Citoyennetés et nationalités en Europe

De
Publié par

L'affaiblissement de l'État, les mouvements migratoires, les évolutions des régions, des pouvoirs économiques et, en particulier, de l'Union européenne, remettent en cause une assimilation simple de la citoyenneté à la nationalité. Les citoyens changent de modes de participation ; les espaces publics, les espaces numériques transforment les cadres de la vie sociale et politique. Comment appréhender les articulations entre d'« anciens » concepts qui peinent à fournir un cadre satisfaisant pour intégrer de nouveaux usages.
Publié le : jeudi 1 décembre 2011
Lecture(s) : 72
EAN13 : 9782296475182
Nombre de pages : 270
Voir plus Voir moins
Cette publication est uniquement disponible à l'achat






Citoyennetés et nationalités en Europe,
articulations et pratiques
Collection Local & Global
dirigée par Gilles ROUET et François SOULAGES

Cette collection publie des livres réfléchissant au double phénomène
articulé qui scande et structure les mondes contemporains, à savoir la
précipitation vers le global et la revendication du local.
Pour certains, « globalisation » et « mondialisation » sont synonymes,
pour d’autres la confrontation des triplets sémantiques
« globe/global/globalisation » et « monde/mondial/mondialisation »
articule des analyses, des constats négatifs de cette
transformation/évolution avec la positivité d’une ouverture au monde,
être-au-monde, découverte de l’autre comme monde, un monde qui
dépasse le seul globe, constat physique, l’économique, qui s’inscrit dans
une quête de sens. Mais aussi un monde décrit comme global plutôt
qu’universel.

Déjà paru

Sous la direction de Serge DUFOULON & Mária
ROŠTEKOVÁ, Migrations, mobilités, frontières & voisinages,
2011.
Sous la direction de Gilles ROUET, Nations, cultures et
entreprises en Europe, 2011.









Sous la direction de Gilles ROUET








CITOYENNETÉS ET
NATIONALITÉS EN EUROPE,
ARTICULATIONS ET PRATIQUES











L’Harmattan





Le directeur de cette publication remercie Magali Boursier et Pauline Rouet pour
leur relecture attentive, patiente et efficace.





Publie avec le concours
du département de sociologie de l’Université Pierre Mendes France, Grenoble, de
RETINA.International, de Sens Public, du Groupe d’Études pour une Europe de la
culture et de la solidarité (GEPECS, Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite), de
l’Institut d’études européennes et internationales de Reims, du département de
science politique de la Nouvelle Université Bulgare, Sofia, de l’Université Matej Bel
de Banska Bystrica et le soutien de l’Ambassade de France en Bulgarie et du
Programme Jean Monnet











© L’Harmattan, 2011
5-7, rue de l’École-Polytechnique ; 75005 Paris
http://www.librairieharmattan.com
diffusion.harmattan@wanadoo.fr
harmattan1@wanadoo.fr
ISBN : 978-2-296-55797-0
EAN : 9782296557970
'HVFRQFHSWV UDWLTXHV
/HV V QV WVX GHV
HGODVpQH
O
IRQGHQW RLOj XWDQW WLIV G?REMH V WLQHQW SH RXU QFHV FLH
GLVFRX VVD VWLVDRQWKpUL

