Quelle contribution des universités au développement en Afrique ? Volume II

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Le deuxième volume aborde le domaine des langues, de la littérature, de la culture et de l'éducation.
Publié le : lundi 15 février 2016
Lecture(s) : 49
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Etudes
africainesQuelle contribution des universités Série Education
au développement en Afrique ?
Volume II
Ce second volume des Actes du Colloque international de l’Université de
Kara contient une quarantaine de contributions dont la plupart touchent
aux domaines des langues, de la littérature, de la culture et de l’éducation.
Quelques articles abordent cependant les questions liées à la démocratie,
à l’économie et aux politiques publiques.
Tous ces travaux, quel que soit leur objet, traitent de la question du
développement humain durable, dans ses dimensions sociopolitique, Sous la direction du professeurseur Gnon Babaur Gnon BBa abababaa
économique et culturelle. Les travaux produits dans le domaine de la
littérature concernent des faits qui touchent aussi bien la culture africaine,
que celles européenne et américaine. Ceux relevant du domaine des Quelle contribution des univ es u univiverseersitsisiitéséés
sciences du langage s’intéressent tant aux paliers de la linguistique interne,
qu’aux aspects de la sociolinguistique. Les articles relevant du domaine des au développemen ent en t en Afrique ?AAfriAfrif iqqueque e ?
sciences de l’éducation portent notamment sur la question des relations
enseignants/élèves et sur celle de la motivation.
VVVoluolume IIolume II
Énergies renouvelables, innovations tnns tteteechchnologiques, langues c nnoologi uuessl, lla gue es s
et culture, démocratie e et gouvgouvernanernancna e ene en Aen Afriqrique ue
Né en 1961 à Bassar, Gnon BABA est professeur titulaire (CAMES) en
chimie organique et environnementale. Docteur de l’Université de Rennes 1
et docteur d’État de l’Université de Cocody-Abidjan, il a été recruté comme
enseignant-chercheur à l’Université de Lomé en 1996. Depuis novembre
2007, il est doyen de la faculté des sciences et techniques de l’Université
de Kara. Il est directeur de plusieurs thèses de doctorat soutenues et en
Illustration de couverture : © shvaista - Fotolia.com
ISBN : 978-2-336-30909-5
49 €

Quelle contribution des universités au développement en Afrique ?
Sous la direction du
Volume II
professeur Gnon Baba
Énergies renouvelables, innovations technologiques, langues
et culture, démocratie et gouvernance en Afrique
FRXUVHWHVWDXWHXUGHSOXVGHSXEOLFDWLRQVVFLHQWL? TXHV











Quelle contribution des universités
au développement en Afrique ?

Volume II
















Collection « Études africaines »
dirigée par Denis Pryen et son équipe
Forte de plus de mille titres publiés à ce jour, la collection « Études
africaines » fait peau neuve. Elle présentera toujours les essais généraux
qui ont fait son succès, mais se déclinera désormais également par séries
thématiques : droit, économie, politique, sociologie, etc.
Dernières parutions
UWIZEYMANA (Emeline), Quand les inégalités de genre modèrent les effets du
microcrédit, 2016.
MANKOU (Brice Arsène), ESSONO (Thomas), L’impact des TIC dans les
processus migratoires féminins en Afrique Centrale, Cas des cybermigrantes maritales du
Cameroun, 2016.
BUKASSA (Ambroise V), Congo Kinshasa, Quand la corruption dirige la République,
2016.
EKANZA (Simon-Pierre), Mako, administrateur français en Côte d’Ivoire
(19081939), Un commandant à un poste colonial, au cœur des transformations économiques et
sociales, 2016.
WAIS (Ilyas Said), L’ambivalente libéralisation du droit du travail en République de
Djibouti, 2016.
KABAMBA MBIKAY (André) (dir.), Prospective pour une paix durable en RDC –
Horizon 2050, 2016.
KWILU LANDUNDU (Hubert), Sociologie de la santé au Congo-Kinshasa, 2016.
KAMTO (Maurice), DOUMBE-BILLE (Stéphane), METOU (Brusil Mirand)
(dir.), Regards sur le droit public en Afrique, 2016.
ROCHE (Christian), La Casamance face à son destin, 2016.
IBIKOUNLÉ (Salami Yacoubou), Politiques d’éducation / formation et coopération
internationale décentralisée au Bénin, 2016.
BAUDAIS (Virginie), Les trajectoires de l’État au Mali, 2015
NDZANA BILOA (Alain Symphorien), La fiscalité, levier pour l’émergence des pays
africains de la zone franc. Le cas du Cameroun, 2015.
MAMA DEBOUROU (Djibril), La résistance des Baatombu face à la pénétration
française dans le Haut-Dahomey (1895-1915), Saka Yerima ou l’injuste oubli, 2015.
EKANZA (Simon-Pierre), L’historien dans la cité, 2015.
GODEFROY (Christine), Éthique musulmane et développement. Territoire et pouvoir
religieux au Sénégal, 2015.
TAMBWA N. NKULU K., GHOANYS K., MWANACHILONGWE K.,
MPYANA K., BUKASA K., Le développement du Katanga méridional, 2015.
FODOUOP (Kengne) (dir.), Le Cameroun. Jardin sacré de la débrouillardise, 2015.
DJILA KOUAYI KEMAJOU (Rose), Le droit pénal des affaires au Cameroun,
2015.
ATTISSO (Fulbert Sassou), Le mal togolais. Quelle solution ?, 2015.
Sous la direction du
professeur Gnon BABA



















Quelle contribution des universités
au développement en Afrique ?

Volume II

Énergies renouvelables, innovations
technologiques, langues et culture,
démocratie et gouvernance en Afrique


Actes du colloque scientifique international de l’université de Kara
12-16 mai 2014






































































































© L’Harmattan, 2016
5-7, rue de l’Ecole-Polytechnique, 75005 Paris

http://www.harmattan.fr
diffusion.harmattan@wanadoo.fr

ISBN : 978-2-336-30909-5
EAN : 9782336309095
REMERCIEMENTS
Plusieurs sponsors et généreux donateurs ont répondu à l’appel de
l’Université de Kara lorsqu’elle a pris l’initiative d’organiser son premier
colloque scientifique international. Leur apport a été déterminant pour
l’organisation de ce colloque et pour la réalisation des présents actes.
L’Université de Kara tient donc à leur exprimer sa profonde gratitude.
L’Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie (AUF), le Service de
Coopération et d’Action Culturelle (SCAC) de l’Ambassade de France au
Togo, le Programme des Nations Unies pour le Développement (PNUD), la
Délégation de l’Union Européenne au Togo, la Société TOGOCEL, la
Loterie Nationale Togolaise (LONATO), la Société TOGOTELECOM, la
Société NECOTRANS, la Brasserie du Bénin (BB), la Société Nouvelle des
Phosphates du Togo (SNPT) sont de ces institutions dont l’appui multiforme
a permis à l’Université de Kara de réaliser cette gageure.
Elle ose croire que le succès de cette première messe scientifique
constitue le meilleur encouragement pour l’organisation de nouvelles
rencontres scientifiques auxquelles elles apporteront le même appui.

SOMMAIRE
REMERCIEMENTS .................................................................................................. 5
AVANT-PROPOS .................................................................................................... 11

Langues, littératures, cultures et éducation ......................................................... 17

Le rôle des missionnaires européens dans la promotion des langues et de la
littérature au Togo (1884-1960) ............................................................................... 19
Socio-Political Alienation in Contemporary African Fiction: A Reading of
Chinua Achebe’s Anthills of the Savannah .............................................................. 33
Cohesion in text: a systemic-functional analysis of chimamanda ngozi
adichie’s fiction ........................................................................................................ 49
Abraham Lincoln: an Abolitionist or a Clever Politician? ....................................... 67
Teaching Students with Emotional and Behavioural Disorders in EFL Classes
in Benin: Teachers’ Practices and Students’ Performance ....................................... 83
Reversing the Present Order: National Development in the Oeuvre of
Lamming and Marshall ............................................................................................. 93
Les Manipulations Linguistiques du « Rex Francorum » dans quelques
langues de l’espace UEMOA ................................................................................. 119
La science littéraire et les enjeux de développement en Afrique ............................ 135
Les savoirs universitaires au service du développement en Afrique : un point
de vue de littéraire .................................................................................................. 149
Contribution des universités à la formation pédagogique des formateurs de
citoyens : ressources pour le développement des sociétés ...................................... 167
Traumatismes de l’enfance et troubles anxieux chez les adolescents et jeunes
des Villages d’Enfants SOS (VESOS) du Togo ..................................................... 183
Relation enseignant/élèves et motivation au travail scolaire : cas des élèves de
la sixième des Collèges d’Enseignement Général de la préfecture de l’Ogou ....... 201
Effets relationnels et séquentiels des faits sociaux : de la fugue au phénomène
de trafic et d’exploitation des enfants dans les villes de Lomé et Kara au
Togo ....................................................................................................................... 219
Problématique de nombre de langues togolaises : une analyse de l’état des
lieux à la lumière des outils de dialectologie et de dialectométrie .......................... 233
Alphabétisation des élus locaux et décentralisation : les paradigmes oubliés ........ 251
La représentation sociale du genre à travers les expressions linguistiques du
moba, langue Gurma du Togo et du Ghana ............................................................ 265
Regard sur le pays tamberma : approche linguistique ............................................ 277
Pronoms anaphoriques et coréférence en kabiyè .................................................... 291
Le prétexte africain dans l’œuvre de Georges Simenon ......................................... 311
L’Aventure ambiguë et Les Gardiens du Temple, de l’Ecole nouvelle à
l’épanouissement des Africains .............................................................................. 327
L’acceptation du tragique dans Je, soussigné cardiaque de Sony Lab’ou Tansi ..... 337
Contribution des rites de veuvage chrétien et traditionnel au travail de deuil
au Togo ................................................................................................................... 353
Une nouvelle église, un « nouveau nom » à Lomé aujourd’hui :
caractéristiques morphologiques, syntaxiques et motivationnelles ........................ 359
La résistance « paganiste » des Kabiyè à l’implantation chrétienne entre 1926
et 1960 .................................................................................................................... 379
Recherche et développement au Togo à travers l’œuvre du Centrifan et de
l’Irto (fin Seconde Guerre mondiale - années 1950) .............................................. 397
Atouts et contraintes de développement de Grand-Lahou, ville moyenne de
Côte d’ivoire ........................................................................................................... 421
Caractérisation des risques hydrométéorologiques dans la vallée du Niger au
Bénin : cas de la commune de Malanville .............................................................. 443
“P-shapes” and objects: reducing redundancy in written language ........................ 455
Vers une politique de développement du cinéma au Togo : le rôle des
universités ............................................................................................................... 469

