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Technical and vocational education and training in Jordan

De
156 pages
Areas for development cooperation
Education policy
Near and Middle East
Target audience: Specialised/Technical
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TECHNICALANDVOCATIONAL
EDUCATIONTRAINING
INJORDAN
AREASFORDEVELOPMENTCOOPERATIONTHE EUROPEAN TRAINING FOUNDATION IS THE UNION’S CENTRE OF EXPERTISE
SUPPORTING VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING
REFORM IN THIRD COUNTRIES IN THE CONTEXT OF
THE EU EXTERNAL RELATIONS PROGRAMMES
HOW TO CONTACT US
Further information on our activities, calls for
tender and job opportunities can be found on
our web site: www.etf.europa.eu
For any additional information please contact:
External Communication Unit
European Training Foundation
Villa Gualino
Viale Settimio Severo 65
I – 10133 Torino
T +39 011 630 2222
F +39 011 630 2200
E info@etf.europa.euTECHNICALANDVOCATIONAL
EDUCATIONANDTRAINING
INJORDAN
AREASFORDEVELOPMENTCOOPERATION
Report prepared by Gérard Mayen (editor), Richard Johanson, Mohamed Chemingui and
Ahmad Mustafa, for the Delegation of the European Commission in Amman
European Training Foundation
2006Europe Direct is a service to help you
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Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of
the European Communities, 2006.
ISBN: 92-9157-480-5
© European Communities, 2006.
Reproduction is authorised provided the source
is acknowledged.
Printed in ItalyPREFACE
This report was finalised during the first Ministry of Labour, which aims to contribute
quarter of 2006 and as such represents a to poverty reduction and promote the
snap-shot of the technical and vocational employability of the Jordanian workforce.
education and training (TVET) sector in This programme will work closely (under
Jordan at that time. It includes a number of conditions still to be adopted) with the
comments from stakeholders in Jordanian Employment and Training Fund.
TVET, who received the draft version in
February 2006. The authors would like to The VTC is currently initiating a number of
express their appreciation and thanks in reformstocomplywiththerecommendations
particular to His Excellency Dr Munther of the National Agenda.
Masri, President of the National Centre for
Human Resources Development Several working groups have been set up
(NCHRD), His Excellency Dr Tayseer Al to follow-up on the recommendations of the
Nahar, Secretary General of the Ministry of National Agenda. This work will lead to the
Education, Mr Mohammad Ammar, drafting of an employment and TVET
Director General of the Amman Chamber sector strategy and the necessary laws and
of Commerce, Engineer Ziad Matarneh, regulations.
former Director General of the Vocational
Training Corporation (VTC), and Mr The ETF, on behalf of the EC Delegation in
Mohamad Al-Adwan, Director of Vocational Jordan, facilitated three workshops
Services at the Ministry of Education, for involving private and public stakeholders in
their very effective written advice and April, June and September 2006. The
recommendations. Ministry of Labour hosted the meetings,
which took account of the analysis in the
Special thanks are due to the EC present report, and led to a set of
Delegation team in Jordan, and in recommendations intended to boost the
particular to Ms Angelina Heichhorst, Ms reform process and the drafting of an
Penelope Andre-Eklund and Mr Peter action plan based on an overall strategy for
Balacs for their constant support and the employment and TVET sector. This will
availability. be continued during the fourth trimester of
2006.
Finally, the ETF team would like to express
their appreciation and thanks to all those During the same timeframe, the World
who attended the meetings and provided Bank initiated a series of activities to
advice, assistance and relevant prepare for a Project Preparation Technical
documentation. Assistance Grant, and the Japanese
International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is
It is worth noting that things have changed likely to start its support to the VTC.
since the report was drafted. Employment
and TVET are high on the agenda of the We hope that the current ETF contribution,
Jordanian government. Under the in the form of this report and forthcoming
leadership of the Ministry of Labour, activities, will contribute to the success of
several initiatives have been undertaken the overall reform of the TVET sector in
with the involvement of a wide range of Jordan.
public and private stakeholders.
