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Pennsylvania Benchmark

De
8 pages
Pennsylvania
Benchmark
Reading
11Grade
1 Test Number
Draft Edition
PA-Draft
032906 Success for All Foundation
200 W. Towsontown Blvd.
Baltimore, MD 21204
© 2006 Success for All Foundation READING
In today’s high-stakes testing environment, you can’t afford to wait to see how your
students perform on your state assessments. You need to estimate how students are likely
to perform throughout the year. That’s why the Success for All Foundation created 4Sight,
a benchmark assessment tool that enables you to predict your students’ reading and math
achievement quarterly—in time to take action in the areas in which students need help. No
prediction is perfect, but 4Sight provides a useful guide to help teachers focus instruction.
4Sight assessments are one-hour tests that have exactly the same formats, coverage, look,
and feel as your state reading and math assessments. They produce overall scores that predict
students’ scores on state assessments such as TAKS, AIMS, MCAS, CST, and many others.
Further, 4Sight produces scores on key subskills designed around your state’s standards—for
example, interpreting text, drawing conclusions, purpose of text, and so on. These scores
tell you where to focus professional development and instructional efforts to ensure student
success. Currently, 4Sight assessments are available for grades 3 through 8. This spring, they
will also be available at the high-school level. The secondary 4Sight assessments correlate to ...
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Pennsylvania Benchmark
Reading
Grade11 Test Number1
Draft Edition
PA-Draft 032906
Success for All Foundation 200 W. Towsontown Blvd. Baltimore, MD 21204
© 2006 Success for All Foundation
READING
In today’s high-stakes testing environment, you can’t afford to wait to see how your students perform on your state assessments. You need to estimate how students are likely to perform throughout the year. That’s why the Success for All Foundation created 4Sight, a benchmark assessment tool that enables you to predict your students’ reading and math achievement quarterly—in time to take action in the areas in which students need help. No prediction is perfect, but 4Sight provides a useful guide to help teachers focus instruction.
4Sight assessments are one-hour tests that have exactly the same formats, coverage, look, and feel as your state reading and math assessments. They produce overall scores that predict students’ scores on state assessments such as TAKS, AIMS, MCAS, CST, and many others. Further, 4Sight produces scores on key subskills designed around your state’s standards—for example, interpreting text, drawing conclusions, purpose of text, and so on. These scores tell you where to focus professional development and instructional efforts to ensure student success. Currently, 4Sight assessments are available for grades 3 through 8. This spring, they will also be available at the high-school level. The secondary 4Sight assessments correlate to the scores students would achieve on the 11th-grade PSSA.
Each 4Sight Reading Benchmark Assessment for high school includes twenty-seven multiple-choice items and one open-ended response item, all presented in the format of the 11th-grade PSSA. A variety of passage types are represented: poetry, narrative fiction, biography, and informational text. Items are developed from the 2007 Assessment Anchors and the released PSSA Item Samplers. The reporting categories for the 4Sight assessments are the same as those for the PSSA: Comprehension and Reading Skills (A) and Interpretation and Analysis of Fictional and Nonfictional Text (B). The distribution of items between these two strands reflects that employed on the PSSA. In addition, the 4Sight assessments report the Pennsylvania Standard met by each item: Learning to Read Independently (1.1), Reading Critically in All Content Areas (1.2), and Reading, Analyzing, and Interpreting Literature (1.3).
4Sight is designed to be useful to teachers and school leaders. With easy-to-use scoring masks and scoring rubrics, teachers can quickly determine each child’s strengths and weaknesses. Because they participate in scoring, teachers feel that they own the data and can have confidence in it. An online reporting tool provides easy-to-use charts that summarize scores for grades, classes, and students.
Starting in fall 2006, schools will have the option to administer the 4Sight Benchmark Assessments online. With 4Sight Online, students’ answers to multiple-choice questions will be automatically scored in the Member Center, eliminating the need for scanning or uploading scores for multiple-choice questions. As always, test administrators will need to hand-score and upload open-response answers. Among other minimum-technology requirements, a
Pennsylvania Reading Benchmark DRAFT
Grade 11 Number 1
1
© 2006 Success for All Foundation
READING
school must have the capacity to test at least one class of students at a time, a high-speed internet connection, and the ability to disable caching on its server. Currently, a 4Sight Online field/pilot test is underway in Pennsylvania, and those schools who successfully participate will automatically have the online testing option for next year. For a full list of technology requirements, field/pilot test information, pricing information, or other general information about the 4Sight Online Benchmark Assessments, please contact Mary Conway Vaughan, Project Manager for 4Sight Online, at mcvaughan@successforall.org.
