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The Discourse of Visual Culture in Training Teachers of Art in the Context of Postmodern Educational Paradigm ; Vizualinės kultūros diskursas rengiant dailės pedagogus postmodernios edukacinės paradigmos kontekste

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ŠIAULIAI UNIVERSITY Edita Musneckien ė THE DISCOURSE OF VISUAL CULTURE IN TRAINING TEACHERS OF ART IN THE CONTEXT OF POSTMODERN EDUCATIONAL PARADIGM Summary of the Doctoral Dissertation Social Sciences, Education (07 S) Šiauliai, 2007 Doctoral dissertation was written at Šiauliai University between 2002 and 2006. Dissertation was funded by Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation in 2005–2006. Research Supervisor Prof. Habil. Dr. Vaidas MATONIS (Vilnius Pedagogical University, Social Sciences, Education – 07 S, Humanities, Philosophy – 01 H). Research consultants: Prof. Habil. Dr. Audron ė JUODAITYT Ė (Šiauliai University, Social Sciences, Education – 07 S); Prof. Habil. Dr. Gediminas MERKYS (Kaunas University of Technology, Social Sciences, Education – 07 S). The dissertation is defended at the Council of Education Sciences of Šiauliai University: Chairman Prof. Habil. Dr., Academician of Russian Academy of Pedagogical and Social Sciences Vytautas GUDONIS (Šiauliai University, Social Sciences, Psychology – 06 S). Members: Prof. Habil. Dr. Audron ė JUODAITYT Ė (Šiauliai University, Social Sciences, Education – 07 S); Prof. Habil. Dr. Vaidas MATONIS (Vilnius Pedagogical University, Social Sciences, Education – 07 S, Humanities, Philosophy – 01 H); Prof. Dr. Gintautas MAŽEIKIS (Šiauliai University, Humanities, Philosophy – 01 H); Assoc. Prof. Dr.
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IAULIAI UNIVERSITY Edita MusneckienTHE DISCOURSE OF VISUAL CULTURE IN TRAINING TEACHERS OF ART IN THE CONTEXT OF POSTMODERN EDUCATIONAL PARADIGM Summary of the Doctoral Dissertation Social Sciences, Education (07 S) iauliai, 2007
Doctoral dissertation was written at iauliai University between 2002 and 2006. Dissertation was funded by Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation in 20052006. Research Supervisor Prof. Habil. Dr.Vaidas MATONIS (Vilnius Pedagogical University, Social Sciences, Education  07 S, Humanities, Philosophy  01 H). Research consultants: Prof. Habil. Dr.Audron JUODAITYT University, Social Sciences, (iauliai Education  07 S); Prof. Habil. Dr.Gediminas MERKYS(Kaunas University of Technology, Social Sciences, Education  07 S). The dissertation is defended at the Council of Education Sciences of iauliai University: Chairman Prof. Habil. Dr., Academician of Russian Academy of Pedagogical and Social Sciences Vytautas GUDONIS(iauliai University, Social Sciences, Psychology  06 S). Members: Prof. Habil. Dr.Audron JUODAITYT(iauliai University, Social Sciences, Education  07 S); Prof. Habil. Dr. Vaidas MATONIS(Vilnius Pedagogical University, Social Sciences, Education  07 S, Humanities, Philosophy  01 H); Prof. Dr.Gintautas MAEIKIS(iauliai University, Humanities, Philosophy  01 H);Assoc. Prof. Dr. VILKELIEN Aldona(Vilnius Pedagogical University, Social Sciences, Education  07 S).Opponents: Prof. Habil. Dr., AcademicianAlgirdas GAIUTIS(Vilnius Pedagogical University, Humanities, Philosophy  01 H);Prof. Dr. RUKUS Jonas(Vytautas Magnus University, Social Sciences, Education  07 S).The official defence of the dissertation will be held at the public session of Council of Education Sciences of iauliai University, on 9thNovember 2007 at 14.00, in the Conference Room of iauliai University (88 Vilniaus str., iauliai, Lithuania). The Summary of Doctoral dissertation was sent out on the 9th October 2007. The dissertation is available at the library of iauliai University. Please send reviews to: iauliai University, Science Department, 88 Vilniaus str., LT-76285, iauliai, Lithuania. Tel. (+370 41) 595 821, fax. (+370 41) 595 809, e-mail mokslo.sk@cr.su.lt. The authors e-mail eeedita@centras.lt
IAULIUNIVERSITETAS Edita MusneckienVIZUALINS KULTROS DISKURSAS RENGIANT DAILS PEDAGOGUS POSTMODERNIOS EDUKACINS PARADIGMOS KONTEKSTE Daktaro disertacijos santrauka Socialiniai mokslai, edukologija (07 S) iauliai, 2007
