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The Life of Joan of Arc, Vol. 1 and 2

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596 pages
The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Life of Joan of Arc, Vol. 1 and 2 (of 2), by Anatole FranceThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.orgTitle: The Life of Joan of Arc, Vol. 1 and 2 (of 2)Author: Anatole FranceTranslator: Winifred StephensRelease Date: October 7, 2006 [EBook #19488]Language: EnglishCharacter set encoding: ISO-8859-1*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE LIFE OF JOAN OF ARC ***Produced by Juliet Sutherland, Linda Cantoni, and theOnline Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.netTHE LIFE OF JOAN OF ARCBY ANATOLE FRANCEA TRANSLATION BY WINIFRED STEPHENSIN TWO VOLS., VOL. I[Illustration]LONDON: JOHN LANE, THE BODLEY HEADNEW YORK: JOHN LANE COMPANY: MCMIX_Copyright in U.S.A., 1908, by_MANZI, JOYANT ET CIEJOHN LANE COMPANYTHE UNIVERSITY PRESS, CAMBRIDGE, U.S.A.[Illustration: Joan of Arc]PREFACETO THE ENGLISH EDITIONScholars have been good enough to notice this book; and the majorityhave treated it very kindly, doubtless because they have perceivedthat the author has observed all the established rules of historicalresearch and accuracy. Their kindness has touched me. I am especiallygrateful to MM. Gabriel Monod, Solomon Reinach and GermainLef v�re-Pontalis, who have discovered in this work certain errors,which ...
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Life of Joan of Arc, Vol. 1 and 2 (of 2), by Anatole France This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org Title: The Life of Joan of Arc, Vol. 1 and 2 (of 2) Author: Anatole France Translator: Winifred Stephens Release Date: October 7, 2006 [EBook #19488] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE LIFE OF JOAN OF ARC *** Produced by Juliet Sutherland, Linda Cantoni, and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net THE LIFE OF JOAN OF ARC BY ANATOLE FRANCE A TRANSLATION BY WINIFRED STEPHENS IN TWO VOLS., VOL. I [Illustration] LONDON: JOHN LANE, THE BODLEY HEAD NEW YORK: JOHN LANE COMPANY: MCMIX _Copyright in U.S.A., 1908, by_ MANZI, JOYANT ET CIE JOHN LANE COMPANY THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, CAMBRIDGE, U.S.A. [Illustration: Joan of Arc] PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION Scholars have been good enough to notice this book; and the majority have treated it very kindly, doubtless because they have perceived that the author has observed all the established rules of historical research and accuracy. Their kindness has touched me. I am especially grateful to MM. Gabriel Monod, Solomon Reinach and Germain Lef v�re-Pontalis, who have discovered in this work certain errors, which will not be found in the present edition. My English critics have a special claim to my gratitude. To the memory of Joan of Arc they consecrate a pious zeal which is almost an expiatory worship. Mr. Andrew Lang's praiseworthy scruples with regard to my references have caused me to correct some and to add several. The hagiographers alone are openly hostile. They reproach me, not with my manner of explaining the facts, but with having explained them at all. And the more my explanations are clear, natural, rational and derived from the most authoritative sources, the more these explanations displease them. They would wish the history of Joan of Arc to remain mysterious and entirely supernatural. I have restored the Maid to life and to humanity. That is my crime. And these zealous inquisitors, so intent on condemning my work, have failed to discover therein any grave fault, any flagrant inexactness. Their severity has had to content itself with a few inadvertences and with a few printer's errors. What flatterers could better have gratified "the proud weakness of my heart?"[1] PARIS, _January, 1909_. [Footnote 1: "_De mon coeur l'orgueilleuse faiblesse_," Racine, _Iphig nie en Aulide_, Act i, sc. i.--(W.S.)]