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Report on a mission carried out in France from 5 to 9 November 2001 in order to audit the plant health

32 pages
EUROPEAN COMMISSIONHEALTH AND CONSUMER PROTECTION DIRECTORATE-GENERALDirectorate F - Food and Veterinary OfficeDG(SANCO)/3400/2001 MR finalREPORTON A MISSION CARRIED OUT IN FRANCEFROM 5 TO 9 NOVEMBER 2001 IN ORDER TOAUDIT THE PLANT HEALTH SYSTEMIN THE POTATO SECTORPlease note that corrections of factual errors in the draft report andsome clarifications provided by the French Authorities have beenincluded in bold, italic type.17/05/02 - 57701TABLE OF CONTENTS1. INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................... 12. MISSION DETAILS................................................................................................... 13. OBJECTIVES OF THE MISSION............................................................................. 14. LEGAL BASIS FOR THE MISSION ........................................................................ 25. BACKGROUND......................................................................................................... 25.1. Previous missions to France concerning potatoes............................................. 25.2. Importance of the potato production in France ................................................. 25.3. Potato trade in France........................................................................................ 36. MAIN FINDINGS ...................................................................................................... ...
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EUROPEAN COMMISSION HEALTH AND CONSUMER PROTECTION DIRECTORATE-GENERAL Directorate F - Food and Veterinary Office
REPORT
DG(SANCO)/3400/2001  MR final
ON A MISSION CARRIED OUT IN FRANCE FROM 5 TO 9 NOVEMBER 2001 IN ORDER TO AUDIT THE PLANT HEALTH SYSTEM IN THE POTATO SECTOR
Please note that corrections of factual errors in the draft report and some clarifications provided by the French Authorities have been included in bold, italic type.
17/05/02 - 57701
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................... 1
MISSION DETAILS................................................................................................... 1
OBJECTIVES OF THE MISSION ............................................................................. 1
LEGAL BASIS FOR THE MISSION ........................................................................ 2
BACKGROUND......................................................................................................... 2 5.1. Previous missions to France concerning potatoes............................................. 2 5.2. Importance of the potato production in France ................................................. 2 5.3. Potato trade in France........................................................................................ 3
MAIN FINDINGS ...................................................................................................... 3 6.1. Plant health system in France............................................................................ 3 6.1.1. Structure of the plant health system .................................................... 3 6.1.2. Human and financial resources ........................................................... 6 6.1.3. Work planning and assessment of the institution's work .................... 8 6.1.4. Transposition and enforcement of legislation ..................................... 9 6.1.5. Contingency plans and compensation of growers ............................... 9 6.2. Seed potato production system in France.......................................................... 9 6.2.1. Holding of genetic material ................................................................. 9 6.2.2. Multiplication and certification of seed............................................. 10 6.3. Plant health in the genetic material and seed production ................................ 11 6.3.1. Quarantine pests in the genetic material in general........................... 11 6.3.2. The outbreak of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV) ........................ 12 6.3.3. Quarantine pests in the multiplication of seed potatoes .................... 15 6.4. Potatoes other than seed in France .................................................................. 18
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6.4.1. Production methods for potatoes in France....................................... 18 6.4.2. Situation of specific quarantine pests ................................................ 19 6.4.3. Marketing and processing of potatoes other than seed...................... 20 6.5. Inspection of potato imports............................................................................ 21 6.5.1. Imports from other EU countries....................................................... 21 6.5.2. Imports from Third Countries ........................................................... 21 6.6. Laboratories..................................................................................................... 22 6.6.1.Virology.............................................................................................22 6.6.2. Nematology ....................................................................................... 23 6.6.3. Bacteriology ...................................................................................... 23
CONCLUSIONS....................................................................................................... 24 7.1. Plant health system in France.......................................................................... 24 7.2. Seed potatoes................................................................................................... 24 7.3. Potatoes other than seed .................................................................................. 25 7.4. Laboratory analyses......................................................................................... 26
OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................. 26
CLOSING MEETING............................................................................................... 26
10. RECOMMENDATIONS .......................................................................................... 26