8 Démocratie et gouvernance en Afrique & Economie et politiques
publiques ............................................................................................................... 481

La décrépitude du chemin de fer Lomé-Kpalimé ou la question de la gestion
des infrastructures héritées de la colonisation (1959-2014) ................................... 483
Genre et gouvernance : la question de la représentation féminine dans la vie
publique et politique ............................................................................................... 503
Ordre public et droit de manifester dans les Etats africains : mariage et / ou
divorce à partir des expériences du Bénin et du Togo ............................................ 523
La fragilisation de la propriété commerciale dans l’Acte uniforme portant
droit commercial général ........................................................................................ 553
Démocratie et gouvernance au Togo : faiblesses, forces et perspectives ............... 575
Niveaux d’éducation et croissance économique au Togo ....................................... 589
Dynamique de la croissance économique et capital social au Togo ....................... 619
Transferts de fonds des migrants, gouvernance et croissance économique
dans l’UEMOA ....................................................................................................... 637
Le jeu des acteurs dans la conquête du marché des deux roues motorisées à
Ouagadougou .......................................................................................................... 655

Sciences, énergies renouvelables et innovations technologiques ....................... 671

Organisation africaine de la propriété intellectuelle (OAPI) et valorisation de
la recherche en Afrique au sud du Sahara .............................................................. 673
Étude du tirage d’air en convection naturelle dans un capteur hybride (PV/T)
pour le rafraîchissement passif des locaux ............................................................. 683
Caractérisation mécanique et géotechnique du Sable silteux en couche de
chaussée au sud du Togo et du Bénin ..................................................................... 693
Etude expérimentale du comportement mécanique de mortier à base de sable
silteux et de liant de sachets plastiques ................................................................... 701
Une académie sur l’e-gouvernance en Afrique, un défi pour nos universités ........ 711


9 AVANT-PROPOS
2004-2014, l’Université de Kara a dix ans d’existence. Après ce laps de
temps, riche d’expériences, elle a décidé d’ouvrir un nouveau chapitre avec
une ferme volonté d’opérer en son sein des mutations nécessaires. Elle a pris
le ferme engagement d’accroître son utilité sociale et sa capacité d’appui au
processus de développement, afin de contribuer ainsi à relever les défis que
rencontre le Togo dans sa quête de devenir un pays émergent à l’horizon
2024.
A cet effet, elle s’est dotée d’un plan stratégique décennal de
développement, élaboré au regard des nouvelles exigences du contexte
national et international de l’enseignement supérieur, marqué par
l’émergence de l’économie du savoir, ainsi que par la globalisation et la
compétition scientifique et technique.
Prenant la mesure des enjeux que soulève un tel environnement,
l’Université de Kara a fait du développement et de la promotion de la
recherche scientifique l’un des axes majeurs de son plan stratégique, en vue
de devenir un pôle attractif et d’apporter des réponses appropriées aux défis
du développement de notre continent. L’organisation d’un colloque
scientifique international, pour clôturer les activités commémoratives de ses
dix ans d’existence, répond à cette noble ambition.
Le thème choisi, « Quelle contribution des universités au développement
en Afrique ? », traduit la volonté partagée des partenaires de l’enseignement
supérieur de replacer l’institution universitaire au cœur des débats en tant
que partenaire privilégié des différents acteurs dans la conception et la mise
en œuvre des politiques de développement. A cet égard, la recherche
scientifique et technologique doit devenir la pierre angulaire pour accélérer
le processus de développement, en particulier dans les pays africains.
L’Université de Kara, en collaboration avec d’autres universités
africaines, se doit de mobiliser les ressources pour assurer la promotion et le
rayonnement des activités de recherche. La participation de chercheurs
chevronnés et de jeunes chercheurs du Bénin, du Burkina Faso, de la Côte
d’Ivoire, de la France, du Gabon, du Niger, du Nigéria, du Sénégal et du
Togo est la preuve vivante de ce que doit être la contribution des universités
au développement de l’Afrique.
Les conférences plénières et les communications réparties en plusieurs
domaines ont apporté et proposé des pistes de réponses à la problématique
de l’apport des universités au progrès économique, culturel et social de
l’Afrique.
La présente publication est l’écho des travaux du colloque organisé par
l’Université de Kara, du 12 au 16 mai 2014, à l’occasion des festivités de
son dixième anniversaire. Elle rassemble les textes des conférences plénières
et des articles qui ont été rigoureusement soumis à un comité scientifique
international.
Puissent ces actes recevoir l’audience de la communauté scientifique
internationale et apporter quelques réponses à la sempiternelle question du
développement de l’Afrique.
Prof. Paalamwé Komi TCHAKPELE
Président de l’Université de Kara
12 *
COMITÉ DE RÉDACTION
- Professeur Gnon BABA
- Dr Akoété AMOUZOU
- Dr Komlan KOUZAN
- Dr Laré KANTCHOA
- Dr Padabô KADOUZA
- Dr Tom-Irazou TCHALIM
- Dr Nakpane LABANTE
- Dr Komlan ALEMAWO
- Dr Abalo ATATO
- Dr Kwamivi N. SEGBEAYA
- Dr Tchaa PALI
- Dr Abdou-Fataou TCHAGNAO
- Mlle Koudjoukalou ATCHOLADI
- M. Tamba KOLANI
- M. Essoron AGNALA
COMITÉ SCIENTIFIQUE
Président : Professeur Paalamwé Komi TCHAKPELE, Université de Kara

Vice-présidents :
- Professeur Koffi AHADZI-NONOU, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Adama KPODAR, Université de Kara

Membres :
- Professeur Messanvi GBEASSOR, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Toyi ASSIH, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Saliou TOURE, Université Félix Houphouët Boigny, Abidjan /
Université Internationale de Grand Bassam
- Professeur Koffi AKPAGANA, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Thiou Komlan TCHAMIE, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Kou’santa Sabiba AMOUZOU, Université de Kara
- Professeur Gnon BABA, Université de Kara
- Professeur Comlan de SOUZA, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Mireille PRINCE DAVID, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Isabelle Adolé GLITHO, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Adovi N’Buéké GOEH-AKUE, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Egnonto Koffi-TESSIO, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Koffi Agnon BALOGOU, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Moctar BAWA, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Ibrahim CHITOU, Université de Paris 13
- Professeur Yvonne BONZI COULIBALY, Université de Ouagadougou
- Professeur Jean-Maurille OUAMBA, Université Marien Ngouabi
- Professeur Kokou TCHARIE, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Koffi-Sa BEIJA, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Kossi NAPO, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Komlan SANDA, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Gado TCHANGBEDJI, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Patrick POINT, Université de Bordeaux IV
- Professeur Géro Fulbert AMOUSSOUGAH, Université Abomey-Calavi
- Professeur Koffi Ayéchoro AKIBODE, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Adoté B. BLIVI, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Jérôme ALOKO-N’GUESSAN, Université Félix Houphouët Boigny
- Professeur Nicoué Lodjou GAYIBOR, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Komlan Messan NUBUKPO, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Raymond VERDIER, Université Paris-Ouest Nanterre
- Professeur Koffi Badjow TCHAM, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Abou NAPON, Université de Ouagadougou
- Professeur Kodjona KADANGA, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Musandji NGALASSO-MWATHA, Université de Bordeaux 3
- Professeur Bakoé BAKONDE, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Koffi N’DAKENA, Université de Lomé
- Professeur Bertrand SOGBOSSI, Centre Universitaire de Savè
- Professeur Amadou SEIBOU H. MAIGA, Université Gaston Berger, Saint-Louis
- Professeur Ouateni DIALLO, Université des Sciences et Techniques et
Technologies de Bamako
- M. Kwami Gabriel NYASSOGBO, Maître de Conférences, Université de Lomé
- M. Nadédjo BIGOU-LARE, Maitre de Conférences Agrégé Université de Lomé
14 - M. Akoété AMOUZOU, Maître de Conférences, Université de Kara
- M. Babakane Djobo COULIBALEY, Maître de Conférences, Université de Kara
- M. Koffi Mawunyo AGBENOTO, Maitre de Conférences, Université de Kara
- M. Kako NUBUKPO, Maitre de Conférences, Université de Lomé
- M. Kossi GNEYOU, Maître de Conférences, Université de Lomé
- M. Kossi BADAMELI, Maître de Conférences, Université de Kara
- M. Lalle Y. LARE, Maitre de Conférences, Université de Lomé
- M. Barthélémy BIAOU, Maitre de Conférences Agrégé, Université de Parakou
- M. Akuété AGBODJI, Maitre de Conférences Agrégé, Université de Lomé
- M. Pitchaki F. HEMOU, Anesthésiste-Réanimateur des Hôpitaux de Paris





15

LANGUES, LITTÉRATURES,
CULTURES ET ÉDUCATION
Le rôle des missionnaires européens dans la promotion
*
des langues et de la littérature au Togo (1884-1960)
Résumé
Venus pour évangéliser et témoigner de leur amour de Dieu pour les
hommes, les missionnaires apprirent les langues locales pour communiquer
avec la population et faciliter la diffusion du christianisme en son sein. Cette
présente étude cherche à montrer le rôle joué par les missionnaires européens
dans la promotion des langues locales et dans l’émergence de la littérature au
Togo pendant la colonisation.
Mots-clés : Missionnaire-promotion-langue-littérature-colonisation.
Introduction
La christianisation du Togo a été en grande partie une œuvre des
Missions chrétiennes. Tout commence par l’arrivée, peu avant la
colonisation, des missionnaires protestants allemands de la Mission de
Brême en 1847 en Gold Coast (actuel Ghana). De là, ils progressèrent vers
l’Est pour atteindre le territoire de l’actuel Togo. Mais cette christianisation
ne s’accéléra qu’avec la colonisation du Togo de 1884 à 1960. Ainsi en
1892, on notait l’arrivée des missionnaires catholiques allemands de la
Société du verbe divin (SVD) qui se mirent aussi à la tâche de la “première
évangélisation”. Pour christianiser, les missionnaires allemands ont mis
l’accent sur l’apprentissage des langues locales afin de communiquer
facilement avec la population. Mais le déclenchement de la Première Guerre
mondiale en 1914 mit fin à leur travail, suite à l’expulsion des derniers
missionnaires allemands du Togo en 1918.
Après la guerre de 1914 à 1918, les missionnaires allemands sont
remplacés par les missionnaires français. Ainsi, la relève de la Société
allemande du verbe divin est assurée par la Société des missions africaines
(SMA) de Lyon tandis que celle de la Mission de Brême, est confiée à la