X TXH&R
?H&
GOFHGOV83'
&LWp W LWXW,Q WXGHV UR HQ HW HU WL HV
XPH 8Q\D 5R
'HTXLRXYUX[Sj6OGHVJHWWHFF
GSOG
? TXL TXH
RQG?WXWDYOLHGDHFPLPUHVQVW-UpFVHXVOV6DQLGUpHVQVVQGHQWQVOVRVQQDXUPRDJFLpFDHDGJHOGRXT?DVLQGLJQDWLRQVPYHOW[UHLSOLVOHHHVUSUR6LUVWGDQVGGOL?XUQLYHUVGHOWHGWHWUHHSOLVUYGDQDVHUVHV(WVDG/FGHVFJDQFFE5VWO?YFTHWL?DXOGrLODWWH&XTQpLFXSHLGV0WDDDQRGGDS6UDPOJVDLUXY?H?DEH6WF*VGPXU?QRjHSXUOWHHVGWVQUUppVLROYRK??VGEQEQ[WRDDGX&VXSHFVPGGVV%HTSULOLR5LO[RHHXRQSQRH\DDXODHVODXLJGHGFQDXQ[UGHPMLLUpVGLLDWW0HVU,PHHWVWVVWRXQWWUVGXQU?WSUOqWVDLG%QVDWHH1XXGDO?H9?1\UL*H3?QWR?OLWVWWDHFRGH0DVG*VOUWWHQSUUXWGGRIOV(UUSpVLLWGLOWXHUWHHDpRVLjDDLWpRJQLVHV7WQGU?VHFJRVVR*XpH&OQpWRGXeYFXHSSHH,FW?QSXRQOGHHT5XPHDXXHHDQVHXUWXLQSWVVpLpH$VDpDLRXLUOWORR*VQRH+HWU3LOWHDXXV&OLpWETXFpVHQ1LDWRXDHHW?LTOpH
VWHHQWpYLGHPHQWHUHH SOXLVHUHIL8QHDO\DX
Wp FLW]HQVKL?FLWR\HQQ?S H OH FHO H LVQG HSXLV OHPHQWDQFLHOWHQG
LVV QDWLRQ? HUP O?XWLOLVD RQ H ULPpVLP OLYUHV HV HQYLURQ *RRJOH
U VpULVpQX HV RX H DV OD V WLOLVpV QVUHVLRH[ HW RWV HV RFFXHVUUHQF
LHZHU JUDP OHRRJ LO?RX DYHF HURQVW QW pJOHP HX RQ
LFD QG LWUH XMRXUV LWR\HQHW HYp VOX IRL RUHVF REWLHQW
QDW?DOLW RQp H ORU UUHQFHFX RF LYHDX H H QWHQQHREW LVODQJ HUPHV
DWLRQ HW ]HQVKL?FLS SDUW QH?X RQDOLWQDWp? HW
FLWR\HQQ? HWp qUHLG RQV RQ L HUPHV FHV H UQHW O?,WH UVX VDWLRVLOL HV LFDWLRQLQG
QH QQH H KH HFKHUF GH RWHXU OH YHF LFDWLYLQG W SLG UD FKHHFKHU 8QH
FHFROORTHDUWLUH
FKqT OLT SX LH QHRJ RQJULH RUJH )UDQFH
DULHOJ%X HO HOEDQL SD\ RQ]H H UVHX WULEXFR DQWHVRL[ H SOX UpXL
ROORTH H HLPV
3DUL RUERQQH DUW VF
SRXU H ?pW SH RX OH QWHUQDWL,5(7,1$RQDO H HQR H H DQF )U qVHQG 3LHUUH
QLYHULWpO?8 H H ORJRFL H HQWHP pSDUW H XE OLF QV HYXH OD RIL H DUHOJ%X
UVLWp8QLY YHOOH OD %\VWULF VNi H %HO HM HUVLWp?8QLY DU RSH(X HQ
RQQHW QHD KDLUH D V DFW V FDGH H DYULO
HW HV LVp RUJ URSH(X Q LRQDOLWpV HW QQHWR\H? LQWORQDUQDW
SUpVHQW FRQWVULEXRQ VOT H VpRP VW UDJ HW
QFHSW HV HW SU LRHQW GHV pVDOLW GH SRX DQW HFRXYUQW
LO PDL SXEOLFDWL QV GH V HLQ DX X TXRWL GLHQQH YLH OD GDQV pV XWLOLV
LYHUV PHQW HW JHPHQWODU pYLGHP PHQW &HV
DX LTXHVDW OHV O?DQD H O\V j RQVWDW OH OLH U GH HQWHU GH LHQ ?DJLW LO
FLDOHV
OH V TXL pD OLWpV HV DSSU RSULDWLR O? qJUQW QW OHV TXL SDU GLJPHV
GH V RPSUpK RQHQV OD RQFHSW HV GH XGH?pW SDUWLFXOLHU
O ORFD HW REDO RQMXJXHQW VH O?(X RSH GH HL Q DX SDUWLFXOLHU
QDWLRDOLWp
GHV WRWpV
SU$YDQRVWV GLIIp UH \HQQHWp WR H
U USRXXOLHUWLF SD PLTXHVQWSRO\VpVR
HDVGGGFH
RQV XVL QDLVVHQ PPHQW YL GHV
VHGX'SOWHJ
RQV HUPLQDWL V RFLDO SROLWLTXH V
pFRQRPLTXHV RX KRORJL QFRUH SV\ TXHV X?RQ VH pIL GH O?LQIOD
/D
THSFDOTM
SK\VLTXH
P0OQS
WXUHORX
VLEOHV SRV RQV 1DWL W V eWD SHXY HQW VH UH IRQG RQ XOWXUHO
V
VGXO
3FGQSrUG
PPHQWWD
6
SRVHQW V DORU GH XOWLSOH XHVWLR XU FH VVDQ UHFRQQDL HV VWD
PLQRULWp RX ELHQ Q ?pYROXWLR GHV V WHPHQW RPSRU DX TXRWLGLHQ

