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Migration and early population development of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in winter cereals [Elektronische Ressource] / A. Michael Klüken

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245 pages
Migration and early population development of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in winter cereals Von der Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Doktor der Gartenbauwissenschaften Dr. rer. hort. genehmigte Dissertation von Dipl.-Ing. agr. A. Michael Klüken, geboren am 15.09.1973 in Krefeld Hannover, Januar 2008 1. Referent: Prof. Dr. B. Hau 2. Referent: Prof. Dr. B. Freier Tag der Promotion (mündlichen Prüfung): 27.02.2008 Soli Dei Gloria Eidesstattliche Erklärung Hiermit erkläre ich an Eides statt, dass ich die vorliegende Arbeit selbstständig angefertigt habe und keine anderen als die angegebenen Quellen und Hilfsmittel verwendet habe, sowie dass diese Arbeit noch keiner anderen Prüfungskommission als Diplomarbeit oder ähnlicher Prüfungsarbeit vorgelegt worden ist. Hannover, 07.01.2008 A. Michael Klüken Table of contents v Table of contents TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... V LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................................XII SUMMARY ...................................................................................
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Migration and early population development of
aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in winter cereals


Von der Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät
der Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover
zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades

Doktor der Gartenbauwissenschaften
Dr. rer. hort.

genehmigte Dissertation von
Dipl.-Ing. agr. A. Michael Klüken, geboren am 15.09.1973 in Krefeld
Hannover, Januar 2008






















1. Referent: Prof. Dr. B. Hau

2. Referent: Prof. Dr. B. Freier

Tag der Promotion (mündlichen Prüfung): 27.02.2008







Soli Dei Gloria
































Eidesstattliche Erklärung


Hiermit erkläre ich an Eides statt, dass ich die vorliegende Arbeit selbstständig angefertigt
habe und keine anderen als die angegebenen Quellen und Hilfsmittel verwendet habe, sowie
dass diese Arbeit noch keiner anderen Prüfungskommission als Diplomarbeit oder ähnlicher
Prüfungsarbeit vorgelegt worden ist.