* Ningui Wénssowa MAYEDA. Maître-assistant au Département d’Histoire et d’Archéologie,
Université de Lomé, Email : wmayeda@tg.refer.org, Cel. 90 18 71 19, BP 20296 Lomé
(Togo).
Société des missions évangéliques de Paris (SMEP).Sur le terrain, les
missionnaires français ont aussi mis un accent particulier sur l’apprentissage
des langues locales afin de transmettre aisément le message chrétien à la
population. C’est dire qu’une fois au Togo, les missionnaires français tout
comme leurs prédécesseurs allemands n’ont pas négligé les langues locales.
Ils ont même pu les transcrire, donnant ainsi naissance à la littérature au
Togo.
En quoi peut-on dire que les missionnaires européens ont été les
promoteurs des langues locales et de la littérature togolaise pendant la
colonisation ?
Pour répondre à cette question, nous avons procédé à un travail de
recherche documentaire qui a porté sur la consultation des documents
d’archives et des publications religieuses. Celles-ci ont été retrouvées en
grande partie, concernant la Mission catholique, au niveau des bibliothèques
1de la Société du verbe divin à Kégué et de la Société des Missions africaines
2à la Maison régionale de Bè à Lomé . S’agissant la Mission évangélique, la
consultation documentaire a été faite en grande partie au niveau des archives
et documents de la section recherche et documentation du Bloc synodal de
l’Eglise évangélique presbytérienne à Lomé. Au terme de la recherche
documentaire, il apparaît que seuls les écrits des Révérends Pères Gass
(1998) et Skweres (1993) abordent très succinctement le sujet. Il en est de
même de quelques travaux de chercheurs que sont Gbédémah (2011), Napala
(2007), Ali Napo (1995) et Attignon (1995). Les sources orales n’ont pas été
négligées afin d’avoir des informations complémentaires sur le sujet.
L’objectif de ce travail est d’apporter un éclairage sur le rôle joué par les
missionnaires européens dans la promotion des langues locales et dans
l’émergence de la littérature au Togo pendant la colonisation. Pour ce faire,
le travail est conçu autour de deux parties. La première, porte sur
l’apprentissage et la promotion des langues locales par les missionnaires
européens et la seconde, a trait à l’émergence de la littérature togolaise suite
à la transcription de ces langues par les missionnaires.
1. De l’apprentissage à la promotion des langues locales par les
missionnaires
« Si le proverbe dit juste, même le grand problème de s’initier à la culture du
pays est une affaire de persévérance et de patience : pour l’étranger qui arrive
avec l’intention d’y vivre, il est évident que la connaissance de la langue locale
en est le chemin obligatoire » (Pazzi, 1977 : 3).

1 C’est le lieu de remercier le Père Kisito Koudoagbo qui nous a facilité le travail à ce niveau
lors de notre rencontre du 17 mars 2014 à Lomé.
2 Nous tenons à remercier le Père Sévérin Kinga qui nous a aidés à avoir des renseignements
sur notre sujet lors de notre rencontre du 8 avril 2014.
20 Il ressort de cette assertion que la connaissance de la langue est un
élément fondamental de la connaissance des réalités d’un milieu. C’est dire
que la langue est le fondement de la culture. C’est aussi un moyen de
communication par excellence. C’est la raison pour laquelle tout
missionnaire devant aller en mission en pays étranger devait connaître la
langue locale. Ceci pour gagner la confiance de la population et faciliter la
diffusion de la Bonne Nouvelle en son sein.
1.1. Contribution des missionnaires protestants à la promotion des
langues locales
Les missionnaires protestants de l’Eglise évangélique (héritière de la
Mission de Brême) ont à leur actif un important travail linguistique ayant
permis d’asseoir le christianisme au Togo, surtout en pays éwé. En effet,
l’apprentissage de la langue locale était indispensable pour le travail de la
“première évangélisation”. Il permet de gagner la confiance de la population
et de communiquer facilement avec elle. Ainsi pour faciliter l’évangélisation
et la scolarisation dans les classes élémentaires, la Mission de Brême
entreprit, par l’intermédiaire de ses missionnaires, l’étude de la langue éwé,
en sélectionnant l’un de ses dialectes qui est l’anlô (Attignon, 1995 : 13). Les
recherches en vue d’une meilleure connaissance linguistique ont commencé
à partir de 1848 avec le pasteur missionnaire Ludwig Wolf. Les autres
pionniers de la standardisation et l’utilisation de la langue éwé étaient les
pasteurs missionnaires Bernhard Schlegel, Jakob Spieth, Diedrich
Westermann et Albert Binder. Ce dernier fut le premier messager de la
3Bonne Nouvelle en langue éwé à Mission Tové dès 1893, première station
missionnaire protestante du Togo. On ne saurait passer sous silence le rôle
joué par d’autres missionnaires dans la promotion de l’éwé pendant la
colonisation allemande. C’est le cas du pasteur Carl Oswald, fondateur de la
station de Lomé en 1895 et des pasteurs missionnaires : Walter Hagens,
4Mme et M. Ernest Bürgi, etc. En dépit de son interdiction en 1905 , l’éwé
n’était pas négligé dans les écoles primaires pour faire passer le message
chrétien jusqu’en 1918. Nul été la persistance des missionnaires protestants,
l’Ewé aurait perdu de son importance dans les écoles.
Avec la colonisation française, les pasteurs français de la Société des
missions évangéliques de Paris, Charles Maître, Mme et M. Jean Faure,
Mme et M. Jacques Delord, etc. qui prirent la relève des pasteurs allemands,
apprirent aussi les langues locales pour une meilleure diffusion du message
du Christ dans leur milieu de vie. A cet effet, les pasteurs Jean Faure en
1937, et Jacques Delord au lendemain de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, ont
joué un rôle prépondérant dans la diffusion de la Bonne Nouvelle en pays

3 Localité située à une trentaine de Kilomètre au Nord –ouest de Lomé.
4
ANT-Lomé, FAT/411, Blatt 84.
21 kabiyè en apprenant et en évangélisant à travers elle. Se faisant, ils ont
contribué aussi énormément à la promotion du kabiyè. Ce fut aussi le cas au
niveau des missionnaires de l’Eglise catholique.
1.2. L’apport des missionnaires catholiques dans la promotion des
langues locales
Les premiers missionnaires catholiques allemands de la Société du verbe
divin (SDV) surent gagner les cœurs, par leur attitude respectueuse et
amicale vis-à-vis des gens et de leurs cultures. Venus en 1892 pour annoncer
la Bonne Nouvelle et témoigner de l’amour de Dieu pour les hommes, ils
implantèrent les premières écoles. Pour mieux enseigner, ils apprirent, dès
les premiers jours de leur arrivée, avec l’aide des catéchistes le plus souvent,
les langues locales. Ce fut là un moyen bien efficace pour communiquer
avec la population autochtone et diffuser le message chrétien en son sein
comme le recommanda d’ailleurs vivement le fondateur de la SVD, le Père
Arnold Janssen. En effet, ce dernier «…considéra la connaissance solide des
religions, des cultures et des langues des peuples à évangéliser comme une
condition incontournable d’une annonce vraie de l’évangile. Ainsi
favorisat-il l’étude des religions, des langues et de la missiologie » (Skweres, 2003 :
47). Au lendemain de la Grande guerre, le Pape Benoit XV donna, dans son
Encyclique ‘’Maximum Illud ‘’, un nouvel élan aux missions en
recommandant vivement l’apprentissage et la connaissance des langues
locales en ces termes : « … Au premier rang de ces connaissances que doit
acquérir et posséder à fond le missionnaire, il faut évidemment placer la
langue du pays qu’il se propose d’évangéliser. Qu’il ne se contente pas
d’une connaissance superficielle de cette langue, mais qu’il l’a possède
assez pour parler couramment et correctement… » (Napala, 2007 : 460).
C’est dire l’importance que revêt la langue locale dans l’évangélisation des
populations autochtones.
Selon Skweres (1993 : 17-18), la manière de s’approcher des gens et de
prendre contact avec eux était décisive pour le succès de la “première
évangélisation”. En effet, aussitôt qu’ils s’installaient dans un milieu, les
missionnaires essayaient de saluer les gens dans la langue locale. Puis, ce fut
souvent l’apprentissage des expressions qui ont trait à la Bible comme : “Il
n’y a qu’un seul Dieu” ou encore “Dieu est bon’’ ; ‘’Dieu nous aime ”. Ces
deux phrases furent d’ailleurs communiquées, dans une lettre, au fondateur
5de la SVD en guise d’illustration à l’apprentissage de la langue locale .
Deux mois après leur arrivée, après avoir traduit les premiers textes
bibliques, les missionnaires pouvaient réciter les prières principales avec les
gens en éwé : le Notre Père et l’Ave Maria. Par la suite, les cours de religion

