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Organic solid state lasers for sensing applications [Elektronische Ressource] / Thomas Woggon. Betreuer: U. Lemmer

161 pages
Organic Solid State Lasers for SensingApplicationsZur Erlangung des akademischen Grades einesDoktor-Ingenieursvon der Fakultät fürElektrotechnik und Informationstechnikdes Karlsruher Instituts für TechnologiegenehmigteDissertationvonDipl.-Phys. Thomas Woggongeb. in BerlinTag der mündlichen Prüfung: 7. Juli 2011Hauptreferent: Prof. Dr. U. LemmerKorreferent: Prof. Dr. V. SaileiJournal Publications1. C. Eschenbaum, T. Woggon and U. Lemmer, High speed fabrication of toroi-dal micro-ring resonators by two photon direct laser writing, Nonlinear Pho-tonics, OSA Technical Digest (CD), NThB8, (2010)2. T. Woggon, S. Klinkhammer and U. Lemmer, Compact spectroscopy systembased on tunable organic semiconductor lasers, Appl. Phys. B. 99(1), 47–51(2010)3. S. Klinkhammer,T.Woggon, C. Vannahme, U. Geyer, S. Valouch, T. Mappesand U. Lemmer, Optical spectroscopy with organic semiconductor lasers,(BestStudent Paper), Proc. SPIE 7722-53 (2010)4. M. Stroisch,T.Woggon, C. Teiwes-Morin, S. Klinkhammer, K. Forberich, A.Gombert, M. Gerken and U. Lemmer, Intermediate high index layer for lasermode tuning in organic semiconductor lasers, Opt. Express 18(6), 5890–5895(2010)5. S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, S. Dehm, T. Mappesand U. Lemmer, A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconduc-tor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,Appl. Phys. B. 97(4), 787-791 (2009)6. T. Mappes, C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, T.
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Organic Solid State Lasers for Sensing
Applications
Zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines
Doktor-Ingenieurs
von der Fakultät für
Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik
des Karlsruher Instituts für Technologie
genehmigte
Dissertation
von
Dipl.-Phys. Thomas Woggon
geb. in Berlin
Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 7. Juli 2011
Hauptreferent: Prof. Dr. U. Lemmer
Korreferent: Prof. Dr. V. Sailei
Journal Publications
1. C. Eschenbaum, T. Woggon and U. Lemmer, High speed fabrication of toroi-
dal micro-ring resonators by two photon direct laser writing, Nonlinear Pho-
tonics, OSA Technical Digest (CD), NThB8, (2010)
2. T. Woggon, S. Klinkhammer and U. Lemmer, Compact spectroscopy system
based on tunable organic semiconductor lasers, Appl. Phys. B. 99(1), 47–51
(2010)
3. S. Klinkhammer,T.Woggon, C. Vannahme, U. Geyer, S. Valouch, T. Mappes
and U. Lemmer, Optical spectroscopy with organic semiconductor lasers,(Best
Student Paper), Proc. SPIE 7722-53 (2010)
4. M. Stroisch,T.Woggon, C. Teiwes-Morin, S. Klinkhammer, K. Forberich, A.
Gombert, M. Gerken and U. Lemmer, Intermediate high index layer for laser
mode tuning in organic semiconductor lasers, Opt. Express 18(6), 5890–5895
(2010)
5. S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, S. Dehm, T. Mappes
and U. Lemmer, A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconduc-
tor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,
Appl. Phys. B. 97(4), 787-791 (2009)
6. T. Mappes, C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, M. Schelb, S.
Lenhert, J. Mohr and U. Lemmer, Polymer biophotonic lab-on-a-chip devices
with integrated organic semiconductor lasers, Proc. SPIE 7418-9 (2009)
7. M. Stroisch, C. Teiwes-Morin, T. Woggon, M. Gerken, U. Lemmer, K. For-
berich and A. Gombert Photonic stopband tuning of organic semiconductor
distributed feedback lasers by oblique angle deposition of an intermediate high
index layer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021112 (2009)
8. T. Woggon, T. Kleiner, M. Punke and U. Lemmer, Nanostructuring of
organic-inorganic hybrid materials for distributed feedback laser resonators by
two photon polymerization,Opt.Express17(4), 2500–2507 (2009)
9. M. Punke, T. Woggon,M.Stroisch,B.Ebenhoch,U.Geyer,C.Karnutsch,
M. Gerken, U. Lemmer, M. Bruendel, J. Wang and T. Weimann, Organic
semiconductor lasers as integrated light sources for optical sensor systems,
Proc. SPIE 6659-8 (2007)
10. M. Stroisch, T. Woggon, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, G. Violakis and S. Pis-
sadakis, Organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by direct
laser interference ablation,Opt.Express15, 3968, (2007)
Patent applications
1. T. Woggon, S. Klinkhammer, S. Valouch, J. Bach and U. Lemmer, Tunable
laser light source based on variable optical pulse excitation and method for
operating same, US2011043801 (A1), EP2287980 (A1) (2009).ii
Book chapters
1. T. Woggon, M. Punke, M. Stroisch, M. Bruendel, M. Schelb, C. Vannahme,
T. Mappes, J. Mohr and U. Lemmer, Organic Semiconductor Lasers as In-
tegrated Light Sources for Optical Sensors in: Organic Electronics in Sensors
and Biotechnology, 265-298, Mcgraw-Hill, ISBN-10: 0071596755, (2009)
Awards
1. VISOLAS: the tunable organic laser, 1st Prize, "Best Innovation by an Indi-
vidual Researcher", European Photonics Innovation Village, SPIE Photonics
Europe, Brussels, Belgium, April 12-16, (2010)
Conferences
1. S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, X. Liu, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes and U.
