.b.y.a.FIB..........8.7.splitting.BECs.................................8.8.t.of77.7.1.Burned.wires......................99.La.out.data.yp.................................106.Calibration.long.ap.holder80.7.2.Design.of.the.test.atom.c.hip......C.1.est.c.la.out...............................111.Spiral.c.la.out..81.7.3.Material.prop.erties....................C.3.ermion.b.atom.hip.y.........................C.4.terferometer.c.la.out..83.7.4.Sim.ulation.of.temp.erature.ev.olution........C.5.atom.hip.y................................84C.67.5eamWirecburnedlaonoutp.olyimide..........................116.Ring.eam.c.la.out......................85.7.6.WireC.8tempatomeraturehipdepyendence.on.curren.t.densit.y.and.wire.width...........

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