6FSOGU OFGU
&I *L OOHV 5RX W HW /D TXLH YD HW VHV UpJLRQV RXYHD
UWHQDUHVHXURS pHQV
VVQpPpDQWLLRTVXDHRVRLW0HHHKVLHVVDOJOHHVVOHHLUORQXVV?QFQDXLWHHQWVDPWULWRDQLIFVWIUUIDHQVGRHXRQHOWDDG?XQHYXQVpRFHDGp?URVORPVWWWHHOLHRTVDFpURVUVUVjDQWHGQLVWWpHVQHUDR3DKpHIpXUHHSpFPF/LRDOpSFVSDUWLUVUSSDWLRQWpVWVUQVLWHVH[VOLWQFJQXHOVDLUOVHUQHWDGQDXGWHXDHMQHRGSHQUGpWWVLQWWVVQLHHXYRXDHRVLLHVQWFRLDWL4pVLOVPH,UHXVRGPHQWWLLW?DG?XVDJHUGHDFHjPRWRXTX?RLQjWFOKHUFKH6jWLHQESUpFLVHULXQHVFRQWRXUDOWDXVO[WRSHDUQLWOOHpDHVVOWVHEMGXO0UDRVG?XQHXWRGpWHDPLQDWLSG?XQHXSOHQQQ\WKHVRQHSGVVGDLLQOLDVWUOYQjVQLXHHRQWFXLLWHVQWWQODULIWRULTVHHVRXQeIXRDQPGQXHHGYWHRFVH?YeQW%DUWHpSQULVVXDSV\pVpSHWQVQ7RQLLWUXLXWRXWVUWWHGPIHUQQWHOVXHHQWLX&DQVVQVROLJQ
%UXRQV\ODWUXHOOHVLWL
UpJRQV LHXSOX HQWH
URP RLVHQJ V LQRULW QWHVSRUWLP OX HLYLV HW VWRLUHKL HF DY DQFKH
QX UHW FRXSDJH H SURMHWV LHXUV SOX DSUqV DQWLRQQ VV W pHVDQQ HV ILQ
6ORYDT H Q RQRP
PR DX[QRXYHOOHV ELOLWpV XG LWp YHUV FXOWXUHOOH
LpH
HV DU DSSU RFKH G?XQH UpJQDQFH OD QDWLR GHV HUULWR DWLRQ ULDOLV OD
LRQVDW LI XQLU HXW DWeW Q LYHDWDOW RL qPH
YLGHQWHjO?HVWGH QR O?(XURSH LW XQHVLHXU eWDWVXDWLRQ SOXV p
DGLWLRQ G?X H RXHW SDFHHV Q G?X SDU LFXOLqUH G?DSSURS ULDWLRQ
RJLTXH LWX WHOOHV H RFLDOHV UpDOLWpV
j pp rWUH HXW /?eWDW XULGLTXH OH W SROLWLTXH H ORU UHMRLJQDQW
OR UV QW XDWLW V OX HXUV FR PPX QDXW p XQH KQLTXHHW
LQLUXQOLHGpIFHFDV QV QFXO G?DSSDUHQDQFHjXQJU XSH GD HW
QW Q LJQHGpV pJDOHPHQW HXW
RQQHSH XQH DYHF OLHQ FH MXUL GLTXH DWL RQDOLWp QH DWWULEXH
QDWLR XQH j
FRPPXQDXW p XQH j ?DSSDUHQDQFH JQHU GpV HXW QDWLRDOLWp
DXQLYHDXSROLWLTXH
PRLQ V X p G?DFWXDOLW LH Q O?LGHQWLWDLUH HW DWLR QDO OH HQWUH UHODWLRQ
RQ
X Q QV LV
W HOLHQW LGHQ LW OH ?LGHQWLW GLI QW OH HW PEODEOH
OH LJQLILHU H IRLV OD ?DJLW LO DU SDUDG [DO W pPLTXHSRO\V
pJDOHPHQW FRQFHSW LGHQWLWp FHOXL j QDWLRDOLWp HUPH OH OLHU GH
FRQI W DOHQWHQGX QDWLRQDOLWp
QDWLRDOLWp
ELHQ X \QR \PHV RPPH pVWLOLV RQW DU IRLV PDLV ODQJXHV
GLIIHQWpU V GH HLQ DX HQW[LV QDW DOLWpU
RQ
TXHKqV7F H VYH UD 0R QWUH V XWUH ULp PD " RQW
0OVDp
pYROXWLRQ GH V RLU SRXY pFRQRPLTXH
SROLWLTXH UDp XS TXHWL WD WWHPHUH QW
VVH
TXL SHUPHW QV QPRL QpD EOLU G?pWD X
jS
GHV WV GURL V SROLWLTXH V SOX PRLQV WHQGX QW PP pYLGH VHORQ O
$ SULRUL
RQW V HXVH QRPE XLV HS OD LPSO
RUDWLRQ
FMQGpS
G
LV SR