Lemmer, Plastic Lasers for Optical Spectroscopy, 1st Winter School of Organic
Electronics, Heidelberg, Germany, December 9-12, (2010)
2. S. Klinkhammer, C. Vannahme,T.Woggon,T.MappesandU.Lemmer,Or-
ganic semiconductor lasers for sensing applications, Polydays, Berlin-Dahlem,
Germany, October 3-5, (2010)
3. S. Klinkhammer,T.Woggon, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes and U. Lemmer, Op-
tical spectroscopy with organic semiconductor lasers, SPIE Photonics Europe
7722: Organic Photonics, Brussels, Belgium, April 12-16, (2010)
4. C. Eschenbaum, T. Woggon and U. Lemmer, High speed fabrication of to-
roidal micro-ring resonators by two photon direct laser writing, OSA Topical
Meeting: Nonlinear Photonics, Karlsruhe, Germany, June 21-24, (2010)
5. C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, A. Kolew,T. Woggon,T.Mappes,U.Lem-
mer and J. Mohr, Hot embossing of micro- and nanostructures for the integra-
tion of organic semiconductor lasers and deep UV induced waveguides towards
tha lab-on-chip system,35 International Conference on Micro Nano Engineer-
ing (MNE), Ghent, Belgium, September 28 - Oktober 1, (2009)
6. S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes and U.
Lemmer, Rotating shadow mask evaporation and its use for continuously tun-
thable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback lasers,10 Eu-
ropean Conference on Molecular Electronics (ECME), Copenhagen, Denmark,
September 9-12, (2009)
7. S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, S. Dehm
and U. Lemmer, A Continuously Tunable Low-threshold Organic Semicon-
ductor Distributed Feedback Laser, Mini-Symposium on Organic Lasers and
Hybrid Optical Structures, Grasmere, June 22-25, (2009)
8. T. Woggon, Organic Lasers for Laser Induced Fluorescence Measurements
for Life Sciences, Seminar Course: Research Topics in Optics and Photonics,
Karlsruhe School of Optics and Photonics, November 5, (2008) Invited talkiii
9. T. Woggon, Potential Usage of Organic Electro-Optic Components in Bio-
molecular Analysis, Agilent Technologies University Relations Research Fair,
Waldbronn, Germany, September 19, (2007) Invited talk
10. C. Gärtner, C. Karnutsch, J. Brückner, T. Woggon,S.Uebe,N.Christand
U. Lemmer, Numerical study of annihilation processes, excited state absorption
thand field quenching for various organic laser diode design concepts,9 Euro-
pean Conference on Molecular Electronics (ECME), Metz, France, September
5-8, (2007) (Poster presentation)
11. M. Punke,T. Woggon, M. Stroisch, C. Karnutsch, S. Mozer, U. Lemmer, M.
Bruendel, D.G. Rabus and T. Weimann, All-organic waveguide coupled solid-
state distributed feedback laser, CLEO/Europe-IQEC 2007, CH-2-4, Munich,
Germany, June, 17-22, (2007)
12. T. Woggon,M.Punke,M.Stroisch,B.Ebenhoch,U.Geyer,C.Karnutsch,
M. Gerken, U. Lemmer, M. Bruendel, J. Wang and T. Weimann, Organic
semiconductor lasers as integrated light sources for optical sensor systems,
SPIE Optics+Photonics 6659, San Diego, CA, USA, August 26-30, (2007)