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Pennsylvania Reading Benchmark DRAFT
Grade 11 Number 1
© 2006 Success for All Foundation
READING
Read the following passage about the development of the American space program. Then answer the questions that follow.
Apollo 8
by Flo Kennedy-Stack
To Reach the Moon Earth’s only natural satellite, the Moon, has fascinated people since the beginning of time. Throughout the ages, such diverse elements of human culture as myths, traditions, love songs, and scientific study have focused on this glowing orb. Everyone knows the near face of the Moon, but no one had ever laid eyes on the opposite side, turned perpetually away from Earth. No one, that is, until the American crew of the Apollo 8mission in 1968.
Getting into Space In May of 1961, President John F. Kennedy boldly announced that the United States would be the first country to send a man to the Moon and return him home again safely. The president and many other important political figures wanted the United States to be the first country to reach this significant milestone. Kennedy announced that Americans could achieve this goal within a decade. Space travel was fraught with safety issues and mathematical problems that had yet to be solved. Before anyone could even consider touching down on the Moon’s surface, they first had to prove they could get there and back. Could the engineers surmount the vast problems of space and lunar travel? Could they develop the necessary technology within the short ten years the president had set as the goal? They would have to.
Pennsylvania Reading Benchmark DRAFT
Over 400,000 Americans became involved in the efforts of the space program to reach Kennedy’s goal. The same year as the pledge, Yuri Gagarin, a cosmonaut for America’s primary political rival, the Soviet Union, completed the first manned orbit of Earth. An American, John Glenn, completed the same feat a year later. In 1965, Ed White of theGemini 4mission was the first astronaut to walk in space, but once again, the Soviets had beaten the Americans to it; a cosmonaut, Aleksei Leonov, had walked in space three months earlier. The Soviets seemed always one step ahead. Indeed, they had already sent an unmanned rocket around the Moon and had pictures of a small section of its hidden side.
The Early Apollo Missions After Project Gemini concluded at the end of 1966, the next mission series, Project Apollo, was slated to take astronauts all the way to the Moon. However, this series of missions began with the tragic deaths of the threeApollo 1crewmembers during a practice liftoff. Because of this, the subsequent Apollo missions tested as many features as possible while unmanned.Apollo 7, with its Earth-orbit test of crew performance in the command/service module, marked the resumption of manned flights. The success of Apollo 7set the stage for a trip farther afield. The time was ripe forApollo 8to show humanity new vistas.
Grade 11 Number 1
3
© 2006 Success for All Foundation
Recovery: Pacific Ocean
EARTH
Launch: Florida
READING
APOLLO 8 JOURNEY
Successful Circumnavigation On December 21, 1968, Commander Frank Borman, James Lovell, Jr., and William Anders blasted into the Florida sky atop a 363-foot-tall Saturn Vrocket. The new helium cushioning system in the first stage performed well, as did the new lightweight bulkhead material in the second stage. Within fifteen minutes of liftoff, the craft had disengaged from the first two stages and entered Earth’s orbit. It circled the planet, and, when in proper position, the new J-2 engine aboard the third stage kicked into gear, commencing the translunar leg of the journey.
Sixty-nine hours after liftoff, the three astronauts reached lunar orbit. Throughout the translunar crossing, they had been in constant contact with Earth through listening stations located in Canberra, Australia; Madrid, Spain;
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Pennsylvania Reading Benchmark DRAFT
Transearth Trajectory
Earth Orbit
Translunar Trajectory
Lunar Orbit
MOON
and Goldstone, California. Indeed, testing this Manned Space Flight Network was one of the mission objectives, to ensure that astronauts could have Mission Control’s support throughout a lunar landing.Apollo 8also bore a new high-gain antenna, which enabled the relaying of more information—including TV transmissions—than the standard S-band antenna used on previous missions. However, Mission Control still employed the S-band for communicating flight plan updates. Communications between the ground andApollo 8went according to plan as the ship approached the Moon. However, the MSFN would not be able to maintain contact when the Moon was physically between the module and Earth. A complete communications blackout would endure for 45 painfully slow minutes during each circumnavigation of the Moon.