Disertacija rengta 20022006 metais iauliuniversitete. 20052006 m. darbąrmLietuvos valstybinis mokslo ir studijfondas. Mokslinis vadovas prof. habil. dr.Vaidas MATONIS (Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija, 07 S ir humanitariniai mokslai, filosofija, 01 H). Moksliniai konsultantai: prof. habil. dr.Audron JUODAITYT (iauli universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija, 07 S); prof. habil. dr.Gediminas MERKYS technologijos universitetas, socialiniai (Kauno mokslai, edukologija, 07 S). Disertacija ginama iauliuniversiteto Edukologijos mokslo krypties taryboje: Pirmininkasprof. habil. dr., Rusijos pedagogini ir socialini moksl akademijos akademikas Vytautas GUDONIS (iauli universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, psichologija, 06 S). Nariai: prof. habil. dr.Audron JUODAITYT (iauli socialiniai mokslai, universitetas, edukologija, 07 S); prof. habil. dr.Vaidas MATONIS pedagoginis universitetas, socialiniai (Vilniaus mokslai, edukologija, 07 S, humanitariniai mokslai, filosofija, 01 H); prof. dr.Gintautas MAEIKIS (iauli humanitariniai mokslai, universitetas, filosofija, 01 H); doc. dr.Aldona VILKELIEN(Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija, 07 S). Oponentai: akad., prof. habil. dr.Algirdas GAIUTIS pedagoginis universitetas, (Vilniaus humanitariniai mokslai, filosofija, 01 H); prof. dr.Jonas RUKUS (Vytauto Didiojo Universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija, 07 S). Disertacija bus ginama vieame Edukologijos mokslo krypties tarybos posdyje, kuris vyks 2007 m. lapkrič 14 val.io 9 d. iauli universiteto Konferencij salje (Vil-niaus g. 88, iauliai). Disertacijos santrauka isista 2007 m. spalio 9 d. Su disertacija galima susipainti iauliuniversiteto bibliotekoje. Atsiliepimus sisti adresu: Mokslo skyriui, iauliuniversitetas, Vilniaus g. 88, LT-76285, iauliai. Tel. (8 ~ 41) 595 821, faks. (8 ~ 41) 595 809, el. p. mokslo.sk@cr.su.lt
INTRODUCTIONRelevance of the research and research problemPostmodernism theoreticians emphasise rapid changes of culture, affected by the processes of globalisation, economic growth and technological innovations. Post-modern culture is associated with multiculturalism, pluralism, egalitarian problems, social cultural dynamics, and the increase in the role of mass media and technologies. Visual aspects of culture, the increase of the number of images and their importance in various fields of life are also stressed (Baudrillard, 2002; Giddens, 2005; Jameson, 2002; Jenks,1995; Lyotard, 1993; Welsch, 2004). Changing cultural paradigms, democratic processes and the variety of post-modern discourses essentially change attitudes towards education. Educational reforms are stimulated by the changing attitudes towards teaching and learning, the shift in the role of the educator, the appearance of the new learning environments, the multiplicity and dynamics of educational content. In educational systems dominated by modernist views on education, the need for the spread of the new postmodern paradigm becomes obvious.The shift of cultural and educational paradigms requires a new literacy in the post-modern society. The new literacy is understood in contemporary culture as an ability to adapt oneself in the rapidly changing world by mastering new information and communicative technologies, an ability to orient oneself in the information flow produced by mass media, an ability to construe knowledge and, on the basis of critical thinking, to perceive the actual phenomena. The ever increasing volume of visual information in popular culture, in advertising and media demands from the spectator specific reading and perception skills. The progress of the global culture stimulates the need to acquirevisual literacy: learning to read and perceive visual information, to assess visual quality and the meanings of the images. Studying and interpreting contemporary art also requires a new understanding, knowledge and artistic experience. Post-modern discourses and the phenomenon of visual culture expand the field of cultural, aesthetic and art research with new interdisciplinary problems and initiatives. Visual culture becomes a research object of philosophy, aesthetics, sociology, anthropology, and art criticism. Research into visual culture, analysing and interpreting structures of visual experience, their functioning in various social systems and practical activities, is also on the increase (Barnard, 1998; Duncum, 2001, 2003; Howells, 2003; Mirzoeff, 1998, 1999; Mitchell, 1995; Walker, Chaplin, 1997; Andrijauskas, 1995, 2004; Gaiutis, 1993, 1998, 2004; Kinčinaitis, 2001; Maeikis, 2004, etc.). Studies of visual culture stimulated scientific discussions on art education. Contemporary ideas of art education are based on the theory of social constructivism, critical pedagogy and post-modern attitudes towards education.
