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H.R. 1963, the Postmark Prompt Payment Act of 1995 : hearings before the Subcommittee on the Postal Service of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, first and second session, on H.R. 1963 ... October 19, 1995, and February 28, 1996

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238 pages
THE POSTMARK PROMPT PAYMENTH.R. 1963, ACT OF 1995 Y4.G74/7:P 84/19 H.R. 1963, The Postnark Pronpt Payn... BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE POSTAL SERVICE OF THE COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT REFORM AND OVERSIGHT HOUSE OP REPRESENTATIVES ONE HUNDRED FOURTH CONGRESS FIRST AND SECOND SESSIONS ON H.R. 1963 TO AMEND TITLE 39, UNITED STATES CODE, TO PROVIDE THAT THE PAYMENT OF A BILL, INVOICE, OR STATEMENT OF ACCOUNT DUE, IF MADE BY MAIL, SHALL BE CONSIDERED TO HAVE BEEN MADE ON THE DATE AS OF ENVELOPEWHICH THE WHICH IS USED TO TRANS- MIT SUCH PAYMENT IS POSTMARKED OCTOBER 19, 1995, AND FEBRUARY 28, 1996 Printed for the use of the Committee on Government Refoinfa'atid Oversight ^^3 2 m? U.S. 'GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFlM 0?.?O? i r% 22-103 CC 'WASHINGTON : 1996 \: For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office Superintendent ofDocuments, Congressional Sales Office. Washington, DC 20402 ISBN 0-16-053895-5 H.R. 1963, THE POSTMARK PROMPT PAYMENT ^^' ACT OF 1995 Y4.G74/7:P 84/19 H.R. 1963, The Postnark Pronpt Payn. ^INGS BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE POSTAL SERVICE OF THE COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT REFORM AND OVERSIGHT HOUSE OP REPRESENTATIVES ONE HUNDRED FOURTH CONGRESS FIRST AND SECOND SESSIONS ON H.R. 1963 TO AMEND TITLE 39, UNITED STATES CODE, TO PROVIDE.
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THE POSTMARK PROMPT PAYMENTH.R. 1963,
ACT OF 1995
Y4.G74/7:P 84/19
H.R. 1963, The Postnark Pronpt Payn...
BEFORE THE
SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE POSTAL SERVICE
OF THE
COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT
REFORM AND OVERSIGHT
HOUSE OP REPRESENTATIVES
ONE HUNDRED FOURTH CONGRESS
FIRST AND SECOND SESSIONS
ON
H.R. 1963
TO AMEND TITLE 39, UNITED STATES CODE, TO PROVIDE THAT THE
PAYMENT OF A BILL, INVOICE, OR STATEMENT OF ACCOUNT DUE, IF
MADE BY MAIL, SHALL BE CONSIDERED TO HAVE BEEN MADE ON
THE DATE AS OF ENVELOPEWHICH THE WHICH IS USED TO TRANS-
MIT SUCH PAYMENT IS POSTMARKED
OCTOBER 19, 1995, AND FEBRUARY 28, 1996
Printed for the use of the Committee on Government Refoinfa'atid Oversight
^^3 2 m?
U.S. 'GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFlM 0?.?O? i r%
22-103 CC 'WASHINGTON : 1996 \:
For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent ofDocuments, Congressional Sales Office. Washington, DC 20402
ISBN 0-16-053895-5H.R. 1963, THE POSTMARK PROMPT PAYMENT
^^'
ACT OF 1995
Y4.G74/7:P 84/19
H.R. 1963, The Postnark Pronpt Payn.
