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PTC Pro DESKTOP Tutorial

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56 pages
November 2001 DRAFT PTC - Pro/DESKTOP Tutorial Intermediate I – Razor Scooter © PTC page 1 of 56 Pro/DESKTOP November 2001 DRAFT Written These materials are © 2001 PTC by Tim BrotherhoodConditions of use Copying and use of these materials is authorized only in the schools of teachers who attend official training and have received a legal site license.. All other use is prohibited unless written permission is obtained from the copyright holder. Acknowledgements John Hutchinson - The College of New Jersey Feedback In order to ensure these materials are of the highest quality, users are asked to report errors to the author. Suggestions for improvements and other activities would also be very welcome. tim.brotherhood@staffordshire.gov.uk Razor Scooter page 2 of 56 ©PTC November 2001 DRAFT Contents Contents......................................................................................................................3 Razor Scooter – Intermediate level 1 .................................................................4 Design considerations..............................................................................................4 History........................................................................................................................5 Style .......................................................................................................... ...
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November 2001                    
PTC - Pro/DESKTOP Tutorial  Intermediate I – Razor Scooter
DRAFT
© PTC
 
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Pro/DESKTOP
 
 
 
November 2001     
 
 
DRAFT
WrittenThese materials are © 2001 PTC by Tim Brotherhood
Conditions of useCopying and use of these materials is authorized only in the schools of teachers who attend official training and have received a legal site license.. All other use is prohibited unless written permission is obtained from the copyright holder.  AcknowledgementsJohn Hutchinson - The College of New Jersey   FeedbackIn order to ensure these materials are of the highest quality, users are asked to report errors to the author. Suggestions for improvements and other activities would also be very welcome.
tim.brotherhood@staffordshire.gov. uk
Razor Scooter
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November 2001 Razor Scooter – Intermediate level 1 Educational Objectives of the Unit To complete a complex assembly with components created using the revolve feature. Mechanical features of the model are then explored using kinematics. Performance Indicators Students will be able to: •employ further sketching techniques including construction lines, mirror. •create components using the Revolve feature. •assemble components to allow kinematic motion. •create mechanical movement by dragging components on screen.   Introduction In each of these tutorials we introduce new techniques for using Pro/DESKTOP and aspects of designing that significantly impact on the type of product being developed. Assemblies can easily be created from components modeled in Pro/DESKTOP. This tutorial uses the popular Razor Scooter as the focus to learn about and explore aspects of design practice as well as extend existing skills. The tutorial will focus on the Revolve feature.  Design considerations Design must take into account many things. Function, form (shape), fashion, safety and many other factors affect the final product. A designer must balance these requirements with cost and availability of materials, manufacturing processes and the customers’ wishes. Successful products will address many of these directly and provide users with products that are efficient and pleasing to use. Classic designs on the other hand go beyond this and become part of the culture they were created in.
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November 2001  The Razor scooter is a good example of a luxury item that has recently enjoyed renewed popularity with young and old.  History The child’s scooter has been around for a long time. Examples of Victorian scooters can be seen in museums and as recently as the mid 1900's children would be seen playing with them in most suburban streets. Pics  Scooters have been out of fashion for some, partly due to the competing development of the bicycle. Many variations of the bicycle have been produced including choppers, BMX and mountain bikes. Pics here  Style The modern style scooter became popular in the first year of the new millennium and is characterised by the very small wheels borrowed from in-line skates. The style was popularised by one company, Razor.  www.razor-scooter.co m    Their use of modern ‘high tech’ materials such as aircraft quality aluminum and engineering to close tolerances has contributed to the Razor being seen as a ‘must have’ item by children and some adults who feel they want to make a fashion statement.  
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November 2001 Design considerations Function Compact, folding, clean, robust, silent, comfortable on smooth surface (town) not suitable for rough surfaces The scooter is now finding its way into competitions with tricks in the tradition of skateboards, BMX bikes and in-line skating.  Ergonomics Designing products that ‘fit’ humans is know as ergonomics. This field was pioneered by Henry Dreyfuss (19**-19**), an industrial designer who collected an enormous amount of information about the human anatomy relevant to design. He and the people who worked for him measured thousands of people and tested them for how much pressure they could exert by pushing and pulling and how well they could read signs and dials from a specific distance. They measured the distance from the bottom of the foot to the underside of the leg of people while sitting, and they measured how far they could reach without stretching. They took many, many other measurements. This data, compiled for all sizes and shapes of people, is calleda nhtor pometricdata and the study became known as anthropometric.s Henry Dreyfuss used statistics to compile tables that would make the information collected useable. He broke the population down into men and women, children of different age groups, people seated and people standing, people in wheelchairs, and many other categories. You will recall in your mathematics studies, characteristics of populations typically fall in what is known asnaorma lorGaussian curv.e If we look at the size of the feet of an 25year old male, we would see that they have an average (mean) shoe size of 9. You will also remember that in a normal population the mean, median and the mode are all at the same place. The mean is the average , the median is the middle of the population (half of the