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Art education moves from individual artistic expression and creation of art products towards developing interpretation, knowledge and critical thinking, socially oriented educational curricula, flexible and meaningful educational content and methods. Visual culture provides a variety of new sources and ideas while construing the content of art education, it opens ways for new teaching methods and alternative means of expression. The research into visual culture stimulated incorporating the new forms of communication, popular art and cultural forms, important in everyday life, in art education practices. In art education, visual culture is analysed not only as an object of aesthetical education  social aspects, multicultural diversity of art practices, application of the innovations in image technologies also become important (Boughton, 2005; Buhl, 2005; Duncum, 1987, 1999, 2001, 2004; Efland, 2004, 2005; Fehr, 1994; Freedman, 2000, 2003; Stuhr, 2004; Tavin, 2003; Wilson, 2003, etc.). The discourse of visual culture, discussed in the field of art education all over the world, has not been analysed in the context of Lithuania. It becomes obvious that the established modernist forms and practices of art education cannot cover and assess the abundance of visual experience; they fail to express the most urgent aspects of dynamic contemporary culture to a sufficient degree. That is why the discourse of visual culture and its post-modern character in Lithuanian art education is a completely new thing, which stimulates further research. Research into visual culture is important in order to understand and explain the visual phenomena, their influence on the students, the impact of contextual factors on the educational curricula. Postmodernist discourses in culture and art can provide the background for post-modern art education. In Lithuania features of post-modern educational paradigm are not pronounced. Postmodernism in education is not recognised enough; it is often associated with indefiniteness, eclecticism, negation of tradition, and instability. However, contemporary education cannot avoid its influence. Changes in education occurring in the global context also become very important for Lithuanian education. The increase of information technologies, dissemination of interdisciplinary projects, the spread of ideas of integrated education, an increased attention to intercultural problems, changing attitudes towards teaching and learning, new learning environments and methods  all these attributes are typical of post-modern education. In this context the role of educators and competence requirements change radically. This is demonstrated by the education development documents of the last decade. Most of them emphasise the development of teacher training, in-service re-training and up-dating as well as comprehensive development of teachers competences1. The dynamics of change in art education depends not only on the government educational strategies, documents and education programmes. The 1State Educational Strategies for years 20032012, Teacher Training Conception (2004), The Draft of Qualification Requirements for Teachers (2004), A Life-Long-Learning Memorandum (2001). 6
development of visual literacy in society for the most part goes to teachers of art, who are no longer satisfied with a narrow artistic qualification and orientation towards teaching the subject of Fine Arts at school. It is important for them to acquire professional competences of a wide spectrum as well as to be able to apply visual experience in their educational practice. The changes of art education are also conditioned by the art educators attitudes towards visual culture, their training and competences, their willingness to change.In Lithuania, various problem issues of art teachers competences were emphasised by V. Matonis (2005, 2006), E. Lubyt(2000), D. iaulytien(2001), D. Karatajien (2001, 2005), S. Saulnien (2003, 2005), R. and Vismantien(2003, 2005). The researchers emphasised the art teachers professional competences, their changing roles and activities in art education in the context of changing paradigms. However, art educators competences emphasising visual culture discourse, have not been analysed. Besides, changes in the training of art educators are comparatively slow and not always in tune with rapid shifts in post-modern culture and needs of the democratic society and school. The problems of training art educators in the context of contemporary culture are not investigated enough, while theoretical substantiation of the shift of studies in accordance with the new conception of the educational paradigm is insufficient.