5
RP Skweres, entretien du 10 avril 2014 à son domicile de Brotherhomer à Lomé.
22 furent donnés en éwé et sans interprète. Ce qui était fait dans la langue éwé
l’était aussi en mina à Aného et ses alentours (Skweres, 1993 : 18).
En matière d’enseignement, l’accent était mis dès 1905 sur la
connaissance, par les élèves, de la langue allemande pour ne pas entrer en
conflit avec l’administration au sujet de la langue d’enseignement. Mais de
tout temps, les langues vernaculaires ne furent pas totalement négligées. Ce
qui explique qu’aussitôt après son arrivée en 1894, le missionnaire
Hoffmann entreprit des études linguistiques sur l’éwé (Ali Napo, 1995 :
61545) en vue de sa transcription .
Avec la colonisation française, les missionnaires de la Société des
missions africaines (SMA) de Lyon successeurs des missionnaires allemands
de la SVD mirent aussi un accent particulier sur l’apprentissage des langues
locales en vue de l’évangélisation. Le parcours de quelques uns est édifiant à
plus d’un titre.
– Jérôme Lingenheim (1906-1985). Promu docteur en théologie en
1934, il partit la même année pour la Mission du Togo à Agou. Sans
tarder, il se mit à l’étude de la langue éwé, dans laquelle bientôt, il
réussit à s’exprimer convenablement, (Gass 1998 : 215). Il s’était
initié alors à tous les problèmes de l’apostolat africain et entreprit
aisément son travail missionnaire jusqu’à sa nomination, le 7 juin
1946, comme Préfet apostolique de Sokodé.
– Albert Reiff (1919-1992). Après son ordination à l’église paroissiale
de Saint-Pierre en France le 28 février 1943 par Mgr Hauger, la
mission où il fut envoyé était Bombouaka où il prit à cœur sa tâche
missionnaire. Très vite, il apprit la langue du milieu qu’il parlait
habilement ; ce qui laisse supposer une grande ténacité dans l’effort.
er– Jean Angst (1913-1981). Il arriva à Niamtougou le 1 mars 1946 et se
dit heureux d’être messager de la foi dans cette population de
Niamtougou. En quelques mois, il a déjà fait de bons progrès dans la
connaissance du nawdem et fut envoyé à Siou à 12 km de
Niamtougou, pour entreprendre la christianisation dans cette localité
qui dépendait de la station principale de Niamtougou.
– Emile Hebting (1888-1966). Au début de 1922, à la suite des
circonstances issues de la Première Guerre mondiale, un nouveau
champ d’apostolat lui fut assigné au Togo. Le 20 janvier, il rouvrit
avec le Père Kennis, la mission d’Atakpamé. Il dut apprendre une
nouvelle langue : l’éwé en dehors de l’Ibo. Son premier champ
d’apostolat ayant été le Nigeria occidental où il apprit la langue
principale de ce pays.
– Eugène Christ (1912-1979). Le 26 novembre 1938, il s’embarqua pour
le Togo et arriva à Sokodé le 22 décembre. Il fut nommé pour la
mission de Mango. Arrivant à Lama-Kara (actuel Kara), il commença

6
Se référer à la deuxième partie.
23 à apprendre la langue de la région : c’était depuis le début de sa vie
missionnaire, la troisième langue vernaculaire qu’il apprenait.
– Jean Dauphin (1907-1972). Affecté à Bassari (actuel Bassar), il
s’initia sous la direction du Père Kennis à la pastorale missionnaire. Il
étudia la langue du milieu, laquelle, avoue-t-il, lui paraît des plus
compliquées. Mais il s’y adonna peu à peu et put communiquer avec
la population locale.
– Antoine Hickenbick (1899-1989). Arrivé au Togo le 2 octobre 1930, il
resta d’abord à Lomé où il s’appliqua à étudier la langue de sa
nouvelle mission. Ce qui lui permit d’occuper divers postes au Togo :
Tsévié, Lomé, Amoutivé, Agou, Agbélouvé, Noépé, Agadji,
DanyiAfagnan puis Lomé-Bè dès 1966. Le Père Klerlein qui l’a bien connu
au Togo a noté quelques observations qui trouvent bien leur place ici :
« …Il possédait bien la langue du Sud-Togo, ce qui lui permit de bien
connaitre ses paroissiens et de prêcher sans interprète dans les
stations » (Gass, 1998 : 158).

Il ressort de cette première partie que les missionnaires européens ont
toujours eu comme première préoccupation, une fois en poste au Togo,
l’annonce de l’Evangile en vue de la conversion au Christ, des populations
autochtones de leur lieu d’affectation. Pour ce faire, ils n’ont pas tardé à
apprendre les langues locales qui étaient pourtant ignorées, méprisées et
7même interdites dans les écoles par les colonisateurs . Ce faisant, les
missionnaires ont été indirectement parmi les promoteurs des langues
vernaculaires. Parallèlement à l’évangélisation, certains parmi eux ont eu le
souci de transcrire les textes bibliques en langues locales. Ce qui permit aux
catéchistes et aux chrétiens de disposer des documents adaptés à
l’évangélisation aussi bien en langues européennes qu’en langues
vernaculaires. C’est ainsi qu’apparut la littérature togolaise.
2. Emergence de la littérature togolaise
Les missionnaires catholique et protestant ont joué également un rôle
majeur dans l’apparition de la littérature au Togo.
2.1. La contribution des missionnaires protestants à l’émergence de
la littérature au Togo
Les missionnaires protestants de l’Eglise évangélique tenaient beaucoup à ce
que les gens, non seulement puissent écouter la Parole dans leur propre langue,

7 Voir aussi à ce sujet la lettre circulaire n° 707 datée de Lomé, le 28 septembre 1922 du
Commissaire de la République du Togo à Messieurs les Commandants des Cercles du Togo,
ANT-Togo, 2APA, Mango, dossier n°46.
24 mais aussi puissent la lire et l’écrire. C’est la raison pour laquelle la maîtrise de
la langue éwé par les premiers missionnaires conduisit rapidement à sa
transcription. Ainsi depuis l’élaboration scientifique de la langue éwé par
Schlegel vers 1857, la Mission de Brême entreprit la traduction des livres du
8Nouveau Testament, notamment certains évangiles et certaines épîtres . Ce
travail fut poursuivi sans relâche et vers 1910, il fut définitivement mis en place
un comité. Sous la direction des Pasteurs missionnaires Jakob Spieth et Gottlob
Daübe, ce comité remit les manuscrits qui furent envoyés en 1911, à Brême en
Allemagne pour impression. En effet, de nombreux ouvrages littéraires ou
scientifiques furent publiés dans cette langue. Le nombre d’ouvrages ainsi
publiés est de 10400 en 1913, selon le Pasteur missionnaire Paul Wiegräbe
(Attignon, 1995 : 37). Parmi eux figurent les dictionnaires et la grammaire
publiés (en 1905 et 1907) par Westermann. Ce dernier fut l’un des grands
traducteurs éwé, celui qui a tellement travaillé sur cette langue et qui, avec
d’autres missionnaires, a fait naître la littérature éwé selon le pasteur Emmanuel
9Ayivi (Marguérat et Péléï, 1992 : 171-172).
Enfin, grâce à l’inspecteur Zahn des écoles évangéliques, un mensuel en éwé
devait être édité sur place. Les objectifs visés étaient de faciliter l’évangélisation,
l’échange d’expériences, l’étude de la langue et des coutumes nationales et les
informations diverses. A cet effet, il fut envoyé à Stuttgart en Allemagne,
quelques collaborateurs des missionnaires pour l’acquisition des connaissances
en imprimerie et la reliure : il s’agit de Théophile Asieni et Gebhard Mensa.
Mais à leur retour, il se posa le problème de fonctionnement de la machine et
finalement, l’impression de la revue dénommée « Nutifafa na mi », « La paix
soit avec vous » se fit à Brême en Allemagne.
On ne saurait passer sous silence la publication d’une monographie de 1042
pages en allemand et en éwé sous le titre « Die Eve-Stämme » ou « Evedukowo »
« Les communautés évé » par Jacob Spieth ainsi que la transcription de chants
religieux. Ce qui donna naissance au recueil de cantique appelé « Hadzigbale ».
De l’ouverture de la station de Lomé en 1895 au départ des Allemands en 1914,
ce livre s’est enrichi de 263 nouveaux cantiques, portant ainsi le total à 414
cantiques (Gbédémah, 2011 : 27-28).
La question que l’on peut se poser est que sont devenus les 10400
ouvrages rédigés par les missionnaires allemands jusqu’en 1913? Selon nos
10informateurs , beaucoup d’ouvrages ont été volés. D’autres, faute
d’entretien ont subi une dégradation avancée et sont inutilisables. Mais
certains livres ont été récupérés par l’Eglise évangélique, héritière des biens
des missionnaires allemands de Brême et se trouvent à la section de la
recherche et documentation du Bloc synodal.

8 Lettres en matière de religion. Exemple : épître de Saint-Paul.
9 Il s’agit d’un ancien modérateur de l’Eglise évangélique du Togo.
10 er Mme Kpodo Colette et Ekpé Dodji, entretiens des 1 et 2 juillet 2014 à la section recherche
et documentation du Bloc Synodal.
25 Après la Première Guerre mondiale, les missionnaires français de la Société
des missions évangéliques de Paris (SMEP) qui succédèrent aux Allemands ont
produit aussi d’importants travaux ethnolinguistiques et littéraires en kabiyè.
En 1937, le pasteur Jean Faure qui se consacra à l’évangélisation du pays
kabiyè étudia la langue et rédigea un manuel de catéchisme en kabiyè de
même que l’évangile de Saint Luc (Attignon, 1995 : 65). Mais le
protestantisme ne prit véritablement son essor en pays kabiyè qu’au
lendemain de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, sous l’impulsion du pasteur
Jacques Delord (Verdier, 1982 : 151). Envoyé dans la région en 1946 par la
Société des missions évangéliques de Paris, tout comme son prédécesseur le
pasteur Jean Faure, il s’est mis au travail et a appris la langue locale. Il
traduisit les textes bibliques, composa une liturgie, un calendrier et une
grammaire abrégée de kabiyè (polycopie de 299 pages). Au même moment,
les missionnaires de l’Eglise catholique en faisaient autant.
2.2. L’apport des missionnaires de l’Eglise catholique à l’émergence
de la littérature togolaise
Par l’intermédiaire des missionnaires allemands de la Société du verbe
divin (SVD) puis de leurs homologues français de la Société des missions
africaines (SMA) de Lyon, l’Eglise catholique a également joué un rôle
majeur dans l’émergence de la littérature togolaise.
Sur le plan scolaire, les missionnaires SVD ont composé 13 œuvres en
trois langues : allemand, éwé et mina. Il s’agissait, selon le RP Skweres, des
livres de lecture, de grammaire, de dictionnaires et de livres d’explication
pour les élèves. Au niveau de la littérature religieuse,
« Plusieurs catéchismes, petits et grands, furent composés à base d’œuvres
allemandes qui avaient fait leurs preuves. Les missionnaires ne manquaient
cependant pas de les adapter de plus en plus aux conditions culturelles du
pays… » (Skweres, 1993 : 42)
Dans l’ensemble, pendant que les Pères Witte, Litzenburger, Stangier, Rost,
Hoffmann, Mertens et Ewen faisaient des recherches et publiaient des œuvres
sur la langue éwé, les pères Franz et Karl Wolf concentraient leurs études sur le
11mina . Le Père Breitkopf étudia et publia une étude scientifique sur la chaise
des ancêtres au Togo. Quant au père Witte, il publia non seulement des études
scientifiques sur le serment royal des Ewé, le langage de leurs tam-tams, le culte
des jumeaux et les rites d’initiation des jeunes filles, mais aussi collectionna et
publia plusieurs chants en 1906 et 150 proverbes éwés dès 1903. Le Père Wolf
Karl publia la grammaire allemande en guin tandis que le Père Even J. édita la
grammaire éwé. Mais c’est le Père Hoffmann qui avait beaucoup travaillé pour
la Mission catholique. Particulièrement doué pour les langues, il avait écrit