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Abbreviations used in the report BNYVV Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus BSVBureau de la Santé des Végétaux(Plant Health Office) C.m.s. Clavibacter michiganensisssp.s uSnocipede DGALDirection Générale de l’Alimentation(Directorate-general of food) DRAFDirections Régionales de l’Agriculture et de la Forêt( Regional directorates of agriculture and forestry) ELISA Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay ETSmentatlbsiesE(ETS producteur= here: seed multiplication association) FNPPPTFédération Nationale des Producteurs de Plants de Pommes de Terre (National federation of seed potato producers) FVO Food and Veterinary Office of the European Commission GNISGroupement National Interprofessionnel des Semences et plants( National inter-professional grouping for seeds and seed potatoes) CNIPTComité National Interprofessionnel de la Pomme de Terre(National inter-professional potato committee) IF Immunofluorescence LNPVLaboratoire National de la Protection des Végétaux(National plant protection laboratory) LRPVLaboratoires Régionaux de la Protection des Végétaux(Regional plant protection laboratory) MAPMinistère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche(Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries) NASH Nucleic Acids Spot Hybridisation PCN Potato cyst nematode PCR Polymerase chain reaction PCR-RPLP Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism PLRV Potato leaf roll virus PVM Potato virus M PVS Potato virus S PVX Potato virus X PVY Potato virus Y PSTV Potato spindle tuber viroid SDQPVDirection de la Qualité et de la Protection des VégétauxSous (Sub-directorate for quality and plant protection) SOCService Officiel de Contrôle et de certification(Official control and certification service) SRPVService Régional de la Protection des Végétaux(Regional plant protection services) RFLP Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism t metric tons TSWV Tomato spotted wilt virus
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1. INTRODUCTION The mission to France was the 12th of a series of inspections to all Member States to audit the plant health system in the potato sector. A pre-mission questionnaire was sent to the French plant protection authorities in advance of the mission. The answers to this questionnaire provided an overview of the plant health system in the potato sector and of the general health status of the potato production in France.
2. MISSION DETAILS The mission in France took place from 5 to 9 November 2001. The mission team comprised 2 inspectors from the Food and Veterinary Office of the European Commission (FVO), and 1 Member State expert. Representatives from the French plant protection service accompanied the inspection team during the whole mission. An opening meeting was held on 5 November 2001 in Paris with the central competent authority. At this meeting, the objectives of, and itinerary for, the mission were confirmed by the inspection team. A closing meeting with the central competent authority was held in Paris on 9 November 2001. The following sites were visited: COMPETENT AUTHORITY VISITS Competent authority Central office 1 Regional offices 5*) *)Including meetings with officials from regional offices outside their premises LABORATORY VISITS Official laboratories 4 Private laboratories 2 PLANT HEALTH CONTROL SITES Potato breeder 1 Nuclear Stock Collection 1 Micropropagation station 2 Potato producers 2 Potato packing/despatch station 1 Potato processor 1 Public refuse dump receiving contaminated potatoes 1
3. OBJECTIVES OF THE MISSION The objectives of the mission were to assess (1) bodies involved in the national plant health systemthe performance of the various with reference to the potato sector, and (2) of the relevant EU legislation in this area.the implementation
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4. LEGAL BASIS FOR THE MISSION The mission was carried out under the mandate of Article 21 of Council Directive 2000/29/EC1 relevant technical provisions of this Directive. In addition, the and following legislation was of particular relevance for this mission:   onCouncil Directive 69/464/EEC the control of potato wart disease,  Council Directive 69/465/EEC3on the control of potato cyst eelworm,  Council Directive 93/85/EEC4on the control of potato ring rot,  Council Directive 98/57/EC5on the control of potato brown rot,  Commission Directive 93/50/EEC6 on the registration of producers, warehouses and dispatching centres,  Commission Directive 95/44/EC7 imports to or movement within the EU for trial on or scientific purposes or for work on varietal selections, amended by Commission Directive 97/46/EC8
5. BACKGROUND Regarding statistical data in this and following chapters: If no reference is given in the text, the figures were provided by French authorities in the pre-mission questionnaire or during the mission. 5.1. Previous missions to France concerning potatoes There have been no potato related FVO missions to France during the last five years. In 1995, a mission was carried out to evaluate the management of the first outbreaks ofRalstonia solanacearum in tomatoes and potatoes. The same year, another mission addressed the import control of Egyptian potatoes. No major deficiencies in the control systems were encountered during these two missions. 5.2. Importance of the potato production in France In 1998, potato production represented about 2% of the French gross agricultural output and 4% of the gross output in crop production (EUROSTAT). Over the last three years, around 170,000 ha per year, equivalent to less than 1 % of the arable land in France, were grown with potatoes. In 2000, a total of 6.5 million tons was produced which means a national average of about 38 t/ha.                                                 1 No. L 169, 10.7.2000, p. 1 OJ 2OJ No. L 323, 24.12.1969, p. 1 3OJ No. L 323, 24.12.1969, p. 3 4OJ No. L 259, 18.10.1993, p. 1 5OJ No. L 235, 21.8.1998, p. 1 6OJ No. L 205, 17.8.1993, p. 22 7 No. L 184, 3.8.1995, p 34 OJ 8 No. L 204, 31.7.1997, p.43 OJ
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Around 14,500 ha of seed potatoes are grown per year, with a yearly production of around 300,000 t. 5.3. Potato trade in France Seed potatoes From 1995-1999, France has, as an average, imported 60,000 t of seed potatoes per year, mainly from the Netherlands (EUROSTAT). France is also exporting seed potatoes. Over the last three years, around 50,000 t per year were exported to other Member States (largest amounts to Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Italy and Portugal); and 40,000t to Third Countries, mainly in the Mediterranean region (such as Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt). Other potatoes France imports around 250,000 t of ware potatoes per year. About 60% of this is main crop potatoes (mainly from Belgium) and 40% is early potatoes (almost all from Morocco and Israel). In the 2000, about 1 million t of ware potatoes were exported. Most of this was main crop ware potatoes to other Member States, especially Spain and Italy.
