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Niveaux de référence pour l'enseignement des mathématiques en

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Ajouté le : 21 juillet 2011
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EMS European Mathematical Society http://www.emis.de/ Committee on Mathematics Education
Niveaux de référence pour l'enseignement des mathématiques en Europe Reference levels in School Mathematics Education in Europe
National Presentation GERMANY Rudolf Sträßer Mars 2001
§ 1 General description (of the school systems – as it concerns mathematics) Generally speaking, the most important feature of German „general„ education is the constitutional definition that education is a regional matter (Kulturhoheit der Länder: „Bildung ist Ländersache„), a privilege most attentively maintained and looked after by the regional authorities. In Germany, general education is seen as a three level project: primary education (usually from grade 1 to 4), lower secondary education („Sekundarstufe 1„, usually from grade 5 to 10) and upper secondary education („Sekundarstufe 2„, especially „Gymnasium„-type from grade 11 to 13). This „horizontal„ stratification is complemented by a vertical differentiation usually beginning in the lower secondary level (grade 5) and offering a whole variety of organisational features depending on regional characteristics (of the so-called „Länder„). The „traditional„ model of lower secondary education was three parallel types of schools (now „Hauptschule„, „Realschule„ and „Gymnasium„ in ascending order of levels of demands), since at least twenty years complemented by the integration of these three traditional schools into comprehensive schools („Gesamtschule„). Some „Länder„ start secondary education in grade 7, in the 16 „Länder„ there are at least half a dozen of different organisational patterns for lower secondary education, sometimes amalgamating for instance „Hauptschule„ and „Realschule„ into a special type of comprehensive school etc. Upper secondary education is marked by the existence of the „Gymnasium„, a type of school/college normally beginning at grade 5 and offering education in one school through to grade 13 ( one school for the lower and upper secondary level). Before primary education, there is also great variability in terms of pre-school education (normally: „Kindergarten„). By law, full-time compulsory education starts at the age of 6 and usually lasts till the age of 16. A short description and official statistics of the German educational system can be found in Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie, 1997.
With some minor exceptions, arithmetic (esp. in primary education) or mathematics will be taught in every single grade from grade 1 to 10 (and even through to grade 13 if applicable) with at least 3 „hours„ (of 45 minutes each) a week in lower secondary education. Only in comprehensive schools
EMS - Reference levels project - National presentation - GERMANY
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