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PowerTrain Library

54 pages
PowerTrain Library
Version 1.0
Tutorial
December 2002
German Aerospace Center (DLR)
Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics
Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany Information: Dynasim AB
Research Park Ideon
SE 223 70 Lund
Sweden
Phone: +46 46 2862500
Fax: +46 46 2862501
E mail: info@Dynasim.se
URL: http://www.Dynasim.se
Support: E mail: support@dynasim.se
Development: German Aerospace Center (DLR)
Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics
Control Design Engineering
Postfach 11 16
82230 Wessling
Germany
E mail: Christian.Schweiger@dlr.de
URL: http://www.robotic.dlr.de/control
Contributors: Martin Otter and Christian Schweiger, DLR, Germany
Ingrid Bausch Gall, Bausch Gall GmbH, Munich, Germany (http://www.bausch gall.de/)
Mike Dempsey, Claytex Services, U.K. (http://www.claytex.co.uk/)
Clemens Schlegel, Schlegel Simulation GmbH, Germany (cs@schlegel simulation.de)
Copyright c 1999 2002 by DLR. All Rights Reserved.
ii PowerTrain Version 1.0 – Tutorial Contents
Contents 3
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Main features of package PowerTrain, version 1.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 How to use this Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3 Acknowledgement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2 Running a Demo Model 4
3 A First Example 8
3.1 Description of the first example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2 Setting up the first example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
Voir plus Voir moins
PowerTrain Library
Version 1.0
Tutorial
December 2002 German Aerospace Center (DLR) Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany
Information:
Support: Development:
Contributors:
ii
Dynasim AB Research Park Ideon SE-223 70 Lund Sweden Phone: +46 46 2862500 Fax: +46 46 2862501 E-mail: info@Dynasim.se URL: http://www.Dynasim.se E-mail:support@dynasim.se German Aerospace Center (DLR) Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics Control Design Engineering Postfach 11 16 82230 Wessling Germany E-mail: Christian.Schweiger@dlr.de URL: http://www.robotic.dlr.de/control Martin Otter and Christian Schweiger, DLR, Germany Ingrid Bausch-Gall, Bausch-Gall GmbH, Munich, Germany (http://www.bausch-gall.de/) Mike Dempsey, Claytex Services, U.K. (http://www.claytex.co.uk/) Clemens Schlegel, Schlegel Simulation GmbH, Germany (cs@schlegel-simulation.de)
Copyright c1999-2002 by DLR. All Rights Reserved.
PowerTrain Version 1.0 – Tutorial
Contents
Contents
1 Introduction 1.1 Main features of package PowerTrain, version 1.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 How to use this Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Acknowledgement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 Running a Demo Model
3 A First Example 3.1 Description of the rst example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Setting up the rst example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Simulation of the model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 DriveLine and Main Components 4.1 Choice of drivers (package Variants.Drivers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Choice of engines (package Variants.Engines) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Choice of transmissions (package Variants.Transmissions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Choice of axles (package Variants.Axles) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Choice of car resistances (package Variants.CarResistances) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 Basic Components 5.1 Package Clutches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Package Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Package Auxiliaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Package ControlUnits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 Concept of the Signal Bus 6.1 First bus example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Description of the bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 First steps to connect a signal to the bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Model SimpleBusUsage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PowerTrain Version 1.0 – Tutorial
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15 16 16 17 18 18
19 19 22 24 25
27 27 27 29 31
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7 Animation 7.1 Run a rst example with animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Animation parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Comments on the choice of colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 Demo Examples 8.1 List of all examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9 Upgrade from Former PowerTrain Versions
10 Literature 10.1 Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 Articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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PowerTrain Version 1.0 – Tutorial
Chapter 1
Introduction
LibraryPowerTrainis alicensedModelica package providing 1-dimensional rotational mechanical com-ponents forvehicle power trains. Ituseful in general for modeling of gear boxes. is also  library The includes from easy to use to very sophisticated components to model power trains. It does not supply com-ponents for all specic needs. But, all components are open and can be modied or extended by the user. A typical screenshot is shown in the next gure
where the most important components are used to build-up a drive line. Note, that for all these components, different variants can be selected, e.g., a detailed 4-gear and a detailed 6-gear automatic transmission model.