Grade 11 Number 1
© 2006 Success for All Foundation
READING
On December 24,Apollo 8entered lunar orbit. As the spacecraft disappeared to the Moon’s far side, all communication stopped. Back at Mission Control, everyone waited anxiously while the silentApollo 8crew viewed the mysterious far side for the first time. When the Moon was no longer between the craft and Earth, Jim Lovell jokingly told the command center, “Mission Control, please be informed, there is a Santa Claus.” The engineers on the ground cheered the message from the crew. As Apollo 8reemerged from the dark side, the crew was awestruck by the beautiful view of the Earth rising over the Moon. The astronauts described the barren and crater-marred lunar surface to over a half billion people listening to the live broadcast on the radio. Eight more times,Apollo 8 slipped behind the Moon and into silence. Each time the rocket returned to radio contact, the crew delivered lively descriptions as it flew over the near side of the lunar surface. The astronauts took photographs of faraway Earth and many close-up shots of both the far side of the Moon and the potential landing site on the near side. The collected scientific data about the Moon would provide information necessary to plan the future lunar landings.
Apollo 1 Apollo 4 Apollo 5
Apollo 6 Apollo 7 Apollo 8
Apollo 9 Apollo 10 Apollo 11
January 27, 1967
November 9, 1967
January 22, 1968
April 4, 1968
October 11, 1968
December 21, 1968
March 3, 1969
May 18, 1969
July 20, 1969
Pennsylvania Reading Benchmark DRAFT
One Final Step The original mission plan stated that after completing the scheduled number of orbits, the crew needed to make their way through space back to Earth. To accomplish this, a special rocket engine would fire duringApollo 8’slast trip to the far side of the Moon. This rocket would provide a boost that would push the spacecraft from the Moon’s gravity and out of lunar orbit, beginning its return journey. If that ignition failed, the crew ofApollo 8would orbit the Moon forever. The astronauts fired the rocket engine; the world anxiously held its breath. After what seemed like an excruciatingly long moment, a cheerful broadcast from Lovell echoed over the airwaves. He announced that the rocket engine had successfully forced them away from the Moon; they were headed back toward Earth.
On December 25, the crew was on their way home. TheApollo 8mission was a total success, not only for Americans, but also for people all over the world. While only one mission in a series, it showed that the Moon was not beyond humanity’s grasp. Using data and knowledge gathered byApollo 8and its brethren, the later Apollo 11mission succeeded, enabling Neil Armstrong to leave the first footprints on the Moon on July 20, 1969.
Getting to the Moon
Fire during liftoff, three astronauts die
First test ofSaturn Vrocket
First test of lunar module
Final unmanned test
First manned test of command/service module First manned circumnavigation of the Moon First manned flight of the lunar module
Trial run of complete Apollo spacecraft (CSM and LM)
First human on surface of the Moon
Grade 11 Number 1
5
© 2006 Success for All Foundation
1.
2.
3.
4.
6
READING
The purpose of paragraph 2 in this passage is to
A
B
C
D
recall who was president during this time in United States history.
convince the reader that space exploration is necessary.
explain why the United States wanted to send an astronaut into space.
tell about the first astronaut to walk on the Moon.
The author of this passage provides details about the earlier Apollo missions to
A
B
C
D
make the passage more interesting.
show that space exploration has been successful.
tell how other countries have explored space.
explain the context for the main topic.
Based on the passage, an astronaut needs to be
A
B
C
D
petrified.
arrogant.
courageous.
sensible.
According to the diagram, which route is the transearth trajectory?
A
B
C
D
around the Moon
around Earth
from the Moon to Earth
from Earth to the Moon
Pennsylvania Reading Benchmark DRAFT
5.
Write another title for the passage. Explain your choice, using two examples from the passage to support your response.
Grade 11 Number 1
© 2006 Success for All Foundation
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