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THE BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN AUGUST 1999 Editor MICHAEL J. GREENBERG The of FloridaWhitney Laboratory, University Associate Editors Louis E. BURNETT Grice Marine of CharlestonBiological Laboratory. College R. ANDREW CAMERON California Institute of Technology CHARLES D. DERBY StateGeorgia University MICHAEL LABARBERA ofUniversity Chicago Section Editor SHINYA INDUE, and MarineImaging Microscopy Biological Laboratory Online Editors JAMES A. to Marine ENSR MarineBLAKE, & Coastal Center, Woods HoleKeys Invertebrates the Woods Holeof Region WILLIAM D. Marine Models Hunter of NewCOHEN, YorkCollege, City University Electronic Record and Compendia Editorial Board PETER B. ARMSTRONG of DavisCalifornia,University ERNEST S. CHANG Marine of DavisLab., California.Bodega University THOMAS H. DIETZ Louisiana State University RICHARD B. EMLET Institute of Marine LIniv. ofOregon Biology, Oregon DAVID EPEL Marine StanfordStation,Hopkins University GREGORY HINKLE Cereon Genomics. MassachusettsCambridge. MAKOTO KOBAYASHI Hiroshima of Economics,University Japan DONAL T. MANAHAN of Southern CaliforniaUniversity MARGARET MCFALL-NGAI Kewalo Marine of HawaiiLaboratory, University MARK W. MILLER Institute of of Puerto RicoNeurobiology, TATSUO MOTOKAWA Institute ofTokyo Technology, Japan YOSHITAKA NAGAHAMA National for Basic Biology, Japan SHERRY D. PAINTER Marine Biomed. Inst.. Univ. of Texas Medical Branch J. HERBERT WAITE of California, Santa BarbaraUniversity RICHARD K. ZIMMER of Los Angeles Editorial Office PAMELA CLAPP HINKLE EditorManaging VICTORIA R. GIBSON Staff Editor CAROL SCHACHINGER Editorial Assistant &PATRICIA BURNS Subscription Advertising Secretary Published by MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY WOODS MASSACHUSETTSHOLE, Cover The sea chloroticaascoglossan slug, Elysia shown(Gould), on the cover S. K.(photograph by Pierce), seeks out and eats a chromo-specifically Vancheria litorea. Like certain otherphytic alga, of sea E. chlorotica has thespecies slugs, developed to the from itsability acquire chloroplasts algal foodstuff and to utilize them for nutrition. The areplastids usually engulfed by particular epithelial cells in the wheredigestive gland they photosyn- thesize and, in some sufficient nu-species, provide trients to sustain life and even whenreproduction isno other food available. In E. chlorotica, the function of the chlo-captured is maintained for to 8 months aroplasts up surpris- similaringly long period, surpassing chloroplast sym- bioses months. thisby many Throughout period, furthermore, areplastid proteins continuously synthe- and some of thesized, to be encodedproteins appear the Another remarkable feature ofby slug genome. these is the end of the annualslug populations abrupt life all of the animals cycle dying synchronously, whether in the or in the field.laboratory In this issue. Pierce and his 1Skip )colleagues (p. a viral infection of thereport widespread slug pop- this also occurs andulation; phenomenon annually is coincident with the mass The virusesmortality. seem to be and have(see inset) endogenous many characteristics in common with retroviruses. The that the viruses not bereport suggests may only involved in the of the liferegulation slug's cycle, but be the means which aremay by algal genes transferred to the slug genome. CONTENTS No I: AUGUST 1999VOLUME 197, NadavNOTES T., Michael R. Maxwell, Shashar,RESEARCH Hanlon, Roger Ellis R. and Kim-LauraLoew, Boyle in theAn of behaviorK. E.K., ethogram body patterningPierce, Sidney Timothy Maugel, Mary valuablebiomedicallv andL.Hanteii, and William commercially squid LoligoRumpho, Jeffrey J. Mondy 49off Massachusettslife Cod,Annual viral in a sea /mild Capeexpression slug population: PaulBushmann,maintenance . 1control and J.symbiotic chloroplastcycle behavioral in blueConcurrent andKristen A. F.Florence I.M., Edwards, signals plasticityThomas, Toby 63crab Rathbun)and M. Zande (Callinectr* courtshipA. Sewell, uipidiuBolton, Mary Jill to shear stress: the role ofMechanical resistance 7echinoderm extracellular layers PHYSIOLOGYegg and R. Ben-YakirS. Ben-Yakir,Rinkevich, B., of avian bone a coralbyRegeneration amputated and Gisele Muller-ParkerP.,Engebretson, Hilary 11skeletal implant from twoTranslocation of carbonphotosynthetic to the sea anemonealgal symbionts Anthopleura 72 elegantissimaECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTIONEric Richard R. Strath-Miner, G., Sanford,Benjamin and Richard B. Emletmann, Bruno Fernet, and of Eric R.Functional M., G. Blackburn, andevolutionary implications opposed Grabowski, Gregory John inand extensive oral ciliationmouths,bands, big Lacy 14and echiurids of the alka-larval (Annelida) and ionopheliids Morphology epithelial transport andElizabeth Erin C. ... 82Sonke, Balser, Fisher, line in the AtlanticJ. sabina)Johnsen, gland stingray (Dasyatis Edith A. Widder E. ManziPatrick and Adriana J.,Krug, Bioluminescence in the cirrate asWaterborne and surface-associateddeep-sea octopod carbohydrates . 26Staurotnithis Verrill of the marinesettlement cues for larvaesyitensis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) specialist 94herbivore Ahitri/i moritsta and EmersonO.R., C.J.Chaparro, R.J. Thompson,NEUROBIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR larva of the Chil-The velar ciliature in the brooded 104ean Ostrea cltiltnsis 1845)(Philippi,oyster Richard P.Ralf Heinrich,Ganter, K.,Geoffrey Bunge, and Edward A. Kravitz culture of lobster centralLong-term ganglia; expres- the Marine .... R 140 Annual ofsion of in identified neurons Biological LaboratoryReportforeign genes THE BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN limes a the Marine 7 MBLTHE BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN is six Street,published year by Biological Laboratory, Woods Massachusetts 02543.Hole, be addressed to THE BIOLOGICALand similar matter should BULLETIN,Subscriptions Subscription Manager, 7 MBL Woods Massachusetts 02543.Marine Street, Hole. (sixLaboratory, Subscription per yearBiological tor for individuals. volume $102.50 forissues, two $205 libraries; $95 (three issues):volumes): Subscription per individuals. Back and issues to $40 for $20 forlibraries; $47.50 for libranes;single (subject availability): individuals. relative to should be sent to Michael J. Editor-in-Chief, or PamelaCommunications Greenberg,manuscripts Hinkle. Editor, at the Marine 7MBL Street. Woods Hole. MassachusettsLaboratory,Clapp Managing Biological 289-7428. FAX: 508-457-1924. E-mail:02543. (508)Telephone: The home for the electronic to THE BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN the Marine Models Electronicpage companion Record and other BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN is available on the World Wide Web at the address shownpublications above. THE BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN is indexed in services Index Medicus and MEDL1NE,includingbibliographic Chemical Current Contemn, Elsevier BIOBASE/Current Awareness in Sciences, and GeoAbstracts, Biological Abstracts. Printed on acid free paper, effective with Volume ISO, Issue 1, 1991. POSTMASTER: Send address to THE BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN, Marine Biological Laboratory,changes 7 MBL Street, Woods Hole. MA 02543. 1999. the Marineby Biological LaboratoryCopyright Periodicals at Woods Hole. 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