FI PPH G PDPDXD%R /D
XQP\WKH$XWRSVLHG)UDWLHQDRQD
FSLUTRWW\QLLOV/GVLHSORLQLOHVDLVH?SPWV/QUYRwILHUPDQLSXR6FFDLWUVHQGVHVVV%LWRVQOVGRL?IUDVWYJRXQLXUDVL/3RXUDOOHUSOXVpPpUWHYH?J%HRLHVWOVRFHGHWGX7LFPLVOOWW6LUGXGHQOPHFGqWIRLXVpjRHTVRDRQHXDWWVL6GLVUGFHHGUFGUQOWHVVIHXQVLXUDHLGLXQQLVpVWVHDVWVWWLQWHHD)pUDVUDPHGPLVLSVUHFQFUWLQWRqHUHHDGHV?pjXTODLOLLDpGRUpWpHQDQDHL\VRODDLHLQWDXDWWLRHQWHGVYHROVXpHLHWWQUUSFGVFHHQ/L0WWSDVUVLVULQGpSHQGDQWVV,PRQGLDOLVDWLRQJOHREDOLGVDWLRQUOHVUVVVUDpGH?OWjVLVFYVHWFODYGRWDWVUSpVWDLGXpUVpPHHV/HVpHVDLFHODPRXYHPHQWVVOVVHSUDWLTXHXH
? O?8QLRHQHWURSpHHXQ\HQQQHODHDDVWLWQVWLFKW
H UDLWp OH YHF H ULGMX FDWpJRULH H YHQXH SRXUWDQW VW FLWR\HQQHWp? D
3DULVDURXHVV
\HQQ?FLW D ?VDWQQDWDOLLRRQ D
TXL FHOX XOHPHQW SDV Q?HV LTXDW SU GH RFLDOHV DOLWpV
FRPPH pPRFU LT YDOHXU HV QV X R\HQLW OH H QW
TX?DXFRQW MXV U{OH
O?pODE HSXL V FROOHFW LI RMHW SU DQV R\HQLW OH LQWHQWJU
R\HQQHLW FRQ XOW LPSOH OD GpSD DQW TXL SDUWLFLSDWLRQ
IR UPHV MXV TX?DX[ OHFWLR QV HV UpJXOLqUH SDUWLFLSDWLRQ
H LWR\HQQHWp FHWWH GH SRV VLEOHV
HPHQWRXYHU OHV HW SROLWLTXH JLPHV
HFW ROO OD j LFLSDWSDULRQ D G?HQFRXU DJHU ? G?DXW
DO V ?DJLW JDQL pH SROLW LTXH FRPP XQDXW XQH j O?DSSDUHQDQFH
JQDQGpV G?DI FW KDUJp HX HXW H ODWYHPHQ DLWHU QQHWpFLWR
PHHU MXU GLFRSROL LTXH LRQDOLWDW p FHW YHF pYLGHPPHQW
?DUWLFXOH TXL DLV GLTXHMXU HPHQWHFW DV JpQpU OHPHQW Q?HV
TX HSW RQF XQ R\HQQHWLW OD YHF XQLYHUVHOOH FODLU FXODW DURQ
pWDWL TXH X MXULGLTXH ORJLTXH OD
QW?HWOpJLWLPH?GHGUHV
PLODWHO?DVFDXV RQGHODFL WR \HQQHWpjODQDWLRQD OLWp
DFWHXU HXURSpHQQH O?8QLRQ GH
RQ ?pY HQI Q HW JLRQ GHV QFHXLV HQ PRQ pH D RLUPLJUDW
V O? O?eWDW H O?DIIDLEOLV VHPHQW
FLW\HQQHW ?DFFqV XO
OH RLQV X DQFH Q GHYHQXH SHXW rWU H DLW DWLRQDOLWp /D
jO?DP DEO QpDQPRLQV FpGLYRU
IR GH
HW ORYDTXHV R KpFRVRYDTXLH Q HQFRUH X DOW SD\V OHV
GDQV FLYLOHV JXH UH OHV SDU HFRXpV DO NDQV LQ X DSUqV
DW G?DI RLH HXOH OD HPEOp QDWRQD X[ GH HFWHXU DWeW
G?XQ DFH HQ H LV /D QDW DOHV KL RL QRXYHOOHV GH DOODWLRQ O?LQV
SD OpJLWLPpH RX DOLGpH ?eWDW DQGH QH DWLRQDOLWp OD j
LW R\HQQHWp DUWLHOOH PLODWLRQ H YHF DERX WL RQ W O?(XURSH
GH DUWH DQGH XQH DQV GHQ LWDLUHV pFDQLVPHV HV/D WLRQ RQVWUXF HXURSpHQQ LQVL QYHQWp QRQ SDV XQH
ORULVH UOD
Wp
FRQTXLVH SDU WLRQ UpYROX LWp P
HQ GDQV Q V VX SURFHV TXL Q?D SD HQW UDL Xp LPSOLT
QV
FQVS(SGGX
Q SURWHFWLR GLSORPDWLTXH W XQH
UQL GHGHYR VSDV QHVPDL SHUVRQ
/HV UHSOL UHV GHQWLWDL GX ORFD DQjWW
QHWpV
'H VQRX RQV W GHV SROVWL V Gp QW VR
/H
LRQ LQVWLWX V XURSpHQQH DSSDUDL DFGD
TH VSDjGQF
HGKIQTV
V QDWLRQDX[ VRQW SHX Q SKDVH
RQDFWLYHG O?H[SUHVVL
'H VQRX UHWLIUR PEROV\V W V WH QL
W VVHSSDUD VL Q PH

LUHWR XQ G? WLHUV
O GL QSU
GHWR WPHPEXWe WDUH?
ELPXPVH?QXHQSPSQpVHHWOGLHVjUVWDLUHDQHVRXGDPXWUH?pHYpQHPHQWPSROLWLTXHHVHDLLFVODJGHWHDOXRGKLDWXW?WVVXVWVOVHpGHGHUVHYYWHVPWQRLVLQWXLeHRP?VH?&GWGHVFGHVWDQLRVpG?VSGLVHGOGeFRVPPUUQVRRV?DMRXWHGHVWEQHS[UWRDORQJHOSDVR(DOOHVHOVWDRXWROPWDWLTXHPHOQWOWDDFFRUGpHGWHQVHHQDGXHWPDWQGHDRHRPOPHHUDHHU?GRGFPWSUORLHUpDYVHUDWLTXHUOLODHVRPUGURLWpXYLRLWVWHVVILFUHRWLWUVpRWQUHGGVHHHHVLV\pDFWSVHHSDVLHWVOLUHGUPpHIHWLVXPOPHVGVHSLUQVXWQQFOO?VXQHHDQWLVRVQLDLOpVSHVUXDHYOHVUDV?SGRpXXWHOpVXQVXRFTLUQHDUpVODWDVXVVL'HPWUVGUVRWFUWDWXDHGOVOGVFSUHH?HFVG3O?GDpWDG?WHHGOLHURDWDHDFHVDQDVGppXORRSGHOGQTXLqFHOXLVLVLGpYHORSSHLTQHHUVYJHIODOXVHWELHQHL[QFDOQXVDLDHHG?XQPrVWPHVLDGTHX?/HGG0HUVGWVQVGGUSGDUWGLOGGOP?OPDGVQWHGQLWOLSRQQ?