� INTRODUCTION My first duty should be to make known the authorities for this history. But L'Averdy, Buchon, J. Quicherat, Vallet de Viriville, Sim o�n Luce, Boucher de Molandon, MM. Robillard de Beaurepaire, Lan ry � d'Arc, Henri Jadart, Alexandre Sorel, Germain Lef vre-Pontalis, L. � Jarry, and many other scholars have published and expounded various documents for the life of Joan of Arc. I refer my readers to their works which in themselves constitute a voluminous literature,[2] and without entering on any new examination of these documents, I will merely indicate rapidly and generally the reasons for the use I have chosen to make of them. They are: first, the trial which resulted in her condemnation; second, the chronicles; third, the trial for her rehabilitation; fourth, letters, deeds, and other papers. [Footnote 2: Le P. Lelong, _Biblioth que historique de la France_, � Paris, 1768 (5 vols. folio), II, n. 17172-17242. Potthast, _Bibliotheca medii vi_, Berlin, 1895, 8vo, vol. i, pp. 643 _seq._ U.� Chevalier, _R pertoire� des sources historiques du Moyen ge_, Paris, � 8vo, 1877, pp. 1247-1255; _Jeanne d'Arc, bibliographie_, Montb liard, � 1878 [selections]; _Suppl ment au R pertoire_, Paris, 1883, pp.� � 2684-2686, 8vo. Lan ry d'Arc, _Le livre d'or de Jeanne d'Arc,� bibliographie raisonn e et analytique des ouvrages relatifs Jeanne � � d'Arc_, Paris, 1894, large 8vo, and supplement. A. Molinier, _Les sources de l'histoire de France des origines aux guerres d'Italie, IV: Les Valois, 1328-1461_, Paris, 1904, pp. 310-348.] First, in the trial[3] which resulted in her condemnation the historian has a mine of rich treasure. Her cross-examination cannot be too minutely studied. It is based on information, not preserved elsewhere, gathered from Domremy and the various parts of France through which she passed. It is hardly necessary to say that all the judges of 1431 sought to discover in Jeanne was idolatry, heresy, sorcery and other crimes against the Church. Inclined as they were, however, to discern evil in every one of the acts and in each of the words of one whom they desired to ruin, so that they might dishonour her king, they examined all available information concerning her life. The high value to be set upon the Maid's replies is well known; they are heroically sincere, and for the most part perfectly lucid. Nevertheless they must not all be interpreted literally. Jeanne, who never regarded either the bishop or the promoter as her judge, was not so simple as to tell them the whole truth. It was very frank of her to warn them that they would not know all.[4] That her memory was curiously defective must also be admitted. I am aware that the clerk of the court was astonished that after a fortnight she should remember exactly the answers she had given in her cross-examination.[5] That may be possible, although she did not always say the same thing. It is none the less certain that after the lapse of a year she retained but an indistinct recollection of some of the important acts of her life. Finally, her constant hallucinations generally rendered her incapable of distinguishing between the true and the false. [Footnote 3: Jules Quicherat, _Proc s de condamnation et de � r�habilitation de Jeanne d'Arc_, Paris, 8vo, 1841, vol. i. (Called hereafter _Trial_.--W.S.)] [Footnote 4: _Trial_, vol. i, p. 93, _passim_.] [Footnote 5: _Ibid._, vol. iii, pp. 89, 142, 161, 176, 178, 201.] The record of the trial is followed by an examination of Jeanne's sayings in _articulo mortis_.[6] This examination is not signed by the clerks of the court. Hence from a legal point of view the record is out of order; nevertheless, regarded as a historical document, its authenticity cannot be doubted. In my opinion the actual occurrences cannot have widely differed from what is related in this unofficial report. It tells of Jeanne's second recantation, and of this recantation there can be no question, for Jeanne received the communion before her death. The veracity of this document was never assailed,[7] even by those who during the rehabilitation trial pointed out its irregularity.[8] [Footnote 6: _Trial_, vol. i, pp. 478 _et seq._] [Footnote 7: _Cf._ J. Quicherat, _Aper us nouveaux sur l'histoire de � Jeanne d'Arc_, Paris, 1880, pp. 138-144.] [Footnote 8: Evidence of G. Manchon, _Trial_, vol. ii, p. 14.] Secondly, the chroniclers of the period, both French and Burgundian, were paid chroniclers, one of whom was attached to every great baron. Tringant says that his master did not expend any money in order to obtain mention in the chronicles,[9] and that therefore he is omitted from them. The earliest chronicle in which the Maid occurs is that of Perceval de Cagny, who