6. MAIN FINDINGS 6.1. Plant health system in France 6.1.1. Structure of the plant health system The overall relation between various public bodies involved with plant health in the French potato sector is shown in figure 6.1, below. TheService de la Protection des Végétaux(Plant Protection Service) TheService de la Protection des Végétaux(Plant Protection Service) is designated as the single and central authority for plant health under Article 1(4) of Council Directive 2000/29/EEC. It represents France at the international level in the field of plant protection. In mainland France, it consists of a national and a regional level:  At national level there is thede la Qualité et de laSous Direction Protection des Végétaux  (SDQPV= Sub-Direction for Plant Quality and Protection,), which is a sub-direction ofthe Direction General de l’Alimentation(DGAL = Direction-General of Food) of theMinistère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche(MAP = Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries).  At regional level there are 22Services Régionaux de la Protection des Végétaux(SRPV = Regional plant protection services) which are part of the Directions Régionales de l’Agriculture et de la Foret (DRAF = Regional Directions of Agriculture and Forestry).
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The Plant Protection Service comprises also 4 departmental services attached to theDirections Départementales de l’Agriculture et de la Foret = (DDAF Departmental Directions of Agriculture and Forestry) for the overseas departments. Figure 6.1: Overview of the plant health system (mainland France) MAP DGAL SDQPV BSV
        DRAF
            22  SRPVs Plant Protection Service laboratories -LNPV -LRPV
      GNIS/SOC
 6 DELEGATIONS SOC approved laboratories
TheGroupement National Interprofessionnel des semences(GNIS) TheGroupement National Interprofessionnel des semences (GNIS = National inter-professional grouping for seeds) is a semi-public body under the control of the MAP. It is responsible for the quality certification and internal market controls of the seed potato production. Thus, an annual agreement is signed between MAP and GNIS in order to delegate the issuing of plant passports (incl. the related inspection and analysis work) for seed potatoes to GNIS. TheService officiel de contrôle et de certification (SOC = Official Control and Certification Service) is the technical service of GNIS. GNIS/SOC is organised with a central office in Paris, in charge of co-ordination and the agreement with MAP, and 6 regional delegations which, carry out various activities (i.e. registration of the producers, inspections in the field, issuance of plant passports).
6.1.1.1. Responsibilities of the various bodies It is important to note that within the Plant Protection Service, the link between the national and the regional level is not hierarchic but technical and financial. 4
The DGAL is in charge of technical co-ordination, issuing and distribution of control instructions as well as of financial co-ordination, budget for the various activities and salaries of the personnel. SDQPV covers a wide range of activities such as trials on pesticides, biovigilance on GMOs, registration of pesticides and fertilisers, technical and financial co-ordination of the labs. An office of SDQPV namedBureau de la Santé des Végétaux(Plant Health Office, BSV) is responsible for plant health matters. The tasks include putting the text of the relevant legislation into practise through working instructions, issued to the field inspectors and the planning of sampling and analysis activities for quarantine pests. The Regional Plant Protection Services carry out the following activities in the plant quarantine sector: import-export certification, internal market controls, surveillance of the territory and diagnostics. The surveillance activity is mainly focused on the ware potatoes although random checks of the seed potatoes production are also carried out (20 % of the producers). They are responsible for the registration of producers and collective warehouses and dispatching centres of ware potatoes, as regards the 93/50/EEC Council Directive. The issuance of plant passports is always done by GNIS/SOC, (after approval from the Plant Protection Service obtained at the regional and national meetings)on the basis of their controls or (as for BNYVV) of controls carried out by the Regional Plant Protection Services. Only in the case of the application of Directive 95/44/EEC, the whole system of controls and issuance of plant passport for seed potatoes is managed by the Regional Plant Protection Services. Two types of laboratories are involved with potato quarantine organisms: the Plant Protection Service laboratories and the SOC approved laboratories. An overview of the individual laboratories involved with quarantine organism of potatoes is given in 6.6 below. The Plant Protection Service laboratories include: (1) a national plant protection laboratory (LNPV) comprising 13 units at various locations in France who specialise in an area of activity (i.e. entomology, bacteriology, virology, GMOs, residues analysis), and (2) the regional laboratories (LRPVs). All Plant Protection Service laboratories are under the administrative authority of the regional services. The units of the national laboratory are responsible for carrying out confirmation analyses and drawing up detection methods. They may also carry out routine analyses for the Regional Plant Protection Services that do not have their own laboratory. Furthermore, they are responsible for the analyses on the imported material. One unit of the national laboratory, the French Potato Quarantine Station carries out all the tests necessary to fulfil the requirements of the Council Directive 95/44/EEC. The regional laboratories are responsible for carrying out routine analyses for their region, in particular on potato cyst nematodes (PCN) and, as far as one lab is concerned, for quarantine bacteria.
