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W C B L i b r a r y O n l i n e T r a i n i n g PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed/
Wendy Hunt Library Services Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia Aug 2000
PubMed
Training Sessions
Pubmed I
A. Introduction
B. Keyword Search
C. Field Search
D. Combine History sets
Goals for PubMed I ÞSearch PubMed using keywords ÞRefine search results using fields, such as title, author, date ÞCombine search results on the History page ÞSave results to Word files
PubMed II
E. Medical Subject Headings = MeSH
F. Evidencebased Medicine/Practice
G. Other PubMed Tools
Goals for PubMed II ÞSearch using subject headings (MeSH) ÞRefine search results with evidencebased medicine/practice filters ÞUse other PubMed search tools ÞOrder articles using Loansome Doc
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Tip:Unable to attend a training session? Try working your way throughPubMed Iin order to understand the basics. Then experiment with the flexibility offered by this powerful search interface.Warning!Expect to be confused at first!
PubMed
PubMed I
A. Introduction
What is Medline? ·Database (computerized collection) of journal literature ·Previous paper version was known asIndex Medicus
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How is Medline accessed? ·Variety of search interfaces: Internet Grateful Med (to be retired), PubMed, Ovid, WebSpirs
Why PubMed? ·A powerful, multifaceted search engine developed by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) ·Very accessible due to free access via the Internet ·The NLM website is expanding to include more resources: PubMed Central, NLM Gateway, Linkout
What other sources of information are available? ·Other databases for journal literature: NIOSHtic, HSEline, Cinahl, etc. ·Specialized databases: Cochrane Library ·"Grey" literature: websites, reports, practice guidelines ·Library catalogues for books, reports, pamphlets
How does Medline fit into "Evidencebased Medicine/Practice"? ·Use methodology filters (appropriate keywords), preset Publication Types (PubMed Limits) or PubMed Clinical Queries to retrieve articles ·Essential database to be supplemented by specialized resources (e.g. Cochrane Library)
PubMed
B. Keyword Search
1. Input Keywords Reviewlayout of screen: query box, features bar, buttons Typekeywordsin query box ClickGo
For example:carpal tunnel syndrome
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Default: Keywords areANDpreset search strategyed together according to a (Automatic Term Mapping)
To see how a search has been interpreted by PubMed, clickDetailsorHistory
To refine a keyword search: Use"quotation marks"to denote a phrase (note: turns off mapping feature) Use* to truncatea word and search all fields (note: turns off mapping feature) UseBoolean Operators & Parentheses: ·AND, OR,NOTmust be inuppercase ·The operatorsAND, OR, NOTare applied left to right ·ANDis appliedbeforeOR, NOT ·Use( ) to group similar conceptstogether (note: turns off mapping feature)
For example:
(splint OR brace) AND "carpal tunnel syndrome" (splint* OR brace*) AND ("carpal tunnel" OR "ulnar deviation")
(See page 13 for more on using Boolean operators and parentheses)
2. Set Limits ClickLimitto reduce search results Select/highlight requiredlimits ·Publication type, e.g. review ·Yearor range of years ·Language ClickGo
PubMed
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Tip:When PubMed executes a command, it may alert the searcher by highlighting information in a coloured box at the top of the screen. Watch for this when using limits or adding to clipboard. 3. Display Results To see the abstract of one citation,clickauthor's name To see the abstracts of several citations at once,click boxto select citations ClickAddtoClipboard ClickClipboard Choose the order toSortby clicking the down arrow: ·Author ·Journal title ·Publication Date Choose thedisplayformatby clicking on the down arrow bySummary: ·Summary— default; basic citation ·Abstract— basic citation plus abstract ·Citation— basic citation, abstract, MeSH headings ·Medline— text file display with field designations ·Brief— very brief ClickDisplay(the format displayed is the format printed/saved) PrintorSavesearch results(see #5 for more on saving and printing)
Tip:Using the Clipboard is optional. It's a handy place to collect citations on one topic requiring several searches to catch all citations of interest. Each time you refocus the search and find a few more citations, add them to the clipboard. Duplicates will be eliminated, and you only have to download once at the end of your work into one Word document. Don't forget to clear the clipboard before you start on a different topic!