^INGS
BEFORE THE
SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE POSTAL SERVICE
OF THE
COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT
REFORM AND OVERSIGHT
HOUSE OP REPRESENTATIVES
ONE HUNDRED FOURTH CONGRESS
FIRST AND SECOND SESSIONS
ON
H.R. 1963
TO AMEND TITLE 39, UNITED STATES CODE, TO PROVIDE. THAT THE
PAYMENT OF A BILL, INVOICE, OR STATEMENT OF ACCOUNT DUE, IF
MADE BY MAIL, SHALL BE CONSIDERED TO HAVE BEEN MADE ON
THE DATE AS OF WHICH THE ENVELOPE WHICH IS USED TO TRANS-
MIT SUCH PAYMENT IS POSTMARKED
OCTOBER 19, 1995, AND FEBRUARY 28, 1996
Printed for the use of the Committee on Government Refontt find sQyersight
^^3 2 1997
U.S. GOVERNMENT "^fir-^.^PRINTING OFFICE
22-103 CC WASHINGTON
: 1996 (P"""(] /
For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office, Washington, DC 20402
ISBN 0-16-053895-5COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT REFORM AND OVERSIGHT
WILLIAM F. CLINGER, Jr., Pennsylvania, Chairman
BENJAMIN A. OILMAN, New York CARDISS COLLINS, Illinois
DAN BURTON, Indiana HENRY A. WAXMAN, CaUfomia
J. DENNIS HASTERT, IlUnois TOM LANTOS, California
CONSTANCE A. MORELLA, Maryland ROBERT E. WISE, Jr., West Virginia
CHRISTOPHER SHAYS, Connecticut MAJOR R. OWENS, New York
STEVEN SCHIFF, New Mexico EDOLPHUS TOWNS, New York
ILEANA ROS-LEHTINEN, Florida JOHN M. SPRATT, Jr., South CaroUna
WILLL\M H. ZELIFF, Jr., New Hampshire LOUISE Mcintosh slaughter. New
JOHN M. McHUGH, New York York
STEPHEN HORN, CaUfomia PAUL E. KANJORSKI, Pennsylvania
JOHN L. MICA, Florida GARY A. CONDIT, CaUfomia
PETER BLUTE, Massachusetts COLLIN C. PETERSON, Minnesota
THOMAS M. DAVIS, Virginia KAREN L. THURMAN, Florida
DAVID M. Mcintosh, Indiana CAROLYN B. MALONEY, New York
JON D. FOX, Pennsylvania THOMAS M. BARRETT, Wisconsin
RANDY TATE, Washington GENE TAYLOR, Mississippi
DICK CHRYSLER, Michigan BARBARA-ROSE COLLINS, Michigan
HOLMES DistrictGIL GUTKNECHT, Minnesota ELEANOR NORTON, of
MARK E. SOUDER, Indiana Columbia
WILLIAM MARTINI, New Jersey JAMES P. MORAN, VirginiaJ.
JOE SCARBOROUGH, Florida GENE GREEN, Texas
JOHN B. SHADEGG, Arizona CARRIE P. MEEK, Florida
MICHAEL PATRICK FLANAGAN, lUinois CHAKA FATTAH, Pennsylvania
CHARLES F. BASS, New Hampshire BILL BREWSTER, Oklahoma
STEVEN C. LaTOURETTE, Ohio TIM HOLDEN,
MARSHALL "MARK" SANFORD, South
Carolina BERNARD SANDERS, Vermont
ROBERT L. EHRLICH, Jr., Maryland (Independent)
James L. Clarke, DirectorStaff
GeneralKevin Sabo, Counsel
Judith McCoy, Chief Clerk
Bud Myers, Minority StaffDirector
Subcommittee on the Postal Service
JOHN M. McHUGH, New York, Chairman
BARBARA-ROSE COLLINS, MichiganMARSHALL "MARK" SANFORD, South
MAJOR R. OWENS, New YorkCaroUna
GREEN, TexasBENJAMIN A. OILMAN, New York GENE
CHRISTOPHER SHAYS, Connecticut CARRIE P. MEEK, Florida
DAVID M. Mcintosh, Indiana
ROBERT L. EHRLICH, Jr., Maryland
Ex Officio
WILLIAM F. CLINGER, Jr., Pennsylvania CARDISS COLLINS, lUinois
Dan Blair, DirectorStaff
Robert Twjb, Professional StaffMember
Heea Vazirani-Fales, StaffMember
Steve Willlams,Staff
Jennifer Tracey, Clerk
Denise Wilson, Minority Professional Staff
(IDCONTENTS
Page
Hearing held on:
October 19, 1995 1
February 28, 1996 45
Text ofH.R. 1963 2
Statement of:
Barrett, Hon. Thomas, a Representative in Congress from the State of
Wisconsin 9
Blute, Hon. Peter,a in Congress from the State ofMassa-
chusetts 11
Boehlert, Hon. Sherwood, a Representative in Congress from the State
ofNew York 5
Bruce, Ben F., director of imagiiig systems, ElectroCom Automation, L.P.;
Albert F. Stevens, president, Opex Corporation, accompanied by Mark
A. Stevens, vice president of marketing, and Robert Dewitt, vice presi-
dent of engineering; and Tod Mongan, senior vice president and general
counsel, BancTec, Inc., accompanied by Nolan Klier, director of product
marketing 139
Jacobs, Hon. Andrew Jr., a Representative in Congress from the State
of Indiana 8