11 Pour plus d’information, se reférer aussi au Père Joh.-Thauren, Die Mission in der
ehemaligen deutschen Kolonie Togo, Stegl, 44p.
26 plusieurs ouvrages en éwé : catéchisme, histoires bibliques, livres de prière,
grammaire, dictionnaire, etc. (Marguérat et Pélei, 1992 : 108). Il faut aussi
mettre à l’actif des missionnaires SVD une littérature non scolaire de caractère
religieux comprenant deux importantes œuvres : le “Dzifomo” et le “Mia Holo”.
12En effet, le livre religieux le plus connu est le “Dzifomo” (Chemin du ciel). Il
s’agit d’un livre de prières et de cantiques pour la liturgie, les dévotions
paraliturgiques et la prière privée. Ecrit par le Père Stangier, la première édition
date de 1905. En 1916, fut imprimée la deuxième édition à l’imprimerie de
l’Ecole Professionnelle de Lomé. En 1911, les missionnaires SVD publièrent
aussi un mensuel appelé “Mia Holo” (Notre Ami). Ce journal fut également
imprimé à l’Ecole Professionnelle de Lomé. Il comptait huit pages dont une ou
deux étaient écrites en allemand, les autres en éwé. 1200 exemplaires furent
régulièrement vendus (Skweres, 1993 : 43).
Après la Première Guerre mondiale, les missionnaires français de la SMA
qui remplacèrent ceux de la SVD firent aussi un important travail
linguistique et littéraire comme en témoigne le cas des Pères Emile Reibstein
et Joseph Franck.
Le Père Emile Riebstein (1891-1974)
erAprès son ordination le 1 juillet 1917, son premier poste en Afrique fut
Cape-Coast au Ghana actuel. Dès le début de l’année 1918, il fut nommé
pour le Togo qui devint, pendant une trentaine d’années, le pays où il exerça
son activité missionnaire. Une fois sur place et à la demande de Mgr
JeanMarie Cessou, il eut un important travail à faire : rédiger une grammaire et
un vocabulaire de la langue éwé, deux outils indispensables aux
missionnaires qui viendraient au Togo. Ce travail fut effectué en 1923-1924
et les deux livres furent imprimés en 1925. Une deuxième édition de la
13grammaire parut en 1947 préfacée par le RP Kwakoumé . Dès 1935 déjà, il
lui fut décerné comme décoration les palmes académiques pour ses travaux
de linguistique éwé et pour son action remarquable à la direction des écoles.
Il importe de souligner quelques passages de l’homélie de Mgr Lingenhein
lors de ses obsèques :
« Proche des Togolais, …, vous l’étiez par votre profonde compréhension, par
votre effort constant en vue de pénétrer et saisir le sens de leurs us et coutumes,
par votre effort d’assimilation des secrets de leur langue et leurs proverbes. Par
amour pour eux et aussi pour permettre aux jeunes missionnaires d’être en
mesure de mieux les approcher et de mieux les comprendre, vous vous êtes attelé
à la rude tâche de la composition d’un dictionnaire Ewé-Français et
FrançaisEwé et d’un livre d’exercices. Vous y avez ajouté un syllabaire Ewé longtemps
en usage dans les écoles catholiques et même dans les écoles officielles quand

12 Il est encore employé aujourd’hui par les fidèles de l’Eglise catholique.
13
Premier prêtre du Togo français ordonné le 23 septembre 1928.
27 l’étude de la langue éwé y fut introduite. Nombreux sont les jeunes missionnaires
qui se sont servis de vos travaux… » (Gass, 1998 : 272).
Le Père Joseph Franck (1913-1971)
14Les lignes qui suivent, extraites d’un article de Mgr Joseph Strebler
donnent des renseignements bien détaillés sur la personnalité et les travaux du
missionnaire. Après son ordination, ses supérieurs l’ont d’abord retenu trois ans
en Alsace pour enseigner dans leur école apostolique de Haguenau : là, le jeune
prêtre s’est distingué par sa compétence pour toutes les branches du programme
d’études secondaires. Missionnaire au plus profond de l’âme, il soupirait après
l’Afrique. A sa grande satisfaction, il fut désigné pour le Togo en juillet 1939,
pour y remplacer le jeune Père Hartmann, décédé trois mois auparavant à la
suite d’un empoisonnement accidentel, à l’Ecole des Catéchistes à Togoville.
Arrivé à Lomé le 28 juillet 1939, il prit sans tarder la relève du disparu, et il se
mit immédiatement avec ardeur à l’étude de l’éwé.
Grâce à ses contacts directs avec les gens, il devint rapidement un pasteur
aimé et écouté de tous. Il prêchait toujours sans interprète en dialecte. C’est à
Koudjravi (1949-1959) qu’il traduisit l’épître de saint Paul aux Romains en
éwé. Il la fit imprimer et elle fut largement diffusée par lui. Selon Gass
(1998 : 100) il passait des nuits entières à faire des travaux de l’écriture en
éwé. Peut-être a-t-il ainsi trop présumé de ses forces, et contracté par là, sans
s’en douter, le germe de la maladie qui l’a miné ses dernières années. Même
rentré en France, il n’était pas question pour lui de rester inactif durant ses
années de convalescence. Volontiers, il mit ses talents au service des futurs
missionnaires, dans l’enseignement, soit à Hagueneau (1965-1967), soit à
Saint-Pierre (1967-1970) où il enseigna aux grands séminaristes une
méthode pratique pour apprendre rapidement une langue africaine.
Aussi depuis l’érection de la Préfecture apostolique de Sokodé en 1937, il
n’y avait pas de catéchisme écrit dans les langues parlées au Nord-Togo. Pour y
remédier, il fut créée le 27 août 1943, une commission de catéchisme. Le
président fut Mgr Joseph Strebler et les membres les Pères Joseph Fisher,
Gabriel Lelièvre et Antoine Brungard (Müller, 1968 : 183). Ce dernier
impressionna beaucoup ses confrères par sa maîtrise parfaite de plusieurs
langues locales. Il reçut alors l’autorisation de travailler dans les langues comme
le kabiyè, le nawdem, le lam et le sola ; les autres membres de la commission
devant travailler chacun dans la langue de son milieu. Avec l’assistance des
catéchistes, les passages de la Bible furent transcrits, permettant aussi à la
population de disposer du catéchisme en langue vernaculaire.
Le Père Antoine Brungard traduisit le catéchisme du diocèse de
Strasbourg et rédigea une grammaire et un dictionnaire en kabiyè à
l’imprimerie Notre-Dame de la Providence de Lomé en 1937, de même

14
Voir J.Strebler, (1971 : 26-29).
28 qu’un ancien testament en kabiyè (il s’agit d’une traduction résumée), un
catéchisme kabiyè imprimé en 1950 à Rome et un catéchisme en nawdem
15imprimé en 1951 à Rome.
En milieu tem, le Père Gabriel Lelièvre produisit le catéchisme en tem et
réalisa de nombreux travaux sur l’histoire et un grand nombre d’ouvrages
linguistiques : une grammaire et un lexique dans la langue locale, une édition
des évangiles accompagnés d’homélies pour les dimanches, un manuel de
conversation, un livre de lecture et un ouvrage sur les coutumes des tem et les
légendes du Togo qui n’ont finalement pas été publiés (Bisson et Guillaume,
2004 : 155).
En pays moba, le Père Albert Diebold (1910-1986) est à signaler. Le
jeudi 30 décembre 1937, il arriva à Mango, mission à laquelle il était affecté.
Arrivé au Togo le 5 janvier 1942, le Père Paul Welsch fut affecté à la
mission de Bombouaka et arriva à Mango le 7 février. Le Père Diebold et lui
partirent à bicyclette pour Bombouaka, une « Mission splendide » écrivit le
Père Welsch. Ils y passèrent un peu plus d’une année consacrée à l’étude de
la langue locale : le moba. Ils préparèrent ensemble un catéchisme, le
premier en langue moba, qui fut imprimé en 1945 à Lomé avec l’aide du
catéchiste Martin Sankardja (Evêché de Dapaong, 1977 : 34).
Quant au Père Joseph Roth (1917-1985), arrivé au Togo le 10 septembre
1945, il travailla dans les missions du Nord-Togo, notamment à Yadè, Siou,
Pagouda. L’influence exercée par le Père Roth sur la population lui vint en
bonne partie de sa connaissance remarquable de la langue du milieu : le
kabiyè. Il avait compris l’extrême importance de pouvoir parler aux gens
dans leur propre langue. Aussi l’étudiait-il avec assiduité. Il avait rédigé des
notes, un lexique, composé de cantiques, effectué des traductions. Il fit
apparaître une grammaire en kabiyè de 104 pages dactylographiés, pour
laquelle il était parti de « cahiers d’essais » composé par le Père Antoine
Brungard : il avait copié ces cahiers en 1947. Aussi publiait-il la grammaire
en kabiyè « en mémoire du grand missionnaire du pays kabiyè-losso, le Père
Antoine Brungard » (Gass, 1998 : 285). Cette publication était aussi la
preuve que le Père Roth portait les populations dans son cœur.
En somme, ce fut un mérite pour les missionnaires de la période coloniale de
fournir à leurs confrères et aux communautés chrétiennes naissantes les livres
nécessaires pour la grammaire et surtout pour l’évangélisation dans les langues
locales.
Conclusion
Il ressort de cette étude que les missionnaires européens ont joué un rôle
prépondérant dans la promotion des langues locales et l’émergence de la
littérature au Togo. Venus pour évangéliser et témoigner de l’amour de Dieu