4. Refine Search Strategy To understand how PubMed has interpreted your search, clickDetailsorHistory Refocusthesearch strategyby: ·Adding new keywords or deleting keywords ·Using quotation marks to denote a phrase ·Limiting keywords to specific fields, e.g. title ·Combining History sets
(see #6 or #7) (see Section D)
PubMed
5a. Save To save results to aWord file, ClickSaveto download the results to aWord documenton your hard drive ClickOKto"Save this file to disk" Choose eitherA:or a folder on your hard drive in which to keep the file Name the file, e.g.articles.doc(note:.docsaves as a Word document) HitEnteror clickSave ClickOKto complete download You can now open this Word file and cut/copy/paste as usual. 5b. Print Use thebrowser Printto print your results.
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Be aware that the browser Printonly prints what you can see on your screen by scrolling down! Also, the browser Print maylose a few letters on the righthand sideof the page.
So, follow the steps above in #3: click boxes to select citations, clickAdd to Clipboard, then choose thesortanddisplayformatsfor your results.Next, to ensure that all your results are displayed on ONE page (and will therefore all print at the same time),adjust the number of articles in the Show boxto a higher figure than that retrieved by the search result.
ClickDisplay Tosave paperorif missing righthand letters, clickText Click thebrowser Print After clickingTextto print, clickbrowser Backto return to PubMed
Try searching these keywords:
rehabilitation amputee prosthetic
disinfection gastrointestinal endoscopy
gallstone* pain ultrasound therapy
new england journal of medicine
o'brien jm
adams sh
pogonka t
(too many? Add: guidelines)
(too few? Delete: therapy)
Advantages/disadvantages of Keyword Searching: ·Easy and uses the power of Automatic Term Mapping ·Can identify specific phrases by using quotation marks ·May retrieve too many irrelevant hits
PubMed
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Tip:ClickDetailsto see the search strategy exactly as PubMed executes it. This search can be edited in the Details box. Be careful editing, if you don't understand how the keywords are combined using parentheses and AND/OR/NOT (Boolean operators).
Tip:For further instruction on the PubMed website, see: 1. Tutorialhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Literature/pubmed_search.html 2. ClickHelp|FAQ(very useful; see under: Entrez PubMed) 3. ClickOverview(general info; see under: Entrez PubMed) C. Field Search
6. Limits ClickLimits, thendown arrow besideAll Fieldsto view a list of fields: ·Title ·Author ·MeSH Click on the desired field name to highlight/select ClickGo
Tip:BecauseAll Fieldswill be applied to the keywords in the query box, only one field at a time is allowed. Compare this toPreview/Index, where more than one field can be used to "build" the search strategy.
7. Preview/Index ClickPreview/Index Highlight/selectfieldand input corresponding keywords ClickAND/OR/NOTto add field/keyword to query box Continue selecting fields (different or same) and adding keywords to query box ClickGo/Previewto execute search
Tip:By clickingGo, PubMed will execute the search and display a list of citations. By clickingPreview, PubMed will execute the search and display the results in "sets", similar to the History page.
PubMed
Try searching the following:
wallace or bradley as authors of article on peracetic acid (in title)
disinfection gastrointestinal endoscopy (in title), 1998 to present, English
carpal tunnel syndrome OR ulnar deviation (phrases in title), reviews
carpal tunnel syndrome AND splint OR splinting OR therapy (phrases in title), trials, last 5 years
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Advantages/disadvantages of Seaching in Fields: ·More control over the search strategy ·Easy to become lost(see Section D: History) ·Relevant material not retrieved due to keywords used(see Section E: MeSH) D. Combine History sets
Historyallows you to easily combine preexisting sets from earlier searches
ClickHistory In query box, combine set numbers with keywords usingAND/OR/NOT
For example:
#1AND#2 #1AND#4ANDsplint*
Tip:Historyprovides a clear overview of how the search has progressed. Feeling frustrated? Review the "history" or pattern of your search, looking for gaps in the search strategy and how to combine preexisting sets for more comprehensive coverage of the topic. A good way to generate new ideas.
Key Points for Search Strategies
1. Select the appropriate source
PubMed
···
Medline or OSHrom for articles Library catalogues for books Websites, bibliographies, Cochrane Library for "grey literature"
2. AND/OR/NOT and Parentheses ·Ensure the search is executed as expected ·ViewDetailsorHistory
3. Plan your search, modify your strategy ·Too many hits: limit by year, language, publication type ·Too many or irrelevant hits: search keywords in title ·Irrelevant hits: limit by MeSH headings (major or subheadings) ·No hits: use synonyms
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