DLUHFRQVXSORPDWLT
URWHFWLRQ OD H HQWp
HUUL OH ? U ILFLHWEpQp HQVFLWR\ FHV H HQWHP pJ SUpFLVH
O?DUWLFOH SOX H LDWpG ?UHX DX HUHVV?DG H HQIL RLW HW pHQURSHX 3DUOHP HQW
H QWpWHYLWLRQH RL ?VLGOUp HPEUHR eWDWV DQ RSpHQ QWDUODX
LELOLWp?pOLJ HW YRWH W RL ? UpVLG LO R HPEUH eWDW DQV DOHLFLS pOHFWLRQ
[DX ?pOLJLELOLWp HW H YRW H URLWG ? PHPEUHV V eW V WHUULWRLUH H XU OLEUHPHQW
VpMRX QHU H HW LUFXOHU URLW DWFKpV URLWV HV HW EUHV? eWDWV V Q?X
pQDOLWQDW D QW\D HUVRQ WHRX HpHQQURSHX RQ O?8 H R\HQ FLW HVW URSpHQHXQH
RQ?8QL H HWpFLWR\HQQ D H H[HULFH FULWqUHV OH pILQLW DDVWULFKW H p 7UDLW H
PrP HLQ DX 6FKHQJHQSDFHO?(V H
FLWHV R\HQQHW
YHF RJU PPH H HW FDGUH X LU SDU
XV pO QpU O Q HX RSpHQ PHQWDLU TXH ORU DQFHPpI
GH
pJRU LHV
V
WDOOH ?LQV SROLWLTXH ODV OD H FUpGLW LV ODUJH TX?XQ DORUV
QFpHV
LRQVHFW X[G?DE QLYHDX[ OHV DY HF FXOLHU HQ pHPDQLI
R\HQLW HV HV LVFU GHV j OLpV YLGHPPHQW rW SHXYHQW O?(XURSH
GHSDUWDJH IDFWRGH
GHV FXODWLRQ LU OLEUH UHODWLYH
HPE HV WDW HV XU ?DSSXLH R\HQLW QHW HW FLW\HQV OHV
SDU DFFRU pH
DV ?D QDW RQDOH FLW\HQQHW GHV QFHLI OD j pFHQW
p FLW\HQQHW &HW H RQF LRQDOLWDW pV HV GHOjX FLW\HQQHW 8QH
DLU GHQW LW PpFDQL OHV DYHF HFWLYHHUV HQ HW H GH HQpFHVLU
HV TX?LO QRXYH DX JHQ H ?XQ LWR\ HQQHWp XQH PDLV GLYHUVLWp
V?DJLWGHUHFRQQD vWUHHWGHYD QDWLRQDOLWpHXURSpHQQHTXD QGLO
\HQQHVFLWGH
H
U IRXUQL XQ DGUH QW IDLV DWL
*LOOHV5RXH
HVWVH3HRXUHWDVQHWHOWFVFWVFHOjUHVQPUDSVOVFHVOHRVDVUWSGVVWRVLQWLHOFHU

SUDWLTXHV
QRXYHOOHV GH RPS H UHQGUH SRXU
j LQHQW TXLRQFHSW QFLHQ FHV QWFXODWDU OHV FRPSUQG
OHV QFRUH SRXYRLU GH GpIDXW G?DSSUpKHQG U HQWHU WDLOOH
/?HQMHX SROLW LTXH HW FLDOH YLH D GH DGU DQVIRUPHQW
XPpU LTXHV HVSDFHV HV XEOLFV SDFHV OHV SDUWLFLSDWLRQ
RGH HXU FKDQJHQW R\HQVLW HV PHPE DWeW GHVRQGXFWLQWUR
PpHIRUVWDHV?HQWS VRQJUHUD
YHFOHVDLQRVHVPDFK VOHFRPUFHK PH
UHHXHQ HV VKVOHVUHOD WLRQVGG
HV VK UVXUOH JLUPHWG?D
WLRQVYD VVHVHGFRPLWHVVHVOL'D
ODFLWp HOOHHVWILOOHGH
KV
UXJE\ HW RXW QW LFXOLqUHP SDU H L XUQ GHV FLQT LRQV TX
SPM) T F RPP
U V LHXU SOX V QDWLRQ ?DSSUHQDL V
JpRSROLWLTXH W VXU RLUH O?+LV LO pWDLW XQ SRLQW GH YXH HW
HV SRLQ
G?DXWUH

HQVpHJUHF /HVRULO TXHLQHVG
XQXLODPRHDDRDPDPHGSW7WU[XQD>?M@GVHRjO?DWJVULUPRHXUVLHYHpHVXpGVGSEHWDOVqHSX(XURTVFURHP-PHQHVU-UpDYLVHXUDPJVWpHUO-LWQVDW/YPRPDDSQpLHQLOLWQWRHHGUDOLVpUHRpRQHQ-WUH3XUSLHRURjSHLQP9WDUoWLrJpQHGUFXULX?GQUSU\SQHWW*UFDDpWVTYWDDHHWHVWDOpULHOWURQXPQLLV?RVOWH3LVHPDW,FVRHDjPWPWRWDVpHUUURDHOLVDDIUHVUUHUO-DOXUWSW

