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Radionuclide Distribution and Transport in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems. A Critical Review VOLUME ONE

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520 pages
Nuclear energy and safety
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RADIONUCLIDE DISTRIBUTION AND TRANSPORT IN
TERRESTRIAL AND AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS
A CRITICAL REVIEW OF DATA
-
\ C ^ìoicij
Radionuclide Distribution
and Transport in Terrestrial
and Aquatic Ecosystems
A Critical Review of Data
P.J. COUGHTREY & M.C. THORNE
Associated Nuclear Services, Epsom, UK
VOLUME ONE
Prepared for the Directorate-General Employment, Social Affairs and Education,
Health and Safety Directorate, Commission of the European Communities
A.A.BALKEMA/ROTTERDAM/1983 Provisional Contents of the Series
VOLUME THREE VOLUME ONE
19. Sodium 1. General Principles
2. Rubidium 20. Sulphur
3. Strontium 21. Chlorine
22. Selenium 4. Zirconium
23. Bromine 5. Niobium
6. Ruthenium 24. Technetium
7. Caesium 25. Tin
8. Cerium 26. Antimony
9. Lanthanides 27. Tellurium
28. Iodine
VO LUME TWO
VOLUMES FOUR & FIVE 10. Chromium
11. Manganese Actinide elements
12. Iron (to be published by the end of 1983)
13. Cobalt
14. Nickel
VOLUME SIX
15. Zinc
Compendium summarising the 16. Molybdenum
important data for each element 17. Silver
(to be published in early 1984) 18. Cadmium
Publication arranged by: Commission of the European Communities,
Directorate-General Information Market & Innovation, Luxembourg
LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting on behalf of the
Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of the following information.
EUR 8115 I
For the complete set of six volumes, ISBN 90 6191 277 6
For volume 1, ISBN 90 6191 278 4
Fore 2, ISBN 90 6191 279 2
For volume 3, ISBN 90 6191 280 6
Fore 4, ISBN 90 6191 281 4
For volume 5, ISBN 90 6191 292 X
For volume 6, ISBN 90 6191 293 8
© ECSC, EEC, EAEC, Brussels and Luxembourg, 1982
Published by A.A.Balkema, P.O.Box 1675, 3000 BR Rotterdam, Netherlands
Distributed intTSÄ XCanaffáby MBS, 99 Main Street, Salem, NH 03079, USA
Printed in the Netherlands ' ! Contents to Volume 1
Preface XI
Authors' Preface xm
CHAPTER 1. General Principles 1
1. Introduction
1.1 Terrestrial ecosystems 3
1.2 Aquatics 5
1.3 Impact on man 6
1.4 References 7
2. Models for soils and plants 13
2.1 Soils4
2.2 Plants 20
2.3 Conclusions 3
2.4 References1
3. Metabolic models for domestic animals7
3.1 Lung model8
3.2 Gastrointestinal tract models9
3.3 Distribution and retention of activity entering the systemic circulation 40
3.4 References 4
4. Models for aquatic flora and fauna 5
4.1 The concentration factor2
4.2 Physical and chemical factors affecting the uptake of radionuclides by
aquatic organisms4
4.3 Aquatic flora6
4.4c fauna7
4.5 Conclusions 61
4.6 References
CHAPTER 2. Rubidium9
1. Rubidium in parent materials and soils
1.1 Parent materials
1.2 Soils
1.3 Conclusions 70
1.4 References
2. Rubidium in terrestrial plants2
2.1 Plant-soil relations and root uptake of rubidium 7
2.2 Foliar uptake of rubidium3
2.3 Distribution, translocation and loss of rubidium in plants
2.4 Conclusions4
2.5 Referencesvi Contents
3. Rubidium in domestic animals and man 78
3.1 Distribution of the stable element
3.2 Gastrointestinal absorption
3.3 Inhalation classes
3.4 Distribution and retention
3.5 Loss of rubidium in milk9
3.6 References 80
4. Rubidium in aquatic ecosystems7
4.1 Physical components
4.2 Biologicals
4.3 Conclusions8
4.4 References
CHAPTER 3. Strontium 93
1. Strontium in parent material and soils
1.1 Parent materials
1.2 Soils
1.3 Conclusions9
1.4 References
2. Strontium in plants 10
2.1 Plant/soil relationships
2.2 Root uptake 112
2.3 Foliar retention and uptake4
2.4 Distribution and translocation of strontium 117
2.5 Loss of strontium from plants 12
2.6 Conclusions6
2.7 References
3. Strontium in domestic animals and man 170
3.1 General aspects of strontium metabolism
3.2 Distribution of the stable element1
3.3 Gastrointestinal absorption
3.4 Inhalation classes2
3.5 Distribution and retention of strontium in the body
3.6 Translocation of strontium to eggs
3.7n ofm to milk7
3.8 References 178
4. Strontium in aquatic ecosystems 211
4.1 Physical components
4.2 Biologicals3
4.3 Conclusions9
4.4 References
CHAPTER 4. Zirconium 240
1. Zirconium in parent materials and soils
1.1 Parent materials
1.2 Soils
1.3 References1