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Collaborative fracture mechanics research on scatter in fracture tests and analyses on welded joints in steel

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Properties and service performance
Industrial research and development
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ISSN 1018-5593
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European Commission
technical steel research
Properties and service performance
Collaborative fracture mechanics research
on scatter ine tests and analyses on
welded joints in steel European Commission
ι ι
Properties and service performance
Collaborative fracture mechanics research
on scatter ine tests and analyses on
welded joints in steel
I. Hadley, M. G. Dawes
TWI
Abington Hall n
Cambridge CB1 6AL
United Kingdom
Contract No 7210-KE/817
1 July 1988 to 30 June 1991
Final report
Directorate-General XII
Science, Research and Development
EUR 15998 EN 1995 LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on
behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of the
following information
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1995
ISBN 92-826-9691-X
© ECSC-EC-EAEC, Brussels· Luxembourg, 1995
Reproduction is authorized, except for commercial purposes, provided the source is acknowledged.
Printed in Luxembourg CONTENTS
Page
No.
CONTRACTUAL DETAILS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Background
Results
Conclusions and recommendations
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. TEST PROCEDURES 2
3. RESULTS 4
4. DISCUSSION 5
4.1. General Comments on Data From Each Laboratory 5
4.2. Statistical Analysis of As-Reported Results ID
4.2.1. Kruskall Wallis test on sample 1 (Β χ 2B, T = -60°Q 11
4.2.2. Multiple comparison tests on sample 1 (T = -60°C, Β χ 2B) . . 12
4.2.3. Statistical tests on other samples 13
4.2.4. Conclusions from statistical analysis of as-reported results .... 14
4.3. Statistical Analysis of a Validated Data set5
4.4. Analysis of the Effects of Invalidity on Fracture Toughness 18
4.4.1. Effect of uneven crack front on fracture toughness9
4.4.2.t of a/W ratio on fracture toughness 20
4.4.3. Effect of insufficient fatigue crack growth on fracture
toughness 21
4.5. Relationship Between J and CTOD
4.6.pn Fracture Toughness and Tearing in the Transition
Region
5. ANALYSIS OF SHALLOW-CRACK TEST RESULTS 22
6. CONCLUSIONS4
7. RECOMMENDATIONS 25
8. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
9. REFERENCES
TABLES 1-18
FIGURES 1-45
APPENDICES 1-4
III CONTENTS: LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 - Matrix of results received
Table 2 - Results of CTOD tests
Table 3 - Results of J tests
Table 4 - Results of sub-zero tensile tests
Table 5 - Kruskall-Wallis test on CTOD results from Sample 1
Table 6 -s test on CTOD results from Sample 2
Table 7 - Kruskall-Wallis test on CTOD results from Sample 3
Table 8 -s test on CTOD results from Sample 4
Table 9 - Kruskall-Wallis test on CTOD results from Sample 5
Table 10 -s test on CTOD results from Sample 6
Table 11 - Results of Kruskall-Wallis test on as-reported values of J
Table 12 - Mean and standard deviation ofd CTOD data
Table 13 - Kruskall-Wallis test on validated CTOD results from Sample 1
Table 14 -s test on validated CTOD results from Sample 2
Table 15 - Kruskall-Wallis test on validated CTOD results from Sample 4
Table 16 -s test on validated CTOD results from Sample 5
Table 17 - Mean and standard deviation for validated CTOD data (samples 1, 2, 4 and 5).
Table 18 - Mean and standard deviation of fracture toughness (J) in shallow-crack specimens
(samples 3 and 6).
IV CONTENTS: LIST OF FIGURES
Fig. la Notch position for Bx2B specimens, (59691/7)
Fig. lb Notch position for BxB, a/W=0.4 specimens, (59691/15)
Fig.lc Notch position for BxB, a/W=0.15,)
Fig.2a Example of cutting plan for Bx2B and tensile specimens
Fig.2b Example of cutting plan for BxB specimens
Fig.3 CTOD results for sample 1 (Bx2B, a/W=0.5, -60°C)
Fig.4 CTOD results for sample 2 (BxB, a/W=0.4, -60°C)
Fig.5 CTOD results for sample 3 (BxB, a/W=0.15, -60°C)
Fig.6 CTOD results for sample 4 (Bx2B, a/W=0.5, -20°C)
Fig.7 CTOD results for sample 5 (BxB, a/W=0.4,-20°C)
Fig.8 CTOD results for sample 6 (BxB, a/W=0.15, -20°C)
Fig.9 J results for sample 1 (Bx2B, a/W=0.5, -60°C)
Fig.10 J results for sample 2 (BxB, a/W=0.4, -60°Q
Fig.ll J results for sample 3 (BxB, a/W=0.15, -60°C)
Fig.12 J results for sample 4 (Bx2B, a/W=0.5, -20°Q
Fig.13 J results for sample 5 (BxB, a/W=0.4,-20°Q
Fig.14 J results for sample 6 (BxB, a/W=0.15, -20°C)
Fig.15 Tensile test results at -60°C; longitudinal specimens
Fig. 16 Tensile test results at -20°C;ls