V3DUL8) HDQ3LHUUHQDQWHU
SDU SODFpH HW pH pSDV rW YRLHS DWQWH RQV G?DXWHV
FXOpH DU H SRXYD QW Q XW FODLUHQW HW SHUI PDQWH FLHQWHI
rW HXW HQ pVSU TX?XQH RPSUHQDQW HQ YpU D GH
JLTXH RQWRO YL G?XQH DQWGpEDU VV H HQ DQ LU P?HQ SORQJHU G?\
TXDLLV HW ODWLYLVPH H QFRQW LV H PrPH H QW YDL XH GH
XW OH HQ pV LRQ TX?XQH YXH H SRL QW TX?XQ Q?pWDLW LO
YpULWp OD Q
XU DQoDLVIU ? H H SRLQW Q M?D YDLV TXH -?DSSUHQDLV
P?LQWHUU RJHDLV
YRL SR XYDLW UDQGH %UHWDJQH OD
HOOH
GH DQV VLRQ D DGLR j M?pFRXW DLV HQIQW TXDQG
H XQGHPL VLqFOD \ LO RL QDWLRQV?HSR OD WVp UREOq GH /H H
LHUUHDQ H9HU QDQW
QGHQRWU IRQVHUODQDWXU
F?HVWFHOOH TXLGHIDoRQSRVLW HU IOpFKLHP WK RGLTXH
/DU QDLVHFTXH
Q pV LWQWGHL V RQDLW QDpVHWQQ &LWR\QV 'D H PrPH HPS MH ?LQWHUURJHD U VX OD RWLRQ PH Pr
WLRQDOLVPHQD LVPD VVL QQHWp WR\ W WpG?LGH WL 7RXW
RQ
RXUW H[WH
QRQ SDV U GRQQH GHV QVHV UpSR HV
WLRQ OD WLFO?D GH WULR OSWXH QF WpQQH WR\ Wp OL WLRQD L
G
IpUH
PRELOLWp
GH V OX
VGS SDGSH
WWH
KRVHV (Q HW OD RQ RSRUWL GH
SDUIRL
Wp
DWLRQ GH
HWU?HVLXUXOUFHRVVGQPLWLLRHQRUWHGHOQLSRDGHGOHDOOLLUDXVGVHHQFVLUEHLVVWEHpR/SSQOVFFSWGVRHQPDHHREVGUUSDQSFGDHLSIVIVqFVUHVRVSVUSLUHVSFPHEOUVHVHXWQLDpODGVVUpVDORVVVWVQDSVDVUHVOVQGDXKPPDVGSVVU0VV&WUVHHUWGUHUYHVIQHSXDWWVFHPFSHVWFOLPGHjVWG{WjLSGDWVGTXHVWLRQQVWPDLUVQVSURGXLUHUHWVSGQSXUP?VHVHLFVGVVQRSpUHHVVRUQDSR?WSJUQRU\OUVHUHWFOjQXVUOVXX3pVFHHpV(FRRQHHPLpWVFLLWDYHXWGOHRQWDQVHVHURSGHOQWLWYpXVWSQHGQHSQX

FpOpU O?DF W YLWHVVH OD LHOOH TXDVLH[SRQHQW IDoRQ H DXJPHQWH
RELOL HW GH pTXHQFHIU D SOX HDXFRXS YRLUH GH
XQ LqFOH HQSD RELOLWp OD SDU XFKpV G? D\V LQGLYLGXVXQ
V GH HDXFRXS FKDQJH W FKDQJp
PR ELOLW p D ?LGpDOLV PH H[FqV SDU SD SpFKR H LV
LQGLYLLQVFHU Y GXV RLUGHF SHX DLQV SOHV
RELOL QH Wp SO LHXUVDqFOHVG?XXV LqFO\ XQ LO DHLOGpMjQFHH[LV
V RQFHSW URLV FHV HQW H HQV RQ OD pHRQVW REOpPDWSU LTXH
GH DSSDUHQW H HUPDQHQFH qFOHV SOXVLHX D \ LO LqFOH XQ
D \ LO pM j DLW[LV REOpPDW TXH FHW FDU RQ 'DQV
QW"
O?DXWRELOL HjJpQpUDOLVUG?XQSD\DVVTXLQRXIDLWpH Wp
GHFHX[G?KLHU TXHQRXVHXpJDULW DXIjO?qUPPHV HGHOD
LI LU SpFLI TXHV XMRXU?KXL RQW LOV XU H HQ LGHQWLW
X[ LRQDOLWDW X[ FLW\HQQHW DX[ HODW LIV SUREOqPHV
p/DPLO VpH
HODPRELOLWpJpQpUDOLV pH HQ(XLGHQWLWpV RSHjO?qUHG
DWL QDOLW GH LWR\HQQHWp GHV HSUp QWDWLRQ QRV WUDYDLOOHU
GH HUPHWW DQW REOqPH TXHOTXHV GXL H GH F \RQ (V
jO?qUHGHODPYLYRQV RELOLWp JpQpUDOLVpH
QRXV DU FRPSOLTX QW H HV KRV OHV TXH OX '?DXW QW FRQFHSW
FHV DU (X RSH pHV pDOLW pV HV SHQV H LH RQ TXDQG
HODW LYHP HQW GXL H HQ HXW REOqPH HV &DU
WUDYDLOOHUGHV REOqPH
H GH OLPLWH OD O?REMHFWL W ?DLOOHXUV UD H GRJPDWLTXHV
IILU DWL HV TXH XYHUWH LQ WHUU RJDW LRQV OH SDU p LQWpUHVV
PD TXp OXV HQFR XL MH DSU HPLVqFOH TX?X SRLQW $X
FRPSOH[HHWSUR OpPDWLTXH
EODLW
p DWLRQDOLW FRQVpTXHPPHQW (W QDW H PrPH pDOLW p OD
PLHX[SDUSDUOHU XGHQFHSU SKLOR H? LHSROLW LTXH
YDODLW OLW TXH? ?VLHQFH H SDUHU H TXH HQ pVSU RQG
SOXV Q SOXV WDQWH PSR DX SRLQW XH WH RX LH RPSD pULHQQH
DH SG PL
O?LQMRQFWLRQ TXH H RQGH UDLQ FRQWHPSR V QRX RVH LPS HW QRXV
WH
XFGVHDVUF
X PRL
WXWLR WL
WLWp
G?D /?HQMHXGHFHVSUREOqPHVHVW HVUDSSRUWERUGPRLPrPHGDQVP V
PRL DQV V PH RUW UDSS X[ XW UHV V DQ PHV WVUDSSRU PRQ SUp
jO
QV OLVR 9HUQDQW
HX
VVHQW UHWpQRXVVPH VSURULGHUWLWpSD
S
SRX
VVL
6'GGFOUTHG ?XQH
SRXU OHV
V SO
V WHPSRUDLUH QH RQW SDV SDUDEOHV IRLV RXWH Pr FHV QL GHU
RQW IIHWVXUQ OH ?XURWUH GH QV UREOpPDWLTXHGD DPHVXUH RL
QRXV QW DSSUHQQH YLVPH UHODWL GH V V RWLRQ GH HQQHWp R\ LW GH

