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Nuclear energy and safety
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Commission of the European Communities
nuclear science
and technology
The backfilling and sealing
of radioactive waste repositories
Volume 2
Figures — Tables — Appendices
Report
EUR9115EN Commission of the European Communities
nuclear science
and technology
The backfilling and sealing
of radioactive waste repositories
Volume 2
Figures — Tables — Appendices
Mott, Hay & Anderson
Consulting Engineers
20-26 We 11 es ley Road
Croydon, Surrey CR 9 2 UL
United Kingdom
Work carried out under Contract No 204-81-7 WASUK
as part of the European Atomic Energy Community's cost-sharing
research programme on 'Radioactive waste management and storage'
Sheet 7 'Storage and disposal in geological formations'.
Final report
Directorate-General
Science, Research and Development
1984 EUR9115EN Published by the
COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
Directorate-General
Information Market and Innovation
Bâtiment Jean Monnet
LUXEMBOURG
LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting on
behalf of then is responsible for the use which might be made of the
following information
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication
Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1984
ISBN 92-825-4827-9 Catalogue number:
© ESCS-EEC-EAEC, Brussels · Luxembourg, 1984
Printed in the FR of Germany CONTENTS - VOLUME 2
FIGURES
FIG 1 Radionuclide release and migration processes.
FIG 2 Comparison of direct and indirect radiological hazards for
high-level reprocessing waste, as a function of time.
FIG 3 Typical heat decay curve for waste-bearing borosilicate glass.
FIG 4 Repository Systems.
FIG 5 Reference repository for backfilling studies.
FIG 6 Typical geological and structural settings for potential
repository host media.
FIG 7 Fabric structure of rocks encountered in repository
construction.
FIG 8 Idealised diagram to illustrate the influence of scale effects
associated with rock mass discontinuities.
FIG 9 Consistency limits and activity of clays.
FIG 10 Influence of stress history on the strength and deformation
characteristics of clays.
FIG 11 Migration of fluid inclusions in rock salt due to the presence
of heat generating wastes.
FIG 12 Variation of K with depth for various rocks.
o r
FIG 13 Assessment of K for unindurated clavs.
o 7
FIG 14 Influence of the insitu stress ratio K upon the intensity
and distribution of stress induced at°the periphery of a
circular excavation in elastic homogeneous rock.
FIG 15 Examples of the influence of stress redistribution on the zone
of loosening or plastic yielding around circular openings in
rocks.
FIG 16 Outline comparison of typical strengths and stiffnesses of
potential host rocks.
FIG 17 Eh - pH stability diagrams.
Ill CONTENTS - VOLUME 2
FIGURES/Contd
FIG 18 The role of the backfilling and sealing system.
FIG 19 Induced near-field temperatures in the backfill system.
FIG 20 Groundwater zones.
FIG 21 Identification of potential flow zones within the backfilling and
sealing system.
FIG 22 Cut-off collars for the prevention or reduction of peripheral
groundwater flow.
FIG 23 Schematic diagram of anodic current density I versus electrode
potential E for stainless steels.
FIG 24 Eh - pH diagram for iron at 10 2 molar chloride solution at various
pHs, constructed from experimental E - I data.
FIG 25 Diffusion at the boundaries of flow channels.
FIG 26 Precipitation and solubility fields based on ionic charge and ionic
radii.
FIG 27 Limits of applicability of various ground treatment techniques.
FIG 28 Idealised models for assessment of factors governing fracture flow.
FIG 29 Ranges of mass permeability for overburden, host and typical
backfilling materials.
FIG 30 Localised (crevice) corrosion of various steel, nickel and titanium
alloys in chloride solutions.
FIG 31 Eh - pH corrosion stability fields for aluminium and nickel.
FIG 32 Eh - pHn stability for titanium and copper.
FIG 33 Eh - pH corrosion stability fields for lead.
FIG 34 Outline assessment of conventional ground support requirements
based on stability factors.
FIG 35 Ground support interaction diagrams for rock formations.
36 FIG Visco-elastic behaviour in saliferous rocks.
FIG 37 Radial development of plastic, visco-elastic and elastic zones around
excavations in saliferous rocks.
IV CONTENTS - VOLUME 2
FIGURES/Contd
FIG 38 Waste unit support requirements; in-floor disposal.
FIG 39 Proposed geometrical configurations for a repository in the Boom
Clay at the Mol site in Belgium.
FIG 40 Backfilling concepts for Belgian repository.
FIG 41 Danish proposals for backfilling and sealing based on the matrix of
surface drillholes concept.
FIG 42 Backfilling concepts for Dutch repository.