PowerTrain Version 1.0 – Tutorial
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1.1 Main features of package PowerTrain, version 1.0 45 user-callable components(not counting interface objects),10 example models, 45 new compo-nents for the Modelica standard library (version 1.5) since of general interest and needed from the PowerTrain library. Speed and torque dependent frictioncan be handeled in a robust and efcient way based on new research results. Therefore, gear efciency is now easy to simulate. Many elements in the library, especially most clutches, gears, planetary gears, automatic gearboxes, engines, have now optional speed and torque dependent losses. Bus conceptto get rid of the complex connection structures of signal connections and support the user to easily extend the bus with user-dened signals. Variant selectionthere is now just one model –using the replaceable feature of Modelica. Basically, PowerTrain.DriveLine – consisting of a typical drive line from which all the main variants provided in the library can be selected, e.g., 3 different types of detailed automatic gearbox models but also user-dened gearboxes. Animationof gears and shafts of a drive line as built-in feature of many components, see, e.g., the animation of a 6-speed automatic gearbox of Lepelletier type in the gure below. Animation can be switched off with a parameter to remove the animation code completely from a model, e.g., for hardware-in-the-loop simulation.
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Control unitsto control the various parts of a drive line, such as . All of them are parameterized with the control lever position of the driver (P,R,N,D,1,2,3,...) and do not depend on a specic number of gears. Sophisticated examplesstarting point for user drive line models. Especially,which may be used as a examples are provided for power consumption calculation and analysis of shift strategies based on detailed models of 4 and 6 speed automatic gear boxes. Improved documentation127 pages reference guide (both in pdf-with this 54 pages tutorial and a format and in html-format for online-help).
PowerTrain Version 1.0 – Tutorial
1.2 How to use this Library You should be familiar with Dymola and Modelica in order to use this package. PowerTrain Library version 1.0 needs Dymola version5.0aor later. Note, that the terms ”package“ and “library” are used interchange-ably in this tutorial. Running a Demo Model (cf. Section 2)helps you with a quick start and gives a useful introduction to understand the concept of the library. Build a rst Modelshort step by step introduction for building a rst model.gives a Model DriveLine (cf. Section 4)combines the main components (engine, transmission, axle, resis-tance, driver) of a power train. For most of these components different variants can be used including your own versions. Basic Components (cf. Section 5)to build the main components (also useful for users building higher level components). Concept of the Signal Bus (cf. Section 6)explains the concept of the signal bus that is used to transport data between all components. Concept of the Animation (cf. Section 7)describes, how animation is set up and used. Description of all Demo Examples (cf. Section 8)describes the available demo models. Upgrade ((cf. Section 9)models that have been developed with a former version of the PowerTrain library, e.g., with version 0.98. Literature (cf. Section 10)contains a list of useful books and literature.
1.3 Acknowledgement The development of this library was in parts supported by “Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Wirtschaft, Verkehr und Technologie” under contract 300-3245.2-3/01 for the project “Test und Optimierung elektron-ischer Fahrzeug-Steuergeräte mit Hardware-in-the-Loop-Simulation”.
PowerTrain Version 1.0 – Tutorial
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Chapter 2
Running a Demo Model
Open the PowerTrain Library from menusFile,Libraries,Power trainsand you see:
Double click onExamplesand then onSimpleAutoGearand you get:
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PowerTrain Version 1.0 – Tutorial
This example shows a very simple, basic structure of an automatic gearbox. The components of this model are from the following packages: From packagePowerTrain:
are instances of Gears.LossyPlanetary and model planetaryGears “planetary1” and “planetary2” gears with mesh and bearing friction. The laminar clutches “C1” and “C2” are instances of Clutches.LaminarClutch. The control unit “clutchControl” is a very simple model to control the clutches and brakes of this automatic gearbox. It is an instance of Examples.SimpleAutoGear.SpecialClutchControl.
From packageModelica:
oP
 and “load” are instances of Mechan-The rotational inertias “engine1”, “engine2” ics.Rotational.Inertia. The frictional brakes “B1” and “B2” are instances of Mechanics.Rotational.Brake The external torque “torque” transforms a signal to a driving torque. It is and instance from Mechan-ics.Rotational.Torque
werTrainVersion.10–uTotirla
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extremely simplied way by providing a“Constant1” from Blocks.Sources models the engine in an constant torque signal.. The system switches after every second to the next gear. Change now to theSimulationmenu, setStop time inSetup ...to 5 s and simulate the system. The model will be translated automatically, the simulation run will be performed and you get the window setup for generating plots:
Select now results you want to plot from the left part of the window. In the example, we choose the selected gearfrom componentclutchControland the speedwof theLoad. The result is the following plot:
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PowerTrain Version 1.0 – Tutorial
oPewTrraineVrsion.10–uTotiral
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