?WRXULqpVHVHVSVFQQVPXVFRHXVPVOWQWLVRVUVUjSOLVVHQHJHEQPGWUUHp?UQXKDDHQHJXHVPQHQHW[SVHSXHPXLOVRROIOHGQjXVURWRRSXOWWVDDGVLFPDOSHDUWPH5QVWHLQFWLQGUHLOPHFHOFEHQQHFJHRVLOQWVFPLLWDVWGIHHXPSR?OVpUVRRUUJUJHOLHSVHFVHILQpGPTq(HDWLHQVXFjSS\WFRHVPUUVDLXH'GTXPHHpHWTXHUVLWrVPRELOLWpOODSHjGDQQHHVX7PMRVWRDHU4,Y\HVVVWUSPWGHLUUGVWPQRUHXVDWWPFOVHTQLROL"HV(PXPGEHWRXUQGHYHQ[QVHKVSVDDUDDLGWVGRWDIVpXHRVjRUYU?WODVRGQDOVQVOUXIX0HDRVVIGDVVLHGVWVQ"XVGVHRHVjSUR

FHHWH[WH HH[HUJ DVHSKU FI ,GHP
RQD OLWpGHFLWR\HQQHWp G?LGHQW pGHQDW
HG?DXWHV LRQDOLWQDW pG?LGHQW LWLOVDFFRXWHW XPHQWLYUjF{W jHW
HUV
pSODFHPHQW HV HW LQLW GpSODFHPHQW OHV &HU FKHV
OH HXU pHQV D\V HV GDQV WHVRGHV XVV PDL DLV IDPLOOHV
G? XW XUR pHQV IRQFWLRQ QDLUHV
KDX OHV W FDG HV OHV SRX U RIH RQQHOOH PR ELOLWp OD SDUW
?H[SU HSUHQG XU HUUDQWV ? QRXYH DX[ O?LPPLJUDWLRQ j
TXL DXYU p OD FD FHUW LQV DQV SSR pHV rW SHXYHQW YRLUH
V XOWL SOH VR QW RELOLWp FHWWH H HV FDXV /HV UREOpPDWL TXH QRWUH
SUREOqPHVGLRU I QWH GHX\SHV H TXL FHRSpHQQHHXU
WUD WUDHX URSpHQQH W HV LOLW p FHWWH XURSH (Q
RQWHPSRUDLQH RELOLWp OD H SpFLI LFLWp pHOOH QH RQF DXUDLW
O pFKHOOHG? KDQJHPHQW XQ \ LO HI XW
G?DXMRXUG?KXL FHOOH PSDUDEOH FR ? JDU GpH UR SRU WLRQ RXWH PDLV
DQLqU FHUWD LQH G?XQH ? HVW G?DORUV RELOLWp OD DWHDX[ HV YLWHV
SD G?D XWUH W LWpV GHV SR OLWLTXH O?DXWRQR PL H HW PXOWLSOLFLWp
OD SDUW G?X H pJDUG X UH" QRWUH DYDQW PLOOpQDLUH SUHPLHU
DX *UqFH Q FRPSDU DEOH SDV 1?pW FHDLW LPSOH FHHVW LV
jPRQSDV pHWjPRQ IXWX
HQW
LG RQ 4XHOOH QDWRQDOLW p" D XHOOH \HQ"FLW HLV
LQV TXHO H GDQ HOOH H XL MH" FL \HQ TXHO RSpHQQHHXU
SODQpWDLUH RELOLWp FHWWH HF DY DU GHQWLWp QDWLRQDOLWpV
FLW \HQQHW REOqSU HV GHV HXUDW OD KDQJp HW HXUDW GH
KDQJp
FHU D RE LOLWp /D ? LV MH GRQF PREL OH XL -H UpSRQGR
L
YRLO TXHOTX?XQ? WUH YRXOH] YRXV L PRELOH OXV HQFRUH
6R\H] YDQW DJHV DXW
DUFRX XHV LVWDQFHV OHV pYHORS SpHV QW RELOLWp FHWWHJpQpUDOH SRXU XV W RXW SDU PH KRP ELOH PPR ?H[LVWH SOX
FKHPDOPGX
RPPH GURLWGHO?K
VGH VPH KRP VH WU HV V KRPPH UHQW IX ERUG ?D RELO
V WPRELOH YHDXPDLVDXWUHPHQ RX QILQjQ RELOHVH SXLVLP
V UHQWG?DERUG/HVPRELOHPPHIX
DJ
VFKDVVHXU WXDQW URLH OD Q IR
LUR ND ODoDQW VL LQ Q RQFWLR
3XLV RXW FKDQJH X KLTXH LW QpRO HQ GHV HPSV QWV Ip GLI HQ
SOHHO HO,
TXH O?$ UL QH ULHKD VD W
O JO jF
WWH VW
?O
SO?SGOPGOH
DXWUHV GX HX QOL X UHV YLY PPH /?KR TXL ?pW XV TXHOj
UL
2SHjSGODO
H FLW VW V OD H VT ?HVW
UHWX RUP HV PLqUHUH VVRFLDLRQ >? O?K HVW
LPD ROLWLT HVWLQp YLYUH HQ RFLpWp >? U@ OD
YD ?
QpROLWKLTXH WDPPHQ QW TXD D RELOLWp XLW IU RQ SD