Romero-Barcelo, Hon. Carlos, a Delegate in Congress from the Common-
wealth of Puerto Rico 6
Sewruk, Casimir, chief executive officer. Nest Egg Federal Credit Union,
on behalf of the Credit Union National Association; Joseph Bracewell,
president and chief officer, Century National Bank; Mallory
B. Duncan, vice president and general counsel, Retail Federa-
tion; Paul S. Reid, president, Mortgage Bankers Association; and Thom-
as J. Hughes, president and chief executive officer. Navy Federal Credit
Union, on behalf of the National Association ofFederal Credit Unions .. 49
Silbergeld, Mark, co-director, Washington Office, Consumers Union 14
Stockman, Hon. Steve, a Representative in Congress from the State of
Texas 11
Williams, Bruce, Talknet Radio 25
Letters, statements, etc., submitted for the record by:
AUiance ofAmerican Insurers, American Council of Life Insurance, Amer-
ican Insurance Association, the Council of Insurance Agents and Bro-
kers, Health Insurance Association of America, Independent Insvu-ance
Agents of America, National Association of Insurers, Na-
tional Association of Insurance Brokers, National Association of Life
Underwriters, National Association of Mutual Insurance Companies,
and National Association of Professional Insurance Agents, prepared
statement of 208
American Bankers Association, prepared statement of 20 Financial Services Association, prepared statement of 218
Blute, Hon. Peter, a Representative in Congress from the State ofMassa-
chusetts, prepared statement of 13
Bruce, Ben F., director of Imaging Systems, ElectroCom Automation,
L.P., prepared statement of 142
Coalition of Higher Education Assistance Organizations, prepared state-
ment of 207
Collins, Hon. Barbara-Rose, a Representative in Congress from the State
of Michigan, prepared statement of 20
Commercial Law League ofAmerica, prepared statement of 215
Consvuner Bankers Association, prepared statement of 35
Countrywide Funding Corporation, of 33
(III)IV
Page
Davis, Hon. Thomas M., a Representative in Congress from the State
of Virginia, prepared statement of 31, 103
Dinwiddie, Yvonne, president, Citizens Protecting Your Rights, prepared
statement of 212
Duncan, Mallory B., vice president and general counsel. National Retail
Federation:
Prepared statement of 77
Response to Written Questions Submitted by Hon. John M. McHugh . 84
Drozanowski, James C, president. Chase Manhattan Bank (USA), pre-
pared statement of 35
GE Capital Mortgage Services, Inc., prepared statement of 39
Oilman, Benjamin A., a Representative in Congress from the State of
New York, prepared statement of 33
Green, Hon. Gene, in Congress from the State of Texas,a
prepared statement of. 484,
Hughes, Thomas J., president and chief executive officer. Navy Federal
Credit Union, on behalf of the National Association of Federal Credit
Unions, prepared statement of 106
Institute of Real Estate Mangement of the National Association of Real-
tors, prepared statement of 200
King, Hon. Peter T., a Representative in Congress from the State of
New York, prepared statement of 31
Lackritz, Marc E., president. Securities Industry Association, prepared
statement of 226
Lazio, Hon. Rick, a Representative in Congress from the State of New
York, prepared statement of 33
McHugh, Hon. John M., a Representative in Congress from the State
ofNew York, prepared statement of 46
Mongan, Tod, senior vice president and general counsel, BancTec, Inc.:
Prepared statement of 187
Response to Written Questions Submitted by Hon. John M. McHugh . 191
Mortgage Bankers Association ofAmerica, prepared statement of 37
National Retail Federation, prepared statement of 43
Owens, Hon. Major, a Representative in Congress from the State of
New York, prepared statement of 5
Reid, Paul S., president, Mortgage Bankers Association:
Prepared statement of 91
Response to Written Questions Submitted by Hon. John M. McHugh . 99