15
Mayéda Kabraitchouka, Entretien du 26 février 2014 à Kara.
29 pour les hommes, ils ont ouvert les premières écoles et appris les langues
vernaculaires. L’objectif était de pouvoir communiquer facilement avec la
population dans ces langues et transmettre aisément le message du Christ dont
ils étaient porteurs. De surcroît, étant parvenus à les transcrire, ils ont été à
l’origine de la naissance de la littérature togolaise. Grâce à eux, les langues des
populations autochtones du Togo furent désormais écrites et chaque peuple put
disposer, entre autres, des livres, d’un catéchisme, d’un livre de prières et de
cantiques, d’une grammaire, d’un dictionnaire pour certains, d’une traduction du
Nouveau Testament et des Epîtres et Evangiles du dimanche et finalement d’une
Bible pour d’autres. Ces importants travaux ethnolinguistiques et littéraires ainsi
réalisés en langues européenne et vernaculaire ont permit de doter les Missions
chrétiennes (catholique et évangélique) et leurs écoles, de documents
pédagogiques et de formation humaine et religieuse. Très vite, certains élèves
sortis des écoles confessionnelles suivirent les pas des missionnaires et purent
apporter aussi leur contribution au développement de la littérature togolaise.
C’est le cas de religieux comme Raphael Adjola qui laissa de nombreux écrits
en kabiyè et de Roberto Pazzi qui laissa un document sur l’apprentissage du
guin, de l’adja et de l’éwé. C’est aussi le cas de David Kuessan Ananou qui fut
élève à l’école de la cathédrale de Lomé et organiste de la chorale
SaintChristophe de ladite cathédrale. Il devint l’un des premiers Togolais à avoir écrit
un roman en 1950 sous le titre « Le Fils du fétiche » et à l’avoir publié en 1955
aux Editions Latines de Paris.
En définitive, apprendre une langue est une richesse. Cela permet de
découvrir l’autre et la richesse de sa culture. Ce qui permet d’éviter toute
idée de supériorité d’un peuple sur un autre ou d’une race sur une autre.
Sources et bibliographie
Sources orales (principaux informateurs)
Nom et prénoms Age Profession Date et lieu de l’entretien
AMEZIAN Grégoire - Bibliothécaire 26 mai 2014 à Lomé
erEKPE Dodji Assistant 1 et 2 juillet 2014
-
documentaliste à Lomé
KABRAITCHOUKA Mayéda 76 ans Ancien combattant 26 février 2014 à Kara
KINGA Sévérin - Responsable SMA 8 avril 2014 à Lomé
KOKOU Jean 46 ans Chauffeur 26 avril 2014 à Lomé
KOUDOAGBA Kisito ≈ 46 ans Econome 7 mars 2014 à Lomé
erKPODO Collette 1 et 2 juillet 2014
≈ 40 ans Documentaliste
à Lomé
SKWERES Diter 75 ans Missionnaire SMA 26 avril 2014 à Lomé
30 Sources écrites
Archives Nationales du Togo (ANT) – Lomé
Fonds allemand
FA1/411, Verordnungen 1905-1906, Schulen und Missioner 1905
Fonds français
APA (Affaires Politiques et Administratives) : Cercle de Mango
Dossier 46 : Correspondances générales. - 2APA : Cercle de Dapaong (1913 – 1968)
Dossier 137 : Circulaires et notes de service
Dossier 155 : Missions catholiques : arrêtés, correspondances relatifs aux activités
des missions catholiques
Bibliographie
Ali-Napo P., Le Togo à l’époque allemande : 1884-1914, Paris, Sorbonne, Thèse
d’Etat ès-Lettres et Sciences Humaines, cinq volumes, 1995, 2507 p.
Attignon H.K., Centenaire de l’Eglise Evangélique Presbytérienne du Togo, Lomé,
Les Presses Offset C.T.C.E., 1995, 126p.
Bisson V., Guillaume J-M., et al, Saga Missionnaire et Société des Missions
Africaines Province de Strasbourg des fondateurs à nos jours, Strasbourg,
Editions du signe, 2004,405p.
Cornevin R., Le Togo : des origines à nos jours, Paris, Académie des Sciences
d’Outre-mer, 1988,556p.
Delord J., Le Kabiyè, Wiesbaden, Wiesbadener Graphische betriebe Gmbtt, 1976,
465p.
Evêché de Dapaong, Notes historiques sur la mission et le diocèse de Dapaong,
èmeDapaong, 3 édition revue et corrigée, 1989, 47p.
Gass J., Au service de l’Afrique : Bibliographie de 92 missionnaires de la Société
des Missions Africaines-Province de Strasbourg, Dijon-Quentigny, 1998,383p.
Gbédémah S.Y., La Mission de Brême du Togo : la proclamation d’une meilleure
qualité de vie, Lomé, Editions Haho, 2011, 282p.
Marguerat Y. et Péléï T., Si Lomé m’était contée…, tome 1, Lomé, Presses de
l’Université du Bénin (Lomé), 1992,240p.
Müller K., Histoire de l’Eglise catholique au Togo, Traduction et adaptation de
Georges Athanasiadès, Lomé, Librairie Bon Pasteur, 1968, 251p.
Napala K., Les forces religieuses et les rapports interreligieux au Togo sous la
colonisation française : 1914-1960, Thèse de doctorat d’Histoire moderne et
contemporaine, Université Michel Montaigne-Bordeaux 3, Tome 2, 2007, 642 p.
Pazzi R., Cours d’initiation aux langues Eve, Aja, G ε, Bologna, l’EMI (Edittrice
Missionaria Italiana) via Meloncello, 1977,243p.
31 Skweres D., Arnold Janssen un Saint qui prie pour le Togo, Lomé, Ediverbum-SVD,
2003, 50p.
Skweres D., et VETERA. Les méthodes d’évangélisation des premiers
missionnaires SVD au Togo (1892-1918), Lomé, Ediverbum-SVD, 1993, 56p.
Thauren J., Die Mission in der ehmaligen deutschen Koloni Togo, Steyl, Imprimatur,
1931,44p.
Verdier R: Le pays kabiyè cité des dieux-cité des hommes, Paris, Editions Karthala,
1982, 215p.
32 Socio-Political Alienation in Contemporary
African Fiction: A Reading of Chinua Achebe’s
*Anthills of the Savannah
Abstract
Chinua Achebe discusses a form of government in which one person
possesses absolute power without any effective constitutional control, uses
brutal military force to gain more power, and controls the flow of
information. To achieve this, the novelist combines multiple narrative styles
and techniques to construct his story. I use the Marxist critical approach to
shed light on the relationship between oppressor and the oppressed in
Achebe’s novel.
Key words : government, military power, constitution, control, alienation,
political, social.
Résumé
Chinua Achebe discute d’une forme de gouvernement dans laquelle une
seule personne possède un pouvoir absolu sans un control constitutionnel,
utilise la dictature militaire pour gagner plus de pouvoir, et contrôle le flux
d’information. Cet article a recours au Marxisme comme approche
analytique pour offrir une plus grande compréhension de la relation entre
l’opprimé et l’oppresseur dans le roman de Chinua Achebe.
Mots clés : gouvernement, pouvoir militaire, la constitution, contrôle,
aliénation, politique, sociale.
Introduction
Chinua Achebe’s Anthills of the Savannah focuses on alienation from
socio-political and economic institutions, in authoritarian nations like his
fictional Nigeria and examines the political well-being of the former

