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Epidemiology of malaria in an area prepared for clinical trials in Korogwe, north-eastern Tanzania

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9 pages
Site preparation is a pre-requesite in conducting malaria vaccines trials. This study was conducted in 12 villages to determine malariometric indices and associated risk factors, during long and short rainy seasons, in an area with varying malaria transmission intensities in Korogwe district, Tanzania. Four villages had passive case detection (PCD) of fever system using village health workers. Methods Four malariometric cross-sectional surveys were conducted between November 2005 and May 2007 among individuals aged 0–19 years, living in lowland urban, lowland rural and highland strata. A total of 10,766 blood samples were collected for malaria parasite diagnosis and anaemia estimation. Blood smears were stained with Giemsa while haemoglobin level was measured by HaemoCue. Socio-economic data were collected between Jan-Apr 2006. Results Adjusting for the effect of age, the risk of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia was significantly lower in both lowland urban, (OR = 0.26; 95%CI: 0.23–0.29, p < 0.001) and highlands, (OR = 0.21; 95%CI: 0.17–0.25, p < 0.001) compared to lowland rural. Individuals aged 6–9 years in the lowland rural and 4–19 years in both lowland urban and highlands had the highest parasite prevalence, whilst children below five years in all strata had the highest parasite density. Prevalence of splenomegaly and gametocyte were also lower in both lowland urban and highlands than in lowland rural. Anaemia (Hb <11 g/dl) prevalence was lowest in the lowland urban. Availability of PCD and higher socio-economic status (SES) were associated with reduced malaria and anaemia prevalence. Conclusion Higher SES and use of bed nets in the lowland urban could be the important factors for low malaria infections in this stratum. Results obtained here were used together with those from PCD and DSS in selecting a village for Phase 1b MSP3 vaccine trial, which was conducted in the study area in year 2008.
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Malaria Journal
BioMedCentral
Open Access Research Epidemiology of malaria in an area prepared for clinical trials in Korogwe, northeastern Tanzania 1,2 11 Bruno P Mmbando*, Method D Segeja, Hamisi A Msangeni, 1 11 1 Samwel H Sembuche, Deus S Ishengoma, Misago D Seth, Filbert Francis, 1 11 Acleus S Rutta, Mathias L Kamugishaand Martha M Lemnge
1 2 Address: NationalInstitute for Medical Research, Tanga Medical Research Centre, PO Box 5004, Tanga, Tanzania andDepartment of Biostatistics, University of Copenhagen, DK1014 Copenhaven K, Denmark Email: Bruno P Mmbando*  bmmbando@tanga.mimcom.net; Method D Segeja  msegeja@tanga.mimcom.net; Hamisi A Msangeni  hmsangeni@tanga.mimcom.net; Samwel H Sembuche  ssembuche@tanga.mimcom.net; Deus S Ishengoma  dishengoma@tanga.mimcom.net; Misago D Seth  smisago@tanga.mimcom.net; Filbert Francis  ffrancis@tanga.mimcom.net; Acleus S Rutta  malinzi55@yahoo.com; Mathias L Kamugisha  mkamugisha@tanga.mimcom.net; Martha M Lemnge  mlemnge@tanga.mimcom.net * Corresponding author
Published: 18 July 2009Received: 26 February 2009 Accepted: 18 July 2009 Malaria Journal2009,8:165 doi:10.1186/147528758165 This article is available from: http://www.malariajournal.com/content/8/1/165 © 2009 Mmbando et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract Background:Site preparation is a prerequesite in conducting malaria vaccines trials. This study was conducted in 12 villages to determine malariometric indices and associated risk factors, during long and short rainy seasons, in an area with varying malaria transmission intensities in Korogwe district, Tanzania. Four villages had passive case detection (PCD) of fever system using village health workers. Methods:Four malariometric crosssectional surveys were conducted between November 2005 and May 2007 among individuals aged 0–19 years, living in lowland urban, lowland rural and highland strata. A total of 10,766 blood samples were collected for malaria parasite diagnosis and anaemia estimation. Blood smears were stained with Giemsa while haemoglobin level was measured by HaemoCue. Socioeconomic data were collected between JanApr 2006. Results:Adjusting for the effect of age, the risk ofPlasmodium falciparumparasitaemia was significantly lower in both lowland urban, (OR = 0.26; 95%CI: 0.23–0.29, p < 0.001) and highlands, (OR = 0.21; 95%CI: 0.17–0.25, p < 0.001) compared to lowland rural. Individuals aged 6–9 years in the lowland rural and 4–19 years in both lowland urban and highlands had the highest parasite prevalence, whilst children below five years in all strata had the highest parasite density. Prevalence of splenomegaly and gametocyte were also lower in both lowland urban and highlands than in lowland rural. Anaemia (Hb <11 g/dl) prevalence was lowest in the lowland urban. Availability of PCD and higher socioeconomic status (SES) were associated with reduced malaria and anaemia prevalence. Conclusion:Higher SES and use of bed nets in the lowland urban could be the important factors for low malaria infections in this stratum. Results obtained here were used together with those from PCD and DSS in selecting a village for Phase 1b MSP3 vaccine trial, which was conducted in the study area in year 2008.
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