Postmodernist challenges and visual culture raise various educational, organisational, methodological problems, also those of values. It can be assumed that visual culture studies could be important in higher education institutions, where art specialists and teachers, able to work in various systems of artistic education, are being trained. That is why re-conceptualization and re-organisation of training art educators, up-dating their qualification and education content is of utmost importance.Training teachers of art and developing their competences in the context of post-modern educational paradigmby introducing the studies of visual culture in art education is an urgent educationalproblem, specified by the following research questions:  How does the phenomenon of visual culture change the character of contemporary art education and define its content?  What competences of art teachers should be developed in the context of visual culture and post-modern educational paradigm?  How are teachers of art prepared to accept changes and develop their competences? What prospects are foreseen for visual culture studies in training teachers of art? The research problem is linked with the situation of art education in Lithuania, where strategies of visual culture in art education have not been researched or studied. The prospects of visual culture are related to foreign researchers studies and examples, while opportunities of applying them in Lithuanian art education practice are projected.
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Research Aimis to analyse visual culture discourseas a conceptual background for art educationin order to identify post-modern attributes of visual culture and its educational importance in the context contemporary culture and education; to study problems and prospects of training art educators in the context of post-modern educational paradigm from the aspect of visual culture discourse. Research Tasks: to study research literature from the aspects of the shift in cultural and educational paradigms, phenomenology, educational philosophy, contemporary art education, historical and aesthetical aspects and to provide a conception of visual culture by highlighting its educational contexts;  to provide theoretical substantiation of the preconditions for developing visual culture and its educational importance on all levels of art education and their interaction;  to analyse art teachers competences in the context of post-modern educational paradigm; how these competences are important and connected with the discourse of visual culture in art education;  to analyse preconditions for the development of training and up-dating the qualifications of art teachers from the aspects of the conception of contemporary educational paradigm and visual culture;  to analyse the state of art education, problems and possibilities by revealing a visual culture discourse in art education;  to identify the attitudes of art teachers towards visual culture, their preparation and educational needs, to reveal problems in training art teachers;  to perform an interpretative analysis of the expert discourse by revealing the attitudes of the experts towards the phenomenon of visual culture in art education and in training art educators;  to formulate conclusions of the research and stimulate scientific discussion about the prospects of visual culture in fine arts education studies. Research HypothesisThe dynamics of the change of art education depends on the attitudes of art educators towards visual culture, on their training and competences corresponding to the contemporary educational paradigm. Hypothesis is specified by the following statements: Classical and modernist tendencies dominating in art education are unable to cover and react towards changing culture. Visual art education can become more meaningful if art curriculum were developed with regard to changes in visual culture by including various forms of visual culture and the needs of the students.  Post-modern educational paradigm opens opportunities for developing the art education curriculum in a different way; however, it requires a 8
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qualitatively new training of art educators. That is why study programmes at higher education institutions preparing teachers of art have to be renewed. A balanced training of art educators can ensure the development of the new competences, if educational processes (learning) were based on the interaction between modern and post-modern art education in order to develop meta-cognitive visual thinking and common cultural experience. Research noveltyoutlined via an original formulation of the researchis subject, theoretical and methodological novelty. The original formulation of the research subject post-modern educational paradigm,application of the concept of discourse,include post-modern world-outlook on the paradigmatic level while discussingthe study of art education and contexts limiting it. By defining post-modern educational paradigm, it is strived to combine post-modern theories and educational approach of social constructivism theory. Theoretical novelty of the work is revealing visual culture discourse and its post-modern character in art education by emphasising the role and competences of the art teacher in moving towards post-modern educational paradigm in the systems of art education in Lithuania. Recently attitudes towards cultural studies have undergone a radical change, while the phenomenon of visual culture is implicated on all stages of art education. Recent research into art education abroad has raised the idea that art education should become visual cultural education. For that a conceptual substantiation based on scientific research, discussion and practical experiment is needed. In Lithuania, this would be a new and important field of educational research; that is why the dissertation aims at analysing visual culture discourse as a possible conceptual background in art education. The dissertation puts forward an idea that, first of all, the shift in art education can be speeded up by the corresponding training of art educators, their attitudes towards visual culture and their competences. While analysing the peculiarities of post-modern educational paradigm, preconditions for changes in training art teachers are foreseen, and the need for developing their competences in the aspect of visual culture is revealed. Methodological novelty is defined by the application of the method of an interview in surveying the experts, by combining discourse analysis, phenomenological and hermeneutical analysis. Original data received via the expert survey and new ideas born in the discursive conversation stimulate further scientific discussions on this urgent topic.