Gérard Mayen
A Training and Employment Promotion ETF Country Desk Officer for Jordan
programme has been launched by the Team Leader
3CONTENTS
PREFACE 3
EXECUTIVESUMMARY 7
INTRODUCTION 11
1. SOCIOECONOMICBACKGROUNDANDTHEJORDANIANLABOURMARKET 13
1.1 Overview 13
1.2 Background 13
1.3 Labour market features 15
1.4 Current employment policies 19
1.5 Challenges 20
1.6 Conclusions 20
2. ANALYSISOFTHETVETSYSTEMINJORDAN 21
2.1 Distinguishing characteristics 21
2.2 Analytical framework 22
2.3 Priority 1: Forge strong labour market linkages 23
2.4 Priority 2: Reform the organisation and management of TVET 27
2.5 Priority 3: Reverse the steady deterioration of quality in skills development 29
2.6 Priority 4: Use financial mechanisms to stimulate improved performance 33
2.7 Overall conclusions 34
3. TVETFINANCING 35
3.1 Overview of the current TVET financing sources and modalities 35
3.2 Financial assessment of the TVET sector 48
3.3 Conclusions 52
4. TVETPLANSANDPROGRAMMES 55
4.1 Overview 55
4.2 The National Agenda 58
4.3 Donor involvement 64
5TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN JORDAN
5. TOWARDSAMEDIUM-TERMEXPENDITUREFRAMEWORKFORTVETINJORDAN 65
5.1 Overview 65
5.2 Establishment of an MTEF for the TVET sector in Jordan: steps and actions 68
5.3 Implementing an MTEF: a multi-stage approach 73
5.4 Conclusions 75
6. STATUSOFDONORCOORDINATION 77
6.1 Current donor activities in TVET 77
6.2 Donor plans 78
6.3 Government partnership relationships 79
6.4 Conditions for a sector-wide approach 79
7. POSSIBLEEXTERNALASSISTANCEFORTVET 81
7.1 Objective 1: Develop key institutions in TVET 81
7.2 2: Introduction of incentives for financing and management of TVET 83
7.3 Objective 3: Enhance the relevance and quality of TVET 83
7.4 Summary of key outputs for Phase 1 84
7.5 Phase 2 86
ANNEXES 87
Annex 1: Vocational education under the Ministry of Education 87
Annex 2: Training Corporation 103
Annex 3: Al-Balqa Applied University and community colleges 131
Annex 4: Case study (North Region, IRBID) 144
ACRONYMS 147
REFERENCES 149
6EXECUTIVESUMMARY
INTRODUCTION coordination exists for TVET, although the
Ministry of Labour (MoL) is initiating some
The purpose of this report is to assess the action in the field. There is no sector
system of technical and vocational programme, and by definition, no
education and training (TVET) in Jordan, medium-term expenditure framework
identify the main challenges, and suggest (MTEF) and no procedures for reviewing
priorities for external cooperation. More progress in its implementation, and no
specifically, the report seeks to assess the memorandum of understanding. In short,
status of current readiness for undertaking most of the essential conditions for moving
a Sector Policy Support Programme to an SPSP are not yet in place. However,
(SPSP) in TVET using a sector-wide the momentum of the National Agenda
approach (SWAP). The scope of the report could push the key stakeholders and
encompasses TVET below degree level in interested donors in the direction of an
higher education managed by the Ministry SPSP.
of Education (MoE), mainly vocational
secondary schools, the activities of the
Vocational Training Corporation (VTC) and CHAPTER1:SOCIOECONOMIC
community colleges under Al-Balqa BACKGROUND AND THE
Applied University (BAU). The chapters of JORDANIAN LABOUR MARKET
the report are based on EC guidelines for
the main areas of assessment for SPSP. The structure of the economy is
characterised by almost 75% of all workers
At present there is no single TVET sector being in the service sector, 22% being in
within government, and no single body industry and only 3% being in agriculture.