LYLWUPGPQGHHUHPMHHH&HPHDD/H"D$DEQHKRODHWUGQDHVSPHFW-VPOWpGHFHQHLHWX?VVHPGVVPKPUHJVDpQVXDWGSVHSPWDUpHDVOUJDU?UWUEHHLV3ROVX?XPHUWpWOHHLDjPOHDRPOVH?W/PRHSO?DHWVQFWLRDQpDGLHGHjDGLXVHQXWQV?VSVOVVIWLHLWQHQFWXRSQXDQHRLYKHYYDILHGQXQpUW?WVLWDWORLLEKRDFWWUQHWOjUHOLWEDWH3XGWUUUVUVVHGWQPIXVWGYRU7OQHQSpL-WHQHQUXPRXUSRQSpR1VHHUPH?LLQRW@HDUVY*DOOVHRD[FLDVVWODUQ?WOWYQJWOUDHDXLHP,;HQqWHH?HOOYQUHVIHKUUHHSqOUXHpX?WDDQT?LDEUGLOR/DFXOWWL0/pVU$WVDLDHGjQDPGRjHPHRQGXHVHXXWIRTODVPXXEK3RQO+Lp$YDWQWVXGIPLSQIHGpHUDQ?GXHPUHQRLqUUXHDEOHDTFL?DQWRLURLQQHQVHWKQRHPGPHHDIWRU

8)ULVSWUDG7KX RW LTXH LW $ULVWRWH
,ELGHP
HVLVWRLUH%LEOLRWKSH qT
PD UG 3D ULV OLWKLTXH LW JH ]L wQ LOODX*X HDQ
V
FXOWX HOOH pYROXWLR Q FHWWH *XLOODXPH SRXU XWHIRL
HQ LHQ IDLW H
QW DWXUOOH
?$U H HVDV PHXVHV
V
XL HVrW FHV DYHF LIIHQWpUH HODW H *XLOODXPH
FRQoX? DORUV D DQLPDO RQGH GX HVSqFH XQH FRP H LGpUFRQVp
HV YL DYHFH YU LYUDWYHFOD H GX XPDLQ LYU QRXYHDX
X UDGLJPH OH UR GXLW LQGXLWH LPPR ELOLWp VRQ SDU QpROLWKLTXH
SD\VSD LFDWLRGHRXW ?O?KR UDGLJPHGRPHV D\VDQQ PPH YLHQW
OD GH SDU GLJPH ? PDL VRQ ? OD GRP D DU QRPDGLV OH
DQWV
HOOHrPH FXOWHXU D GH SDU GLJPH ? O?DJU FXOWHXU SDU PSODFpH
FXHLOOH OD HQ GXH W HV RELOLWp OD DQLPDX[ OHV LT GRPHV XHU
HW UUH
OD SDU DQWSDVV Q ULHQ WDOH LH O?$V
H VR PpUTX D GH \HUV SOXVLHXUV DYHF FH HW QRW DYDQW
LqFOH *XLOODXPHHU
DQ O?DUFK RORJXH O?(XU RSH H HW RQGH X pJLRQ HV IRQFWLRQ
G?HOOH
GpS VH SRXU XLYDQW OD O?RFFDVLRQ
O?DERQGDQFHGH W UDUHWp OD GH
LQV GHV p X FKH OD H JUp DX FXHLOOHXU XU FKDV
W WDLHQWXHLOO LOVDU HXUV
HV
?K WRL LV H Wp H[LV YpULWDEOHPHQ W LO LP RELOH O?K RPPH 0DLV
MXUH
GH RXL DFWR GH RQ XQLYHU OOH" HV RELOLWp OD TXH GL UH DORU 3HXWRQ

DXV DL V JpQp pHDOLV HXOHPHQW QRQ HV PRELOLWp D L$LQVO YV O HH
V UDEOHV XL WDXUHQW QV XQ
UPDSH SRXU V PHVKRP V WUWRXVX VH VXU
OSWFSSDLW WRLUHUUL
j TXRL" 3DU UW UDSSR X QW SRL L[
W UDSSRU j VRQ SHDX WURX TX?LO VXLW LO Q?HVW SOXV PPH ?KR GX LURVND T
VVH
LO SDVVH G?XQH Wp RELOL EVROXH
GOYGOUSOEGO
W VD
UG PD
PH Pr
UpSRQVH ORU TXH U SRX V ?H

Soyez le premier à déposer un commentaire !

17/1000 caractères maximum.