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The laboratories approved by the SOC are responsible for routine analyses to detect PCN and quarantine bacteria. In case of a positive test result, SOC informs the Regional Plant Protection Service thereof and sends the sample to the respective unit of the national laboratory for confirmation tests. In case of confirmation, measures are taken by the Regional Plant Protection Service on the basis of instructions issued by the SDQPV. 6.1.1.2. Communication and information systems The communication among the various parties is ensured by e-mail, fax, and telephone. There is also an intra-network that links all the Regional Plant Protection Services together via a server in Toulouse. Each Regional Plant Protection Service has three databases: Phytopass, Microimport and Microexport. Twice a year, all the data are sent from the Regional Plant Protection Services to the server where they are consolidated. In Phytopass details of all the inspections carried out under the plant passport legislation are entered. Microimport and Microexport are as their names indicate, used for data related to imports and exports. 6.1.2. Human and financial resources Human resources Inspectorsare civil servants with a specific diploma:  agricultural technicians (techniciens d’agriculture secondary school) : (bcaacalruaét) + two years  certified agriculturists (ingénieurs des travaux agricoles): secondary school + five years, or  certified agronomists (ingénieurs d’agronomie): secondary school + six years. About 30%of the inspectors are agricultural technicians. Agreed techniciansare SOC or interprofessional organisation technicians recognised by SOC for carrying out work in connection with certification, plant passporting and advisory activities. Their educational background is also usually that of an agricultural technician. Rapporteurs that work in the Regional Plant Protection Services are inspectors and, in addition to the normal inspection activity, make statistics/reports on the regional plant protection work. National expertsare appointed by the MAP and are in charge of specific matters at national level (e.g. quality process, fruit tree production, ornamental plants , GMOs). The staff in the Regional Plant Protection Services are employed on a permanent basis although in some regions, there is personnel involved with sampling activities, who is employed on a temporary basis.
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The personnel in charge of the controls at GNIS/SOC are agreed technicians. Among the personnel, there are also technicians of FNPPPT who carry out both plant passport/certification work and advisory work. TheC-apSOed provhuman resources available for plant quarantine purposes are summarised in table 6.1 below. Table 6.1: Human resources in plant quarantine BSV SRPVs GNIS/SOC 8 officials420officials 45 Lab personnel 15 + seasonal staff 13
Training The training activities are systematically planned by DGAL. There are a number of general courses available (languages, data processing, human resources, management, etc.), organised at different levels in the organisation: 1) courses offered by DGAL 2) courses offered by MAP (FORMCO programmes) and 3) courses at inter-ministerial level (Ministry of Finance, Justice). In the plant health field, the courses are organised and managed at a central level by BSV: every year, approximately 6 specific courses are organised on various topics, e.g. EU legislation, import controls. The average participation is 10-15 persons per course. At regional level, there are courses organised and managed by the DRAF. Trainers on courses concerning quarantine organisms are officials of the Plant Protection Services (SRPV or SDQPV) or from research institutes. Training of laboratory personnel is carried outby the LNPV Potato Quarantine Station and the LNPV Nematology Unit. Financial resources The allocation of funds from SDQPV to the Regional Plant Protection Services in the annual budget is decided on the basis of the requests made by them to implement the working instructions. The Regional Plant Protection Services have income from export certification taxes, laboratory analysis (private sector requests) and extension activities. But all such income is sent on to the central administration for redistribution. The GNIS activities on seed potatoes are funded by taxes levied to the farmers. The rates of the taxes are fixed byarrêtés(orders) signed by MAP, the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Finance and Industry and the State Secretary with responsibility for the Budget. The cost of the analyses carried out by SOC-approved laboratories is also covered by this tax.
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