Romero-Barcelo, Hon. Carlos, a Delegate in Congress from the Common-
wealth ofPuerto Rico, prepared statement of 7
Sewruk, Casimir, chief executive officer, Nest Egg Federal Credit Union,
on behalf of the Credit Union National Association, prepared statement
of 53
Silbergeld, Mark, co-director, Washington Office, Consumers Union, pre-
pared statement of 17
Stenehjem, Leland M., Jr., president. First International Bank and Trust,
Fargo, ND, on behalf of the American Bankers Association, America's
Association,Community Bankers, Financial Services
Consumer Bankers Association, Independent Bankers Association of
Visa U.S.A. Inc.:America, MasterCard International Incorporated, and
Prepared statement of 61
Response to Written Questions Submitted by Hon. John M. McHugh . 70
Stevens, Albert F., president, Opex Corporation:
154Prepared statement of
Hon. John M. McHugh .Response to Written Questions Submitted by 179
USAA, prepared statement of 42
Incorporated, preparedVISA U.S.A. Inc. and MasterCard International
statement of 41
from the StateWalsh, Hon. James T., a Representative in Congress
31ofNew York, prepared statement of
statement of 29Williams, Bruce, Talknet Radio, prepared
affairs committee, NationalWysocki, Mary E. (Betty), chair, government
of 204.Association of Credit Management, prepared statementPAYMENTPOSTMARK PROMPTH.R. 1963, THE
ACT OF 1995
1995THURSDAY, OCTOBER 19,
Representatives,House of
on the Postal Service,Subcommittee
Government Reform and Oversight,Committee on
DC.Washington,
a.m., in roompursuant to notice, at 10:05The subcommittee met,
M. McHughHouse Office Building, Hon. John2247, Rayburn
the subcommittee) presiding.(chairman of
McHugh, Sanford, Mcintosh,present: RepresentativesMembers
CoUins of Michigan, Owens, Green.Ehrlich,
director; Jane Hatcherson, RobertStaff present: Dan Blair, staff
mem-Williams, professional staffTaub, Heea Vazirani-Fales, Steve
profes-clerk; and Denise Wilson, minoritybers; Jennifer Tracey,
sional staffmember.
hearing. I expect thatI'll begin this subcommitteeMr. McHuGH.
on his way. I justfrom Texas, Mr. Gene Green, isthe gentleman
him at another postal event.saw
gratefully the vice chairman,Let me, before I begin, acknowledge
here today. Thank you, sir.Mr. Mark Sanford, who has joined us
here today for this hearing. LetLet me also welcome all of you
esteemed colleagues. Con-me pay a special tribute to two of my
of New York, a friendgressman Sherry Boehlert from my State
Jacobs from Indiana.and neighbor, and also Congressman Andy
this morning to present testi-Both of these gentlemen are here
mony.
hearing on the legisla-As we proceed with the subcommittee's
Prompt Payment Act of 1995, wetion, H.R. 1963, the Postmark
some of the co-spon-will be hearing as witnesses, as I mentioned,
expressed an interest in thissors, as well as other individuals who
legislation.
especially welcome talkIn addition to my colleagues, I want to
sure most, if not all, of youshow host Bruce Williams. As I'm
nationally syndicated radioknow, Mr. Williams is the host of a
stations nationwide.show heard on approximately 400 radio
Talknet and is the country'sMr. Williams' program is heard on
and callers to the pro-longest running national talk radio program,
payment due prob-gram frequently cite their experiences with the
credit record prob-lem and the resulting late fees, interest, and
lems.
credit—where creditI certainly want to give credit—speaking of
behind the idea con-is due. Mr. Williams was the originating force
support of this meas-tained in H.R. 1963. His inspiration for and
(1)— — —
ure has been invaluable and undoubtedly will aid H.R. 1963, gath-
broad supportering an even more base of in the future.
For the record, H.R. 1963 currently has 35 co-sponsors, including
the chairman of this full committee, Mr. dinger, the gentleman
from Pennsylvania, and indeed enjoys bipartisan support.