* Bawa KAMMAMPOAL, Université de Kara Département d’Anglais
kammampoalbawa@yahoo.fr.
colonizer so as to measure the extent to which individuals feel powerless
over government. Such attitudes may be connected to a situation of
normlessness, or anomie, which occurs when individuals are no longer
guided by the political rules. The motivation for the topic centers on the fact
that socio-political and economic alienation still thrives in contemporary
society and advocates that the general public must rise up against all forms
of alienation. This research seeks to provide an insight into as well as an
analysis of the socio-political and economic trends that characterized the
military days of Nigeria’s recent past. The purpose of this essay is to
critically examine how socio-political and economic alienation manifests
itself in Chinua Achebe’s novel. In this, I shall examine the characters and
their experiences and analyze how the novelist presents a society that needs
restoration. The concept of alienation is used in this paper to mean the state
of feeling confused, lost, lonely, helpless, and desire for dependence.
Anthills of the Savannah is going to be analyzed in this essay by focusing on
two features of alienation; social and political with reference to economic
alienation considering Gromso’s fundamental thesis that it is the economic
dominant class that controls the social and political apparatus.
Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2000: 27) defines alienation as
“making somebody feel that he/she does not belong to a particular group”.
From this, it can be argued that alienation can be seen as ceasing to feel as
one with the society and the world in order to re-affirm one’s identity and to
ask questions about the strange society in which one has one’s being.
Alienation is a feeling of not belonging. This feeling can be physical, mental,
religious, spiritual, psychological, political, social, or economic. At one time
or another, each one of us has experienced alienation in one form or another
whether in a school, among family members, in religion, in politics, and in
society. The most common form of alienation is the physical and cultural
kind experiencing “foreignness” or “culture shock”. This is also the kind of
alienation that is most easily understood; however, when one feels alienated
in one’s own home, society, religion, or culture, it is more difficult to
rationalize or understand that feeling of not belonging. Sociopolitical
alienation consists of attitudes whereby citizens develop or fail to develop
meanings and evaluations about government and about their own power or
powerlessness in politics. Specifically, political alienation is composed of
the attitudes of distrust and inefficacy. Distrust or cynicism is a generalized
negative attitude about governmental outputs: the policies, operations, and
conditions produced by government. Compared to the simple dislike of a
particular policy or official, distrust is broader in scope. Whereas distrust is
an evaluation of governmental outputs, inefficacy is an expectation about
inputs, that is, the processes of influence over government. People have a
“sense of inefficacy when they judge themselves as powerless to influence
government policies or deliberations” (Gamson 1971).
34 Chinua Achebe like most African writers directs their literary efforts
towards raising the socio-political and economic contradiction inherent in
their societies and thereby arouses awareness. Explicitly stated or tacitly
assumed, the notion of alienation remained central to Marx’s social and
economic analysis. In an alienated society, the whole mind-set of men and
their consciousness is to a large extent only the reflection of the conditions in
which they find themselves and of the position in the process of production
in which they are variously placed. This suggests Marx’s sociology of
knowledge, which will serve as a critical framework to this essay. Marxism,
in its pursuit of socio-political change attempts to redefine human existence
through social strata.
The methodological approach in this study draws from the Marxist theory
of Alienation. To be specific, socio-political and economic alienation have
also been chosen for this research work. This approach considers and uses
literature as a weapon that can be used for the liberation of the less
privileged masses and the down-trodden who have been relegated in the
society. The Marxist approach to literature is a modern approach where
dialectic materialism is emphasized. When literature began to be recognized
as a weapon for social change, Karl Marx, a nineteenth century political
thinker, brought about the Marxist approach as a struggle of the individual
economic and political power. In its pursuit of socio-political change,
Marxism attempts to redefine human existence through class.Alienation, one
of the theories of Marxism, has been chosen for this research using Anthills
of the Savannah. Closely linked with history in its various ramifications,
alienation is an essential contradiction in the social process. It is therefore an
inevitable social phenomenon in the materialist interpretation of history and
the psychological process that relates to all forms of production whether in
terms of social service, amenities or imaginative creativity. The most
predominant and fundamental facet of alienation is that which is economic.
Basically, the artist is then forced to produce the literature of social classes
by defining the relationship between work, art and ideology. Alienation in
Anthills of the Savannah is therefore manifested in the relationship between
the oppressed characters and the apparatus of what Paulo Frere regards as
“director society”. Contemporary African fiction has proved beyond
reasonable doubt that African history and literature are replete with
contradictions.
1. Definitional Issues: Review of Literature
Marx’s theory of alienation has been thoroughly addressed by various
scholars, in particular Ollman (1976), and Seeman (1959). During the last
few decades many other contributions have been made in the fields of
sociology and psychology concerning alienation. However, since the focus
of the proposed study is literary, no attempt will be made to contribute to
35 these fields. The aim is to apply these recent theoretical contributions to the
literature that stems from the alienated society and alienated individuals in
order to come to a better understanding of how alienation manifests in
Anthills of the Savannah. For Seeman (1959: 788), social isolation “is most
common in descriptions of the intellectual role, where writers refer to the
detachment of the intellectual from popular cultural standards”. The root
meaning of alienation had to do with a relationship to property. For instance,
one can decide to alienate one’s property by transferring it to another person,
or perhaps an institution. However, during the seventeenth century, the focus
of the term shifted from material to immaterial possessions such as rights
and sovereignty over one’s self. In this sense, alienation is seen as an
estrangement from one’s physical and psychological environment which
breeds in the process frustration and aggression; a form of what I call
exploitation, intimidation and oppression. In other words, it is the
deprivation of an individual’s right economically, physically, politically,
socially and psychologically. In conjunction with social or collective ethics,
alienation is a substitution for ‘non-conformism’; either in form of
‘individualism’ or ‘collectivism’ and that individual or group is seen usually
as being alone, lonely and deeply troubled in such a way that whatever the
individual or the group does the individual or group finds no fulfillment at
all. Ingelhart (2000: 100) perceives alienation as a form of isolation when he
says:
Alienation can also refer to the isolation of individuals from a community- a
detachment from the activities, identification and ties that a community can
provide. In addition, the concept of alienation has included the notion of cultural
radicalism or estrangement from the established values of a society.
Alienation involves an individual estranging self from the social whole
order to prevent self from being swallowed up in the whole. This
estrangement or the breaking up of self from the surroundings results in
restlessness, continuous state of anxiety and worry. From the materialists
approach to the concept of alienation, Ollman (1971: 8) asserts:
Man being separated from his work (he plays no part in deciding what to do or
how to do it)-a break between the individual and his life activity. Man is said to
be separated from his own products (he has no control over what he makes or
what becomes of it afterwards) – a break between the individual and the material
world. He is also said to be separated from his fellow man (competition and class
hostility have rendered most forms of cooperation impossible) – a break between
man and man. In each instance, a relation that distinguishes the human species
has disappeared and its constituent elements have been re-organized to appear as
something else.
Historically, alienation is a negative, corrupt and exploitative
phenomenon. It is a core area of materialist interpretation of history and
psychological process as regards to all forms of production. Ollman’s view
36 can be regarded as a materialist’s approach to the concept of alienation. It
views alienation in terms of social and ethics or moral code of conducts that
are violated, polluted thereby dislocating the social apparatus. Alienation is
the inescapable moral burden of the individual that could either be willful or
object; natural or dialectical in that it is a product of human activity and thus
can be rectified through human activity. Ollman (1971: 9) citing Marx sees
alienation as “distortion and a separation”. He notes that “an alienated man is
an abstraction” because that he has lost touch with all human specificity.
In relating alienation to the social situation of the society, one can see to
what alienation results when the members of a social structure have the
feelings of being estranged from their society. Encyclopedia Britannica
refers to alienation in social sciences to the “state of feeling estranged or
separated from one’s milieu, work, products of work or self”. Durkheim
(1976) viewed alienation as “the consequence of a condition of ‘anomie’, or
“the perceived lack of socially approved means and norms to guide one’s
behaviour for the purpose of achieving culturally prescribed goals”. It was
rather a new dimension to the explanation of alienation quite contrary to the
previous ones. Durkheim (1976: 416) asserted that “if human needs are not
proportionate to the available means, no individual can be happy”. But
usually, human needs are unlimited because all these needs are not
biogeneric which may not exceed the physical demands of a body. Most of the
human needs are social and in a competitive society, these needs are ever
increasing. Durkheim’s concept of ‘anomie’ was further refined by Merton
(1976: 166).He described ‘anomie’ as “breakdown in the social structure,
occurring particularly when there is an acute disjunction between the cultural
goals and the socially structured capacities of members of the group to act in
accord with them”. Seeman (1991) in his contribution also, defines
alienation when he says:
Alienation is a phenomenon in which the individual perceives himself as: unable
to control socio-political events occurring around him; unclear about his beliefs
(either interpretations or norms) and the world around, unable to make decisions
and thus unable to predict consequences of his own behaviour; facing disjunction
between his personal goals and socially approved means to attain those goals;
different from others and the normative system in the society, hence separated
from others and the society at large; and as a consequence; estranged from
himself.
And breaks down alienation into five variants which are explained below:
– Powerlessness: This phenomenon was first discussed by Marx in
terms of ‘lack of control’. However, Seeman asserted that
powerlessness is a socio psychological phenomenon rather than an
objective condition in society.
– Normlessness: This variant of alienation has its root in the concept of
‘anomie’ as conceived by Merton (1957) and Durkheim (1976).
Merton (1957: 427) asserted that ‘anomie’ is “a failure of
37 institutionally prescribed means or conduct to achieve culturally
prescribed goals”.
– Meaninglessness: In the state of meaninglessness, individual’s ability
to predict about social situations and the outcome of his own
behaviour is diminished.
– Self-Estrangement: According to Seeman, “a person is self-estranged
when engaged in an activity that is not rewarding in itself but is
instrumental in satisfying extrinsic needs, such as the need for food
and security”.
– Social Isolation: The individual feels himself separate from the
society and its normative system. His dissociation from others and
overall social system leads to a perception of social isolation.
Alienation is the natural consequence of combination of
neocolonialism and capitalism. It is a social phenomenon that breeds
poverty and reduces man to sub-human level. Alienation creates a
huge gap between the ‘haves’ and the ‘have nots’ i.e. alienating one
from the other.