13. M. Punke, M. Stroisch, T. Woggon,A.Pütz,M.P.Heinrich,M.Gerken,U.
Lemmer, M. Bruendel, D.G. Rabus, J. Wang and T. Weimann, Fabrication
and characterization of organic solid-state lasers using imprint technologies,
IEEE / LEOS Summer Topicals 2007, Portland, OR, USA, July 23-25, (2007)
14. T. Woggon, M. Punke, M. Stroisch, M. Gerken, U. Lemmer, M. Bruen-
del, D.G. Rabus, J. Wang and T. Weimann, Integrated organic semiconductor
lasers for lab-on-a-chip applications, NanoBio-Europe 2007, Münster, Ger-
many, June 13-15, (2007) (Poster presentation)
Supervised work
1. Karl Lüll, Modifikation eines Blu-ray Pickups zum Anregen eines organischen
Halbleiterlasers, Bachelor thesis, 2010
2. Carsten Eschenbaum, Herstellung mikrooptischer Bauelemente mittels 3D-
Laserlithographie, Master thesis, 2009
3. Tobias Kappler, Ankopplung einer organischen Photodiode an ein mikrooptis-
ches System, Studienarbeit, 2009
4. Thomas Kleiner, Einsatz der direkten Laserlithographie zur Realisierung op-
tischer Mikro- und Nanostrukturen für die Biosensorik, Diplomarbeit, 2007ivCONTENTS v
Contents
Zusammenfassung 1
1 Introduction 3
2 Fundamentals 7
2.1 Optics ................................... 8
2.1.1 Snell’s law and total internal reflection .. 8
2.1.2 Optical waveguides ...10
2.1.3 Geometric etendue and resolution limits .13
2.1.4 Optical resolution limits .....................14
2.2 Organic semiconductor lasers .17
2.2.1 Stimulated emission and the LASER principle .........17
2.2.2 Distributed feedback resonators for organic lasers .......20
2.2.3 Absorption and emission of light in organic materials .....24
2.2.4 Energy transfer systems .....................27
2.2.5 Optical excitation of organic semiconductor lasers .......28
2.2.6 Identifying laser operation .........30
2.2.7 Wavelength-tuning of organic DFB lasers.31
3 Materials and processing technologies 35
3.1 Materials .................................36
3.1.1 Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) ...36
3.1.2 Cyclic olefin copolymer Topas®......37
3.1.3 Permanent epoxy negative photoresist SU-8 2000 .......38
3.1.4 Organically modified ceramic Ormocomp ............38
3.1.5 The composite molecular system Alq :DCM ..........393
3.2 Processing technologies ...............42
3.2.1 Photolithography ....42
3.2.2 Laser interference lithography ..................42
3.2.3 3D direct laser writing .43
3.2.4 Thin film deposition ............45
3.2.5 Hot embossing and UV nanoimprint lithography........46
4 Rapid prototyping of laser resonators and microoptical systems 49
4.1 Rapid prototyping of sub-micron structures...............50
4.1.1 Basic optical setup of a 3D-DLW system .50
4.1.2 Fabrication speed considerations......51vi CONTENTS
4.1.3 Measuring the position of the resin-glass interface .......52
4.1.4 Functional materials .......................54
4.2 Rapid prototyping of DFB laser resonators .....57
4.2.1 Voxel-line stacking method for DFB resonator gratings ....57
4.2.2 Fabrication of DFB resonator gratings...58
4.2.3 Optical characterisation .....................60
4.3 Towards rapid prototyping of complex microoptical systems .....65
4.4 Perspective: Rotational-symmetric structures....68
4.5 Conclusion.......................71
5 Organic lasers for spectroscopy 73
5.1 Optimization of organic DFB lasers ...................74
5.1.1 Substrate material ..............74
5.1.2 Impact of ambient temperature variations ...........76
5.1.3 Tuning and pumping schemes ........79
5.1.4 Encapsulation and degradation .................80
5.1.5 Spectral mode reduction ...........85
5.2 Organic laser based spectrophotometer .......8
5.2.1 Measurement of a narrow band optical laser line filter .....89
5.2.2 Absorbance measurements ....................90
5.3 Fluorescence excitation of dyes with a tunable organic laser......92
5.4 Conclusion.......................95
6 High speed wavelength switching 97
6.1 Limitations of linear pump position change ...............98
6.2 A nonlinear approach for high speed mechanical tuning .......98
6.2.1 Eliminating the acceleration problem ....98
6.2.2 Time synchronized pump pulse generation ...........10
6.3 Multi-wavelength sequence scanning...................103
6.4 Emission wavelength gradient orientation ......106
6.5 Conclusion.......................108
7 The tunable organic laser – a technology with market potential? 109
7.1 Light sources for spectroscopic applications...............10
7.1.1 Lamp based monochromator light sources ...........10
7.1.2 Liquid dye lasers ...............112
7.1.3 Optical parametric oscillators ........13
7.1.4 White light super continuum fiber lasers ............14
7.1.5 Tunable external cavity diode laser ...............17
7.2 A tunable organic laser – a technology demonstration .........18
8 Conclusions and Outlook 121
Bibliography 122
List of figures 141
List of tables 145CONTENTS vii
List of abbreviations 147
Acknowledgments 149viii CONTENTS