Hannover, 07.01.2008



A. Michael Klüken











Table of contents v
Table of contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... V
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................................XII
SUMMARY .......................................................................................................................... XIV
RESUME............................................................................................................................... XVI
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG...................................................................................................... XIX
GLOBAL INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 23
IMPORTANCE OF CEREAL APHIDS ....................................................................................................... 23
THRESHOLD LEVEL CONCEPTS AND THEIR PROBLEMS..................................................................... 24
POPULATION MODELS.......................................................................................................................... 26
MIGRATION .......................................................................................................................................... 27
EVALUATION OF CEREAL APHID POPULATIONS................................................................................. 30
LANDSCAPE STRUCTURE AND POPULATION GENETICS ..................................................................... 31
HOST PLANT SPECIALISATION............................................................................................................. 32
OBJECTIVES AND CHAPTER TITLES ............................................................................... 34
CHAPTER 1: COMPARISON AND VALIDATION OF POPULATION MODELS FOR
CEREAL APHIDS................................................................................................................... 36
ABSTRACT............................................................................................................................................. 36
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 37
MATERIALS AND METHODS ................................................................................................................. 39 Table of contents vi
FIELD EVALUATION ............................................................................................................................... 39
MODEL SIMLAUS ................................................................................................................................ 40
MODEL LAUS ....................................................................................................................................... 41
MODEL GETLAUS01............................................................................................................................ 42
VALIDATION AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS............................................................................................ 43
RESULTS ............................................................................................................................................... 44
GENERAL RESULTS ................................................................................................................................ 44
MODEL SIMLAUS ................................................................................................................................ 44
MODEL LAUS ....................................................................................................................................... 47
MODEL GETLAUS01............................................................................................................................ 48
DISCUSSION .......................................................................................................................................... 54
MODEL SIMLAUS ................................................................................................................................ 55
MODEL LAUS ....................................................................................................................................... 56
MODEL GETLAUS01............................................................................................................................ 58
CONCLUSIONS........................................................................................................................................ 62
Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................................... 62
CHAPTER 2: FORECASTING GRADATION OF CEREAL APHIDS (HEMIPTERA:
APHIDIDAE) IN WINTER WHEAT AT EAR EMERGENCE............................................. 64
ABSTRACT............................................................................................................................................. 64
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 65
MATERIALS AND METHODS ................................................................................................................ 67
FIELD DATA EVALUATION ..................................................................................................................... 67
SUCTION TRAP SAMPLES........................................................................................................................ 67
METEOROLOGICAL PARAMETERS.......................................................................................................... 69
DEFINITION OF VARIABLES.................................................................................................................... 69
STATISTICAL ANALYSES........................................................................................................................ 69
LOGISTIC REGRESSION ANALYSES (LOG RA) ........................................................................................ 70
LINEAR DISCRIMINANT ANALYSES (LIN DA) ........................................................................................ 71
MODEL VALIDATION.............................................................................................................................. 72
RESULTS ............................................................................................................................................... 73
GENERAL RESULTS ................................................................................................................................ 73
LOGISTIC REGRESSION ANALYSES (LOG RA) ........................................................................................ 74
LINEAR DISCRIMINANT ANALYSES (LIN DA)......................................................................................... 81
EXAMPLES FOR LIN DA AND LOG RA ................................................................................................... 83
MODEL VALIDATION.............................................................................................................................. 84 Table of contents vii
DISCUSSION .......................................................................................................................................... 85
GENERAL DISCUSSION ........................................................................................................................... 85
ESTABLISHMENT OF “WINTER CONDITIONS” AND “REAL MIGRATION” SUBMODELS ............................ 86
COMPARISONS OF METHODS.................................................................................................................. 87
COMPARISON OF LOCATIONS................................................................................................................. 89
MODEL CONSTRAINTS ........................................................................................................................... 90
IMPORTANCE OF THRESHOLD LEVELS ................................................................................................... 91
CONCLUSIONS........................................................................................................................................ 92
Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................................... 92
CHAPTER 3: FORECASTING MIGRATION OF CEREAL APHIDS (HEMIPTERA:
APHIDIDAE) IN AUTUMN AND SPRING .......................................................................... 94
ABSTRACT............................................................................................................................................. 94
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 95
MATERIALS AND METHODS ................................................................................................................ 97
FIELD DATA EVALUATION ..................................................................................................................... 97
SUCTION TRAP SAMPLES........................................................................................................................ 98
METEOROLOGICAL PARAMETERS.......................................................................................................... 98
STATISTICAL ANALYSES........................................................................................................................ 99
DEFINITION OF VARIABLES.................................................................................................................... 99
CORRELATION AND LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSES.......................................................................... 100
LOGISTIC REGRESSION ANALYSES....................................................................................................... 100
LINEAR DISCRIMINANT ANALYSES ...................................................................................................... 100
MODEL VALIDATION............................................................................................................................ 102
RESULTS ............................................................................................................................................. 103
GENERAL RESULTS .............................................................................................................................. 103
COMPARISONS OF SUCTION TRAP CATCHES AND FIELD POPULATIONS ............................................... 104
IMPORTANCE OF INFLUENCING PARAMETERS ..................................................................................... 105
DEVELOPMENT OF MODELS FOR MIGRATION ...................................................................................... 109
EXAMPLES OF FORECASTING MODELS................................................................................................. 110
VALIDATION OF MODELS..................................................................................................................... 111
DISCUSSION ........................................................................................................................................ 113
INFLUENCING VARIABLES.................................................................................................................... 113
PERFORMANCES OF MODELS ............................................................................................................... 115
COMPARISONS OF STATISTICAL METHODS .......................................................................................... 116
DENSITY EFFECTS................................................................................................................................ 117 Table of contents viii
MULTITUDE OF FACTORS INFLUENCING MIGRATION........................................................................... 118
CONCLUSIONS...................................................................................................................................... 120
Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................................. 121