FIG 43 Proposed shaft lining for West German conceptual repository
design.
FIG 44 Procedure for the screening and classification of backfilling and
sealing materials.
FIG 45 Containment models for parametric backfill design studies.
FIG 46 Estimates of lower-bound saturation times for dry compacted
bentonite fill.
FIG 47 Theoretical stress redistribution and pore pressure response around
a circular opening in argillaceous strata for v/Cu = 5, assuming
isotropic conditions (K = 1 for tunnels).
FIG 48 Possible fill assemblages designed to act as engineered barriers in
active areas of crystalline and argillaceous rock repositories.
FIG 49 Possible fill assemblages designed to act as engineered barriers in
the redundant areas of saliferous rock repositories.
FIG 50 Variation of leach rate with temperature (based on labratory test
data using borosilicate glass).
FIG 51 Influence of waste unit size and shape on release rates, assuminga
congruent dissolution model with a constant leach rate of 10 6
gm/cm2/day.
FIG 52 Representation of 2-dimensional flow nets for transverse
groundwater flow through a backfilled circular repository opening;
assuming perfect hydraulic boundaries and homogeneous isotropic
permeabilities in the host and fill materials.
FIG 53 Diagramatic representation of 3-dimensional transverse flow patterns
within a backfilled circular opening with non-uniform boundary
conditions.
FIG 54 Example of parametric influences involved in the containment of
radionuclides during transport through an engineered backfill
barrier. CONTENTS - VOLUME 2
FIGURES/Contd
FIG 55 Influence of variations in backfill hydraulic properties on volumetric
rates of longitudinal groundwater flow.
FJG 56 Influence of variations in hydraulic properties on groundwater
travel times and flow quantities for longitudinal flow along a 100m
length of 5m diameter circular opening (assuming i = 0.001).
FIG 57 Example of backfill retention design requirements during
longitudinal migration along a plane of separation for a 100m length
of opening (assuming i = 0.001).
FIG 58 Development of optimum layout for repository construction in
crystalline rock.
FIG 59 Alternative conceptual repository layout for clay formations utilizing
shield driven emplacement tunnels.
FIG 60 Outline sequence for repository construction waste emplacement and
backfilling based on the spiral tunnel concept for clay host
formations.
FIG 61 Outline conceptual design concept for specialised repository tunnel
shield for simultaneous lining removal, waste emplacement and
backfilling.
FIG 62 Alternative concept for repository shaft construction using ground
freezing in unstable, water bearing overburden strata.
FIG 63e conceptual design concept for active areas of saliferous
rock repositories to minimise backfill requirements.
FIG 64 Selected geometric forms.
FIG 65 Surface area - volume relationship for selected geometric forms.
VI CONTENTS - VOLUME 2
TABLES
Table 1 Principal radionuclides present in high level wastes.
Table 2 Form and characteristics of high-level waste units.
Table 3 Characteristic features of International repository design
proposals.
Table 4 Components of the backfilling and sealing system.
Table 5 Comparision of host rock properties.
Table 6 Terminology of argillaceous rocks (adapted from stow; 1981).
Table 7 Characteristics of voids created by bulk excavations within the
repository.
Table 8 Extended periodic classification of the elements.
Table 9 Dissolved species in deep groundwaters.
Table 10 Groundwater conditions likely to be encountered in repository
excavations.
Table 11 Heat transfer properties of typical host rock, waste unit and
backfill materials.
Table 12 Classification of radionuclide in terms of ionic potentials and
solubility levels in the aqueous system.
Table 13 Density strength and stiffness ranges for typical host rock
and backfill materials.
Table 14 Values of <*, the coefficient of thermal expansion for various
repository component materials.
Table 15 Methods for assessment of longevity.
Table 16 Initial list of candidate backfill materials.
Table 17 Preliminary Screening on the basis of longevity.
Table 18 Classification and Ranking of material types in terms of design
properties.
Table 19 Summary of results of materials screening and classification
process.
Uli CONTENTS - VOLUME 2
TABLES/Contd.
Table 20 Void volume distribution in reference 1Mm3 repository system.
Table 21 Sources of basic material cost data.
Table 22 Basic material cost data.
Table 23 Material cost analysis - crystalline host rocks.
Table 24l cost analysis - unindurated plastic clay hosts.
Table 25 Material cost analysis - strong indurated argillaceous host
rocks.
Table 26l cost analysis - saliferous host rocks.
Table 27 Total backfill material costs.
Table 28 Comparative assessment of material availabilites.
Table 29 Equations used in longitudinal flow analysis.
Table 30 The influence of high-level waste unit characteristics on
repository design.
UHI

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