leading TVET. The TVET Council has had The overwhelming majority of enterprises
limited impact on the development of a are small: 94% have four workers or fewer
sector strategy. Nevertheless, it has taken and account for around half the total
a series of decisions that have contributed workforce. Little support has been provided
to the establishment of the TVET Support to micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in
Fund and the National Teacher Training order to assist them to develop their
Institute (NTTI), and to the approval of the competitiveness. Public sector productivity
occupational analyses and job descriptions and flexibility is low. The public sector still
for a dozen occupational families. It is attracts educated workers mainly for job
expected that the Employment and security reasons. Unemployment
Technical and Vocational Education and decreased from 14.5% in 2003 to 12.5% in
Training (ETVET) Council, once it has 2004, but is especially high for young
been created as proposed in the National people aged 14-35, and more specifically
Agenda, will have an effective impact on for educated young women. Disparities
the implementation of a sector strategy and exist between urban and rural areas.
policy. The National Agenda represents a Migration has two significant features: (1)
clear impetus for government leadership out-migration of educated people
and reflects a deep appreciation within the temporarily in search of opportunities and
country of the need for change in TVET higher incomes, mainly in the Gulf (this
governance and linkages with the private benefits the economy in terms of
sector. No government-led donor substantial remittances); and (2)
7TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN JORDAN
in-migration of people to take low-skilled sources have become more important for
jobs that Jordanians do not want. Jordan the VTC and BAU. The VTC has more than
faces twin challenges: it must generate doubled the non-government sources of its
sufficient new jobs at appropriate levels for budget, from 6.2% of the total in 2000 to
the burgeoning number of new entrants to 14.6% in 2004, owing to increased testing
the labour market, projected to grow at 4% fees attributable to the Occupational Work
per annum; and it must increase the skills Regulation Law. The BAU has also
of the labour force to support greater increased the non-government share of its
competitiveness of Jordanian enterprises, total budget, from 41% in 2000 to 65% in
as required by economic integration. 2004, owing mainly to decreases in
government subventions to higher
education. Considerable distortions exist
CHAPTER 2: ANALYSIS OF within the allocations. The VTC recurrent
THE TVET SYSTEM IN budget allocates 88% of the total to staffing
JORDAN costs, leaving only 10% for operating
expenses. The BAU capital budget has
The report concludes that the immediate decreased dramatically as government
strategic priorities for TVET in Jordan are support has been cut. In addition, available
as follows. First, there is a need to forge facilities are not used intensively: the VTC’s
strong labour market linkages, including premises were used to only 65% of their
the continued development of labour capacity and the BAU’s to only 64%. Most
market and human resource information importantly, budget transfers are made
through Al Manar; to deepen employer without regard to performance or results,
involvement upstream in the training providing little incentive for improving
process; and to make the training supply system outputs. Options for reform include
more flexible and responsive to market placing a ceiling on staffing costs and
changes, particularly at local level. Second, allocating increased funds for quality
there is a need to reform the organisation inputs; moving to normative financing; and
and management of TVET by establishing introducing competition for funds. The
strong leadership, reorganising existing current TVET Support Fund, financed
structures and devolving more authority to through a 1% tax on company profits,
training institutions. Third, the steady needs to be strengthened greatly through
deterioration in the quality of skills better governance, more and better
formation must be reversed by introducing personnel, procedures and technical
clear occupational standards validated by criteria, and especially a redefinition of
employers, by improving instructor eligible programmes.
qualifications particularly in related work
experience, by providing proper equipment
for training and, above all, by introducing CHAPTER 4: TVET PLANS AND
incentives and accountability for PROGRAMMES
performance for instructors and trainees,
and employer testing and certification of Each of the three public parts of the TVET
results. Fourth, financial mechanisms system has developed its own individual
should be used to raise system strategy, but while an HRD strategy was
performance, as elaborated in Chapter 3. approved by the cabinet in 1999, no
comprehensive national strategy exists for
TVET. The implementation of each strategy
CHAPTER 3: TVET FINANCING has suffered from underfunding. The
current system is fragmented. Programmes
Jordan allocates around 5% of its public are designed and implemented in the
spending on education and training to absence of an overall national strategy
TVET. The share of TVET spending as a closely linked to employers. A recent
percentage of GDP has increased over the consultation mechanism, the National
past three years from 0.5% to 0.6%. The Agenda, goes a long way towards
government finances the bulk of establishing a sector policy for TVET,
mainly in terms of governance andexpenditure on TVET. However, non-public
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