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November 2001 DRAFT population is below and have is above) and the mode is the most frequently occurrings othmeni.g So, according to the chart, most men take a size 9 shoe. Those who take a shoe size larger or smaller are fewer in numbers. But about 68% of men take a shoe size between 7 and 11. Those who wear shoes smaller than size 7 and larger than size 11 fall into the extreme lower or upper areas of the graph and therefore represent smaller percentages of the population. Shoe companies do not get rich making men’s shoes in size 4 or 14 because there are very few people who have feet that size. If you want to make money selling shoes, you make them in the sizes that most people wear. Also, if you want to design something that fits most people, you design from data that tells you that it will fit most people or that most people can use it.  How about chairs? The distance from the bottom of your foot to the underside of your thigh (while you are in a sitting position) represents a measurement that will help you design a chair that is comfortable for you (P in the figure below). But if you are going to mass produce chairs and sell them to the public you will want to design a chair that is comfortable for everyone. But you can’t. Some people who are short will demand a chair that will be much too close to the floor for the “average” person. And someone who is tall will want a chair with the seat higher. So
what do you do? The anthropometric data that Henry Dreyfuss compiled provides you with information that can help. In the chart below, you will notice two numbers for the measurement mentioned earlier, one to the left of the dimension line and one to the right. The measurement on the left represents the lower 2.t5hpercentile and the one on the right represents the 97.5thpercentile. ?? (insert graphic of data) Dreyfuss used this data in his design work. For example, he redesigned the interior control layout for a military tank, a place where the operator needs to be able to reach everything easily and quickly and not mistake one control for another during the stress of battle. He designed tractors and thermostats and many things in between. Anthropometric
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November 2001 DRAFT data can help you design almost anything that humans use, and humans use almost everything that technology creates.  Manufacture Understanding Materials An understanding of materials is vital in order to design products. We all experience materials in everything we do. We know that most metals are hard, thin strips of wood are flexible and plastics make excellent containers for a wide range of liquids. Ilustratw bongloaspld an fo snoi ,knat aoctnit csr .iaen  Properties It is the properties of materials that make them suitable for certain products. No one would dream of making a coffee cup out of chocolate or car tires from glass! Ilrtsuoitao sna f occhatolcoe fc pueeg ala dnire?ss t!  Materials in schools The materials commonly found in schools for students to work with fall into three main groups, plastics, metals and wood. Pro/DESKTOP is well suited to modeling and machining all three of these materials with suitable equipment.  Rapid prototyping Rapid prototyping systems sometimes use other materials you would not normally associate with engineering including cornstarch and plaster. A later tutorial on CAM explores the processes and materials used in rapid prototyping in more detail.  
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Scooter Razor scooters are made predominantly from aluminum. The reasons for this could be complex. The lightweight and strength may be the reasons aluminum alloy was chosen. The ability to mold and machine aluminum could have been a factor in the choice. We should not forget that fashion plays a significant part and the high tech image of aluminum probably influenced the choice. So what is aluminum and where does it come from? Aluminum is extracted from bauxite, the most common material on planet earth! Bauxite is a mixture of pure aluminum, rock, other minerals and impurities. It must be refined in a furnace to extract the pure aluminum. This is not the end of the story. Pure aluminum has certain properties but by alloying it with other materials these properties can be altered. ??? is added to increase the tensile strength. Small amounts of copper can be added to make the aluminum alloy more ductile. Aluminum like other metals and thermoplastics can be formed in a number of ways. Standard sections can be extruded and complex shapes cast. Pictures of extruded section and an aluminum casting from razor 6061, aluminum is used extensively to build aircraft. It is hard wearing and has a high tensile strength. These properties are very beneficial for building aircraft but there is usually a downside. The hard-wiring property of ??? aluminum makes it difficult to cut using conventional cutting tools when creating parts. To get around this problem new cutting techniques have been developed including laser, flame, abrasive water jet, etc. These enable aluminum and other hard materials to be cut quickly and accurately.  Razor Pro/DESKTOP assembly Many of the components for the Razor scooter assembly have been provided for you, particularly the parts that use the extrude feature you have already learned about in the Quick Start unit. The new feature introduced for the first time in this tutorial iRsevolv.e This can be likened to the holiday decorations that start out as a flat half bell shape and open out to create a complete three-dimensional bell.
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November 2001 DRAFT Picture here Picture here Folded bell Opened out Bell  The revolve principle Remember, in Pro/DESKTOP a revolved shape requires two sketches, an axis sketchwith a single straight line andpar ofile sketchof the shape of the object. These sketches should be on the same workplane.   Axis sketch
Profile sketch
 Sketches Sketches Completed (separated for clarity) (ready to revolve) revolve
 Razor tire The tire on a Razor is molded onto the hub. This produces a very secure join between hub and tire.
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 You will create the tire and hub components using revolve and project features. These will then be assembled to form the completed wheel sub-assembly. Completing the hub design The hub has been started for you. This time, millimeters will be the units used for the model. •Open the file calledh ub.desin the “Wheel assembly” folder
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