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Conceptual background of the research The present research is based on the following:  the paradigm shift theory, explanation of paradigmbased on T. Kuhns expression and their links with culture, art and education (Kuhn, 2003; Habermas, 1971; Kearney, 1988; Glanz, Behar-Horenstein, 2000); postmodernism theory,conceptualising postmodernism as social being consisting of the totality of social, economic, political and cultural phenomena, changing in historical time and space (Baudrillard, 2002; Bauman, 2002; Jameson, 2002; Jenks, 1996; Lyotard, 1993; Welsch, 2005);  postmodern curriculum theoryis used as a key concept substantiating the reconstructions of art education curriculum in the context of visual culture. The curriculum is understood as acultural reproduction andsocial reconstruction conveyance and internalisation of cultural values and social relations (Arnowitz and Giroux, 1991; Oliva, 1997, 2005; Slattery, 1995; Tanner and Tanner, 1995; Pinar, 1988, 1995, 1999, 2003); discourse theory, where discourse is analysed asa cultural aspect, expressed by specific ideas, concepts and categories about visual culture and the system of its meanings. On the basis of the discourse theory as a methodological strategy of social research, some aspects of the content and context of the discourse are being highlighted (Foucault 1998; Potter and Wetherell, 1987; Pokien, 2004; Teleien, 2005);  social constructivism theory, which embodies constructivist attitudes towards teaching, learning and knowledge acquisition. It stresses the importance of acknowledging prior experiences, constructing knowledge and applying it to new situations. In this theory is emphasized the importance of culture and context in understanding what is happening in society and constructing knowledge based on this understanding. Social constructivism can be seen as a source of thepostmodernmovement, and has been influential in the field ofvisual cultural studies(Berger, Luckman, 1999; Derry 1999; McMahon 1997; Kukla, 2000; Philips, 1995); mass communication and media theoryis employed while projecting strategies of understanding and researching into visual culture as a form of communication (Baran, 2006; Fiske, 1990; Goodman, 2003; Griffin, 1997; McLuhan, 2003; OShaughnessy, Stadler, 2005); humanistic education philosophyis used to substantiate attitudes towards culturally meaningful education of a versatile personality(Maslow, 2006; Rogers, 2002); contemporary conception of competence,according to which art educators competences are defined in post-modern educational paradigm (Jucevičien, 2000; Lauackas, 2005; Saulnien, 2003; Goodwin, 1997; Day, 1997);
   
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 onempehgy,nolo a methodological background which aims at revealing as the meanings of phenomena through the human consciousness (Husserl, 2005; Merleau-Ponty, 1996). Research methods. Theoretical (literature analysis, document analysis), quantitative and qualitative methods (used on the principle of method triangulation). Research literature analysisreviews research into visual culture studies, clarifies the conception of visual culture and its educational importance. Paradigmatic shifts of the cultural context and their impact on art education are analysed. The newest research into art education and its discourses are reviewed. Document analysis.Educational documents, regulating teacher training, art education references, Lithuanian high school curricula, higher education institutions curricula, internet data bases on the topic are analysed. A surveywas employed in order to identify attitudes, interests and qualification needs of art teachers in respect of visual culture, to find out about their preparedness and the situation in art education, problems and tendencies in Lithuania in the conditions of changing culture. A detailed questionnaire consisting of closed and open questions was used. The interview methodwas employed in performing expert evaluation to identify possibilities and ways of training art educators, to discuss the experts experience in developing visual culture education. Professional teachers of art, teacher trainers, painters, mentors taking an active part in educational projects were chosen as experts. Data analysis methods. To ensure the reliability and accurateness of information, quantitative and qualitative data analysis principles were combined, the principle of method triangulation was also employed. Statistical quantitative survey data analysiswas performed by calculating the means of the attitudes of the respondents, mode evaluations, standard deviations and percent expressions. Data was processed by SPSS 14.0 for Windows software. Qualitative data analysiswas performed after empirical information had been collected in verbal and textual forms. Different analysis methods were combined in the qualitative research: discourse analysis, content analysis, phenomenological and hermeneutical analysis.
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