[The bill H.R. 1963 follows:]
H.R. 1963
IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
JUNE 29, 1995
Mr. McHuGH (for himself, Mr. Ackerman, Mr. Barrett of Wisconsin, Mr. Boeh-
LERT, Mr. Ehrlich, Mr. Oilman, Mr. Gene Green of Texas, Mr. Jacobs, Mrs.
Kelly, Mrs. ICennelly, Mr. Kleczka, Mr. Livingston, Mr. Parker, Mr. Romero-
Barcelo, Mr. Serrano, Mr. Shays, Mr. Stockman, Mr. Underwood, Mr. Towns,
Davis) introduced the following bill; which was referredMr. Walsh, and Mr. to the
on Government Reform and OversightCommittee
A BILL
provide that the pajrment invoice,To amend title 39, United States Code, to of a bill,
or statement of account due, ifmade by mail, shall be considered to have been made
on the date as of which the envelope which is used to transmit such pajrment is
postmarked.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House Representatives the United Statesof of
America in Congress assembled,of
SECTION 1.SHORTTITLE.
1995".This Act may be cited as the "Postmark Prompt Pajonent Act of
SEC 2. DATE OF POSTMARK TO BE TREATED AS DATE OF PAYMENT OFA BILL, INVOICE, OR
STATEMENT OFACCOUNTDUE.
(a) In General.—Chapter 26 of title 39, United States Code, is amended by
adding at the end the following:
**§2602. Date of postmark to be treated as date ofpayment of a bill, invoice,
or statement ofaccount due
"(a) If any payment required to be made on or before a prescribed date is, after
delivered the Postal Service to the payee, such payment shaU besuch date, by
received by the payee on the date of the United States postmark stampeddeemed
such payment is mailed.on the envelope or other cover in which
not apply with respect to any payment"(b) Subsection (a) shall
"(1) or statement of account due;other than a pajrment on a biU, invoice,
"(2) regulation, or contract, to be deUvered by anywhich is required, by law,
method other than by mail; or
law specifying how"(3) which is subject to any other provision of Federal
paymenta postmark date shall be used in determining the date on which such
shall be deemed to have been deUvered or made.
"(c) Subsection (a) shall apply only if
"(1) the postmark date falls on or before the prescribed date for making the
payment; and
"(2) the pa)mrient was, on or before such date, deposited in the mail in the
appropriate cover, postage prepaid,United States in an envelope or under other
properly addressed to the payee.
postmark not made by the"(d) Subsection (a) shall not apply in the case of a
Postal Service.
"(e) For purposes of this section
includes any per-"(1) the term 'payee', as used with respect to a payment,
son duly authorized to receive such pa5Tnent; and
the District of Columbia,"(2) the term 'United States' means the 50 States,
ofthe Unitedthe Commonwealth ofPuerto Rico, and any territory or possession
States.
the Postal Serv-Regulations to carry out this section may be prescribed by"(f)
ice.".
— of title(b) Conforming Amendment. ^The table of sections for chapter 26 39,
following:United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the"2606. ofpayment of a bill, invoice, or state-Date of postmark to be treated as date
ment ofaccount due.".
SEC. 3. EFFECTIVE DATE.
The amendments made by this Act shall apply with respect to any mailing post-
marked after the end of the 3-month period beginning on the date of enactment of
this Act.
Mr. McHUGH. In addition to this distinguished group of wit-
the subcommittee also welcomes Mark Silbergeld. Mr.nesses,
Silbergeld will testify on behalf of the Consumers Union and
ofAmerica.Consumer Federation
subcommittee will not be hearing from invitedUnfortunately, the
witnesses who had previously made their opposition known to me,
personally, as well as to the subcommittee staff. I truly regret that
these invited witnesses chose not to testify before the subcommittee
during today's proceeding.
I want the record to show that this subcommittee made all ef-
forts to include those interested parties in this legislative process.
In an effort to try to be responsive to those individuals' and organi-
zations' concerns, I will order the record on this hearing to be
maintained for the next following 7 business days, in which time
submit written testimony. We have received some testi-they may
mony already from the American Banking Association.