CHAPTER 4: THE IMPORTANCE OF PROXIMITY BETWEEN WINTER AND
SUMMER HOSTS ON IMMIGRATION AND EARLY POPULATION DEVELOPMENT
OF HOST-ALTERNATING APHIDS IN CEREAL FIELDS .............................................. 122
ABSTRACT........................................................................................................................................... 122
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................. 123
MATERIALS AND METHODS .............................................................................................................. 125
LARGE-SCALE EXPERIMENTS............................................................................................................... 125
SMALL-SCALE EXPERIMENTS .............................................................................................................. 126
GENOTYPIC ANALYSIS OF R. PADI POPULATIONS ON WINTER HOSTS AND WHEAT FIELDS ................. 127
STATISTICAL ANALYSES...................................................................................................................... 128
ANALYSES OF GENETIC DATA.............................................................................................................. 129
RESULTS ............................................................................................................................................. 130
LARGE-SCALE EXPERIMENTS............................................................................................................... 130
SMALL-SCALE EXPERIMENTS .............................................................................................................. 133
GENOTYPIC ANALYSIS OF R. PADI POPULATIONS ON WINTER HOSTS AND WHEAT FIELDS ................. 137
DISCUSSION ........................................................................................................................................ 140
LARGE-SCALE EXPERIMENTS............................................................................................................... 140
SMALL-SCALE EXPERIMENTS .............................................................................................................. 143
GENOTYPIC ANALYSIS OF R. PADI POPULATIONS ON WINTER HOSTS AND WHEAT FIELDS ................. 145
CONCLUSIONS...................................................................................................................................... 148
Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................................. 148
CHAPTER 5: ATTRACTIVENESS AND HOST SUITABILITY OF WINTER WHEAT
CULTIVARS FOR CEREAL APHIDS (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE) .............................. 150
ABSTRACT........................................................................................................................................... 150
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................. 151
MATERIALS AND METHODS .............................................................................................................. 152
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN....................................................................................................................... 152
WINTER WHEAT CULTIVARS................................................................................................................ 152
CEREAL APHIDS ................................................................................................................................... 153
ANTIBIOSIS EXPERIMENTS................................................................................................................... 153 Table of contents ix
SETTLEMENT EXPERIMENTS ................................................................................................................ 154
INFESTATION LOSS RELATION EXPERIMENTS ...................................................................................... 154
STATISTICAL ANALYSES...................................................................................................................... 155
RESULTS ............................................................................................................................................. 155
ANTIBIOSIS EXPERIMENTS................................................................................................................... 155
SETTLEMENT EXPERIMENTS ................................................................................................................ 159
INFESTATION LOSS RELATION EXPERIMENTS ...................................................................................... 161
DISCUSSION ........................................................................................................................................ 162
ANTIBIOSIS EXPERIMENTS................................................................................................................... 162
SETTLEMENT EXPERIMENTS ................................................................................................................ 163
INFESTATION LOSS RELATION EXPERIMENTS ...................................................................................... 164
IMPORTANCE FOR POPULATION AND MIGRATION MODELS ................................................................. 165
IMPORTANCE FOR INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT.......................................................................... 166
Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................................. 167
CHAPTER 6: COMPARISON OF TECHNIQUES TO SURVEY POPULATIONS OF
CEREAL APHIDS (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE) IN WINTER CEREALS DURING
AUTUMN AND SPRING WITH SPECIAL CONSIDERATION OF SAMPLE SIZE ....... 168
ABSTRACT........................................................................................................................................... 168
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................. 169
MATERIALS AND METHODS .............................................................................................................. 171
FIELD SAMPLING.................................................................................................................................. 171
VISUAL COUNTS................................................................................................................................... 172
PLANT SAMPLING ................................................................................................................................ 172
D-VAC SAMPLING............................................................................................................................... 172
SAMPLING TECHNIQUES FOR WINGED APHIDS..................................................................................... 173
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS....................................................................................................................... 173
METHODS AND PRECISION OF SAMPLE SIZE ESTIMATION.................................................................... 174
RESULTS ............................................................................................................................................. 176
GENERAL POPULATION DEVELOPMENT............................................................................................... 176
COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES ........................................................................................... 176
COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION................................................................................................................ 181
RELEASE AND RECAPTURE EXPERIMENTS ........................................................................................... 181
CALCULATION OF SAMPLE SIZE........................................................................................................... 183
DISCUSSION ........................................................................................................................................ 184
COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES ........................................................................................... 184 Table of contents x
COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION................................................................................................................ 186
CALCULATION OF SAMPLE SIZE........................................................................................................... 187
CONCLUSIONS...................................................................................................................................... 190
GLOBAL DISCUSSION ....................................................................................................... 192
MODEL COMPARISONS....................................................................................................................... 192
CEREAL APHID GRADATION .............................................................................................................. 193
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE AND ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK........................................................ 196
MIGRATION MODELS ......................................................................................................................... 198
COMPARISON OF LOCATIONS............................................................................................................... 199
IMPROVEMENT OF MIGRATION MODELS .............................................................................................. 199
VALIDATION METHODS FOR THE DEVELOPED MODELS .................................................................. 202
DISPERSAL AND MIGRATION IN THE CONTEXT OF POPULATION GENETICS................................... 203
HOLOCYCLIC VS. ANHOLOYCLIC LIFE STRATEGIES............................................................................. 204
DISPERSAL BEHAVIOUR....................................................................................................................... 204
POPULATION GENETICS - SUBPOPULATIONS........................................................................................ 205
MIGRATION MODELS ........................................................................................................................... 206
HOST PLANT INTERACTIONS ............................................................................................................. 207
MEAN RELATIVE GROWTH RATE (MRGR) .......................................................................................... 208
GENOTYPIC HETEROGENEITY .............................................................................................................. 208
EVALUATION TECHNIQUES FOR INSECT POPULATIONS................................................................... 209
CEREAL APHID POPULATION DYNAMICS ............................................................................................. 209
EFFECTS OF NATURAL ENEMIES........................................................................................................... 211
FUTURE PROSPECTS........................................................................................................................... 213
CLOSING STATEMENTS ...................................................................................................................... 214
REFERENCES....................................................................................................................... 216
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................................... 238
CURRICULUM VITAE (ENGLISH) ................................................................................... 240
CURRICULUM VITAE (DEUTSCH) .................................................................................. 242

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