Fig. 17 Tensile test results at -60°C; transverse specimens
Fig. 18 Tensile test results at -20°C;es
Fig. 19 Example of 'invalid' crack front bowing
Fig.20 Display of results from sample 1 (Bx2B, -60°C), and definition of the Kolmogorov-
Smirnoff statistic
Fig.21 Log-normal distribution function describing as-reported CTOD results for sample 2
(BxB, a/W=0.4, -60°C)
Fig.22 Log-normal distribution function describing as-reported CTOD results for sample 3
(BxB, a/W=0.15, -60°C)
Fig.23 Log-normal distribution function describing as-reported CTOD results for sample 4
(Bx2B, a/W=0.5, -20°C)
Fig.24 Log-normal distribution function describing as-reported CTOD results for sample 5
(BxB, a/W=0.4, -20°C)
V Fig-25 Log-normal distribution function describing as-reported CTOD results for sample 6
(BxB, a/W=0.15, -20°C)
Fig.26 Distribution function for as-reported and validated CTOD results for sample 1 (Bx2B,
a/W=0.5, -60°C)
Fig.27 Distribution of as-reported and validated CTOD results for sample 2 (BxB, a/W=0.4,
-60°C)
Fig.28 Distribution function for as-reported and validated CTOD results for sample 4 (Bx2B,
a/W=0.5, -20°C)
Fig.29 Distribution of as-reported and validated CTOD results for sample 5 (BxB, a/W=0.4,
-20°Q
Fig.30 Effect of uneven crack front on the CTOD toughness of sample 1 (Bx2B, -60°C)
Fig.31 Effect of uneven crack front on the CTODs of sample 2 (BxB, -60°C)
Fig.32 Effect of uneven crack front on the CTOD toughness of sample 4 (Bx2B, -20°C)
Fig.33 Effect of uneven crack front on the CTODs of sample 5 (BxB, -20°C)
Fig.34 Effect of a/W ratio on the CTOD toughness of sample 1 (Bx2B, -60°C)
Fig.35 Effect of a/W ratio on the CTODs of sample 4 (Bx2B, -20°C)
Fig.36 Effect of extent of fatigue crack growth on the CTOD toughness of sample 1 (Bx2B,
-60°Q
Fig.37 Effect of extent of fatigue crack growth on the CTOD toughness of sample 2 (BxB,
-60°C)
Fig.38 Effect of extent of fatigue crack growth on the CTOD toughness of sample 4 (Bx2B,
-20°Q
Fig.39 Effect of extent of fatigue crack growth on the CTOD toughness of sample 5 (BxB,
-20°C)
Fig.40 Relationship between J and CTOD for sample 1 (Bx2B, -60°C)
Fig.41p between J and CTOD for sample 2 (BxB, -60°C)
Fig.42 Relationship between toughness and tearing in sample 4 (Bx2B, -20°C)
Fig.43p betweens and tearing in sample 5 (BxB, -20°C)
Fig.44 As-reported and shallow-crack J results for sample 3 (BxB, a/W=0.15, -60°Q
Fig.45d andk J results for sample 6 (BxB,, -20°C)
VI CONTRACTUAL DETAILS
Collaborative Fracture Mechanics Research on Scatter in Title:
Fracture Tests and Analyses on Welded Joints in Steel
Agreement No.: 7210-KE/817, F1-F5.6/88
TWI, UK Beneficiary:
Report No.: 8042/4/94
Period Covered: 1 July 1989 - 30 June 1991
Place where research
work was conducted: TWI, Cambridge, UK
Dr M G Dawes Project Leader:
Contractual dates: 1 July 1988 - 30 June 1991
DISTRIBUTION
a) Directorate - General ΧΠ Science, Research and Development (5 copies)
b) Executive Committee Fl - Mechanical Characteristics
Mr J M Amo CENIM Spain
Mr Ρ Balladon Unirec, France
Mr A Bissell Special Melted Products Ltd, UK
Mr A W Bosman Hoogovens Group BV, Netherlands
CRM, Belgium Mr J Defourny -
Dr G Demofonti Centro Sviluppo Materiali SpA, Italy
Prof M Fuentez Perez - CEIT, Spain
Mr L Jacques-Houssa ATB - Vincotte, Belgium
Dr W Rohde VDEh, Germany
Dr Ing Κ Seifert University of Dortmund, Germany
Dr Ing G Vogt Mannesmann-Werke AG,y
Mr C Β Anderson FORCE Institutterne, Denmark
Mr Μ Di Fant IRSID, France
Mr J Tsogidis Hellenic Steel Co, Greece
Dr Κ Bywater Irish Steel Ltd., Ireland
Prof D Firrao Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Mr G Axmann Arbed Recherches, Luxembourg
Mr M Mertens - Arbed Esch-Belval,g
Mr G H G Vaessen TNO Metaalinstituut, Netherlands
Mr A F Barata Correia da - Institut de Soldadura Qualidad, Portugal
Mr Ρ H Bateson British Steel Technical, UK
VII c) Collaborating Laboratories
Dr J G D Sumpter Defence Research Agency, Dunfermline, UK
British Gas pic, Killingworth, UK Dr D G Jones
Mr Β Homes British Steel Technical, Rotherham, UK
CEIT, San Sebastian, Spain Prof M Fuentez Perez*
Dr E Lucon CISE, Milan, Italy
Dr V Rustia CSM, Rome, Italy
Dr W Burget Fraunhofer ­ Institut für Werkstoffmechanik,
Freiburg, Germany
GKSS, Geesthacht, Germany Dr M Koçak
Dr H Görss Institut für Eisenhüttenkunde, Aachen, Germany
Dr R M Denys Laboratory Soete for Strength of Materials, Ghent,
Belgium
Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark Dr C Ρ Debel
Dr V Pistone SNAM Spa, Milan, Italy
Prof A A Fernandes University of Oporto, Portugal
Dr M G Dawes TWI, Cambridge, UK
* Also a member of the Executive Committee Fl.
VIII

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