As we walked in this morning, for those of who looked, thereyou
was what I would describe as a legislative memo being passed out
from several credit card companies. Visa and MasterCard, who
have expressed concern about, and opposition to, H.R. 1963. If we
receive this formally, we will make that part of the written record.
If there are representatives from that interest in the room this
morning, I would urge you to formally submit your concerns in
writing.
Let me say, rather extemporaneously, I have read the testimony
by the bankers. Frankly, I think they raise some very legitimate
points and, again, I regret that they were either unable or chose
not to participate directly. I think, truly, their presence could have
added in very important ways to the quality of this hearing.
That having been said, let me say that, in my opinion, H.R. 1963
is sound legislation, aimed at addressing a problem with which
most bill-payers can claim experience. Quite often, conscientious
people will dutifully pay their bills on a timely basis, only to dis-
cover that they were assessed late fees and interest charges when
the recording or receipt of their payment is delayed through no
fault of their own.
I know many ofmy colleagues have been approached constitu-by
ents relaying their problems with payments that have been mailed
in a timely fashion and not delivered by the 1963due date. H.R.
is intended to address this problem.
The bill mandates that the postmark on the envelope containing
the pa3mient will be proof of a timely admission. legislationThe ap-
plies to pajnnents of a bill, invoice, or statement of any account
due, and only when made through the mail. It excludes metered
mail. Furthermore, the envelope will have correctlyto be addressed
to the payee and have adequate postage affixed to it.
The use of the postmark has precedence in contract law. For ex-
ample, the Internal Revenue Service uses the postmark on the en-velope as proof that a taxpayer mailed their income tax return on
or before the April 15 deadline, regardless of when the IRS re-
ceived payment.
Clearly, the intent behind this legislation is to protect conscien-
tious consumers who pay their bills, invoices, or accounts through
the mail in a timely fashion.
Some in financialthe community have raised questions regard-
ing H.R. 1963 and possible hardships it might impose on creditors
who will be forced to preserve the postmarks on envelopes of late
bill payers. I'm confident that these companies share my concerns
regarding late fees, penalties, and adverse credit ratings being
wrongly assessed against timely bill payers.
Consequently, I would look forward to working with them, as
well as the co-sponsors of H.R. 1963, to meet those concerns that
might impact the intent of the legislation and, at the same time,
reflect the concerns of those industries. Again, I welcome the wit-
nesses here before the subcommittee, and I look forward theirto
testimony.
At this time, as I had mentioned, I would like to recognize the
presence of the gentleman from Texas, Mr. Green, and ask him if
he has any opening comments he might wish to make.
Mr. Green. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I do have an opening
statement, but in the case of brevity and moving this along, I
would like to submit it for the record. But also, I met Bruce Wil-
liams in Houston recently, and I'm glad to know that we can re-
spond to not only his listeners but our constituents.
[The prepared statement ofHon. Gene Green follows:]
Prepared Statement of Hon. Gene Green, a Representative in Congress
From the State of Texas
As an original co-sponsor of H.R. 1963, The Postmark Prompt Payment Act of
1995, I believe that this legislation is long overdue. I have heard many accounts of
individuals whose credit had been ruined because they had sent their payments in
on time for things Uke mortgage and car payments that did not arrive on time, con-
sequently, they were assessed late fees and interest charges and their credit ratings
were negatively affected. legislation will help those diligent bill payers who payThis
their bills on time but through no fault of their own have problems with delivery
service of their mail. This legislation will require creditors to use the postmark on
was sent in a timelythe envelope containing the pa3mient as proof that the payment
manner. I would like to commend Chairman McHugh for having the foresight to in-
of legislation that will benefit both the Americantroduce this important piece
requiring theconsvuner and the U.S. Postal Service. It will benefit the consumer by
creditors to use the postmark as proof of a timely payment and it wiU benefit the
delivery problems. AgainPostal Service by identifying areas where they may have
I would like to thank Chairman McHugh for introducing this legislation and holding
these hearings.
next recognize inMr. McHuGH. Thank the gentleman. Let me
the order in which the chair saw them enter the room, the gen-
he mighttleman from New York, Major Owens, for any comments
have.
Chairman. I have an opening state-Mr. Owens. Thank you, Mr.
ment, which I shall submit for the record.
[The prepared statement ofHon. Major Owens follows:]