Before tackling the topic in its different articulations, it worth pointing
out that in Hegel’s and Marx’s analyses of civic and capitalist society,
alienation meant a state or a process of human disconnectedness. According
to Claude S. Fischer (1974: 18), “alienation is the state in which the actor
fails to perceive a positive interdependence between himself and social
relationships or other objectifications”.
2. Social alienation
Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2000: 1129) defines socio as
“the study of society”. Social alienation means culturally or socially
disconnected from the social values of a society. Social alienation is a
situation when an individual is in a position of estrangement in cultural
settings that he/she views as unpredictable, unacceptable and foreign. Social
alienation is a situation whereby the ruling class controls the resources
available thereby rationalizing the social well-being of the members in the
society. In this sense, social alienation implies social deprivation of basic
social amenities like hospitals, water, electricity, good roads and education.
Socially alienated people are oppressed, suppressed and alienated by the
ruling class. Chinua Achebe’s Anthills of the Savannah (1987) is a reflection
of the military days in Nigeria. Achebe uses characters as ordinary people
living in poverty to mirror the entire poverty of all the ordinary citizens of
contemporary Africa under a military dictatorship and its attendant
aberrations. The novelist depicts his Excellency, General Sam, a Sandhurst
trained soldier who is the Head of State of the a fictional Kangan Republic,
as power drunk confusionist, who is insensitive to the social and political
38 needs of his own people. This is made evident when His Excellency, Sam,
deprives the people of Abazon from having water.
Anthills of the Savannah starts out by describing a cabinet meeting. After
the session is closed it turns out that outside the palace there is crowd of
people from the province of Abazon who try to meet the President. The
Abazonians are very dissatisfied and frustrated. But later it turns out that
General Sam has actually caused them to suffer by shutting down
waterholes in the province which is suffering from drought. He refuses to meet the
delegation. In his mind, the longtime loyalty of his two friends Ikem and
Christ seems to be evolving into treason. Ikem, a native son of Abazon, the
only province unsupportive of Sam’s campaign for the title President for
Life, appears particularly suspect when a noisy delegation from the province
appears outside the council chamber. Fearing the beginnings of an
insurrection, Sam leaves the meeting and seeks private advice from the
obsequious Professor Okong.
The novelist uses the ordinary citizens of Abazon living in poverty
coupled with drought to mirror the entire poverty of all ordinary people in
contemporary Nigeria. In this instance, Achebe wants his reader to
understand that the commoners and the less privileged are alienated. Achebe
in his narrative shows that social alienation implies social deprivation of
basic amenities like water, good roads, hospitals, good drainage systems.
The delegation of Abazon is deprived of their rights and aspirations. Their
intention to meet the President and read to him their petition was supposed to
be a peaceful one but half way to where the cabinet meeting is held they
were stripped by the police men on the order by the Inspector general of
police. Sam’s military administration brutalizes and subjugates “the poor and
the dispossessed” (141) of Kangan republic. This clearly dramatizes the
military authority’s intolerance and underscores the antithetical relationship
between democracy and military rule as succinctly captured by Achebe in
this instance. Though democracy enjoins participation, General Sam and his
government demands submission and uses violence as a tool of for restoring
order and peace.
After this event, Ikem goes to meet the frustrated delegation. It turns out
that he is in a way one of them, born and raised in Abazon. But when he
leaves the Abazonian delegation that day, he is stopped by the traffic police
because of some misdemenour. It is later revealed in the novel that he was
really followed by one of the powerful branches of Kangan’s State Research
Council agents, who were in need proof that Ikem had actually visited the
delegation so as to accuse him of treason for having sided with the rebellious
Abazonians, who, two years earlier had refused to vote for him. Sometime
after this, Ikem is fired from the National Gazette by orders from the
President, who thinks Ikem’s writing in the Gazette is too critical of his
authoritarian administration. Sacked Ikem makes a radical speech at the
University of Bassa, the capital of Kangan. The speech is purposefully
39 misquoted in the same newspaper, the next day, giving the impression that
Ikem wants the President dead. He’s charged with treason and conspiracy by
the military dictatorial regime and soldiers came to pick him up from his
home and shot him dead. Meanwhile the union leader has ordered his fellow
students to seize all the copies of the Gazette with the “regicide” story and
burn them. Thereafter he writes a letter to the editor to tender apology. Christ
met the student activist Emmanuel and gives him the copy of his statement
issued on the BBC to be distributed to the students. Emmanuel is now a
wanted man by the police. As a result, the university is closed down, the
students are chased out and the female students raped. The aspiration of
students dashed to the ground by the oppressive and domineering
government. Elements of social alienation can be seen in terms of education.
The power vested in military government is used for oppressing the less
privileged and in terms of education. The fact of the matter is that the
educational sector, which is vital in any society have degenerated and have
been neglected by the military government. Since they are the leaders of
tomorrow, the novelist wants the reader to understand that much concern
should be placed on the educational development namely primary, secondary
and the tertiary in a situation that are fully equipped, well-furnished and
situated in hygienic places but on the contrary education has become in this
context a victim of alienation. Thus, Ikem, a poet and artist and a frustrated
journalist is a victim under the oppressive authoritarian and dictatorial
leadership. He is deprived of freedom of speech. In dictatorial regimes,
artists like Ikem are deprived of realizing their dreams and aspirations
because of their ideas. Their creative imagination cannot be brought out
since it is impossible for them to have them published. One of his deeds that
attracted the ire of the status quo is his reports on the political
demonstrations of his own people, the Abazonians. The masses are socially
alienated and are also deprived of cordial relationship between them and the
government, who should normally be the representative of the people in
power. Earlier on in the novel, it has been revealed that all the ministers in
the General-president’s cabinet are all afraid to tell the president about the
issue of the drought-stricken Abazon. This attitude is contrary to democratic
values. For the military leader every hint of dissent and every suspicious
thinking must be wiped out. Thus, the leaders of the Abazon delegation falls
victim and become political prisoners. They are arrested and jailed without a
trial. Various forms of assault and maltreatment are melted out to the
prisoners. It is worth recalling that prisoners in the State of Kangan are
forced to live in subhuman conditions and treated as animals. Chinua
Achebe criticizes the viciousness of the policemen when they rape girls at
the hostel on the campus. Instead of protecting the citizens, they devalue and
defile them. Chinua Achebe’s fictional works namely A Man of the People
(1966) as well as Anthills of the Savannah (1987) are expository write-ups;
expose the filthy and disgusting manner of government and for that matter
40 creates awareness in the reader. This awareness is such that the reader is
exposed to visualize the happenings around him to react to violence to effect
a change amongst the haves and the have not.
3. Political alienation
Political alienation is the distance perceived by individuals between their
governments and themselves. Political alienation describes a certain group of
people who happen to hold views about local and foreign governments.
These views or beliefs are distinguished between feelings about the
institutions and laws themselves. Political alienation embodies personal
powerlessness, the feeling or realization that one’s destiny is determined by
external agents and most importantly, institutional arrangements within the
society. Political alienation is a specified force of nature which affects
operational and conceptual thoughts about political systems. In this sense,
political alienation takes effect when the laws, policies, rules and regulations
of which a state is governed is used by the ruling class to suit the purposes of
the bourgeois, which is a form of exploitation at the expense of the less
privileged.
Political alienation is seen when the democratic hopes of the citizenry
have been destroyed by the state, which has tried to develop capitalism at the
same time retaining popular support. Political alienation is seen when the
government is less responsive to the social hopes, needs and aspirations of
the citizen governed. The less privileged members of the society are often
politically alienated which in turn have negative effects on them. The effects
of political alienation on the less privileged can lead to protestations and
violence which can be classified as a revolutionary struggle. Political
alienation is adversely related to political efficacy. It also relates to people’s
distrust of government. In the words of Gamson (1971: 100)…“Political
alienation is composed of the attitudes of distrust and inefficacy… people
have a sense of inefficacy when they judge themselves as powerless to
influence government policies or deliberations”. Since it is the economically
dominant class that controls the social and political apparatus, it is inevitable
that the oppressed class is manipulated by the social and political forces of
the state. This is the fundamental thesis of the Italian Marxist, Antonio
Gromso (1891-1937) in his discussing of the theory of hegemony. Social and
political alienation assume various many dimensions. Social alienation
implies that the social well-being of the masses is rationalized by those who
control the available material resources and the service rendered to the
majority is reduced into nothingness. Hunger predicates the catastrophic
signature of alienation on the body and the soul. Despite all this, they are
still subjugated by the Machiavellian political apparatus of the state viz the
law enforcement agents, the Secret Intelligence services, prison and
detention camps. According to George Novack, cotemporary monopoly
41 capitalism has so intensified and universalized the conditions of alienation
that its consequences have spread like an unfittable virus through the whole
system.
Anthills of the Savannah reflects Chinua Achebe’s thoughts on the
political, social and economic crisis in contemporary Nigeria. Although the
rulers were no longer European, and although they were a lot closer to the
people than their European predecessors, they fairly soon distanced
themselves from the people. The first instance of this alienation in the novel
is the way Sam deals with the problem of the Abazonian delegation. Instead
of going out to meet them by himself, he assigns someone else to do it as
their coming uninvited there was illegal. The fact that he’s built himself a
luxurious lakeside mansion is another representation of this. In Achebe’s
fiction, the rights of the citizens of Abazon province are subdued par the
authoritarian leader, General Sam. The people of this province have no say
in the law guiding the existence and the problems inherent their society.
They have no choice but to adjust to the present situation of drought. The
way in which Ikem is dealt with by the police for having spoken his mind,
and the hunt for Chris is used as a metaphor by the novelist to universalize
the bizarre political situation in Nigeria during the notorious regime led by
the General who execute those who hold contrary opinions and transformed
Kangan state into a big prison where all semblances of humanity are
violently suppressed and oppressed. This is further illustrated when the
students of Basa university led by Emmanuel decides to seize the Gazette.
The dictatorial government has no tolerance for any democratic breeding
and offers to arrest any student involved in the act. This is highlighted in
General Sam’s rebuke - authoritative command - to Chris at the opening of
the novel—“But me no buts, Mr Oriko!”— the matter is closed, I said” (AS
1).This statement immediately reveals much about his character. It reflects
his military background, and shows that he is impatient and is not ready to
give room for contradictions; or moreover tolerate alternatives, or even
accept conditions that might threaten or undermine his authority. Since he
has no cogent operating ideology, he gets easily offended. Sam’s rule over
Kangan is fatally flawed precisely because it demands confirmation and
forbids contradiction. His training as a military officer at Sandhurst has
blinded him to compromise and taught him to perceive in the absolute terms
of a tyrant. Ikem and Chris are presented to reader as victims of political
alienation as their friendship is shattered by the government. An instance of
dictatorial government using the state apparatus like guns and the police
force to exploit the masses is foregrounded in the episode of the arresting of
Ikem. He was told Ikem was seized with handcuff in hands and wondered
how he managed to seize a gun from the police and was killed in the process.
Although Ikem Osodi, a poet, political thinker, and editor of the national
newspaper, is politically alienated, frustrated and his life made miserable, he
dies more as hero for his ideals while his friend dies devoured by the
42 injustice he decides not to fight against. Ikem is killed because he was a
threat to or a thorn in the flesh of the General President. At the outset of
Anthills of the Savannah, the government of a military strongman has
already entered into a critical stage. Rumors of corruption run rampant, and
Major Johnson Ossai, the chief of the secret police and the army chief of
staff have become the chief of state’s most trusted advisers though his
appointment was in opposition from many senior officers.
A cobweb of police is cast to arrest Christ when he defects; but he
manages to escape to Abazon where he dies under a soldier’s bullet during
the celebration after General Lango took power from General Sam. To me,
with all these arrestations and killings of dissenters Achebe wants to reader
to understand that the Republic of Kangan is in dire need of a revolution.
Freedom of speech is under siege. This can found in an exchange between
Ikem and Christ. Ikem’s philosophy brings him near to the deprived. With
them, he learns and discovers the opinion of the common people on material
acquisition and wealth. They were not all happy with Ikem because he drives
his own old car by himself with no driver. For them, wealth should be
pursued no matter the ways and means at their disposal. Ikem’s morality and
integrity are at stake: he likes wealth but wants his reputation and reputation
to be pure white. This brings out Achebe’s conviction that Ikem Oshodi
struggles and defies death to advance a better society; in other words he
wants to die for the society to survive. To have his ideas materialize, he
often attacks the obnoxious policies of the government for which he has
sacrificed his life. Ikem Oshodi has decided to live according to and
implement the philosophy he preaches. In an exchange with Chris on an
issue believed to be seditious, he makes his intention clear:
“I was calling you about this morning’s editorial………...”
“What about it?”
“What about it! You know, I have given up trying to understand what you are up
to. Really, I have”.
“Good at last!
“How can you go about creating stupid problems for yourself and for everybody
else.”
“As for my editorials, as long as I remain editor of the Gazette, I shall not seek
anybody’s permission for what I write.” (AS 44).
This discussion goes on until, he Ikem, asked Christ to fire him from the
post of the editor of the state paper. When his relationship with the
government became sour not only because of he attend to Abazon delegation
but also because of his “crusading editorials” (AS 43), he decides to fight
back. Chris tells him about the danger involved in this, but he refuses and
eventually got fired from his post and killed.
43 Karl Marx’s theory of alienation, particularly economic alienation is
evident that the masses suffer the fate of economic crisis which alienates
them from their needs. Poverty and hunger are also associated with the lives
of the poor and the oppressed citizens. Because of the economic pressure of
the citizens, their poverty level becomes too glaring in the slums where they
live. To highlight this Achebe presents Elewa, Ikem’s lover who is a
salesgirl in Indian shop, as one of the less privileged citizen; who is
indirectly a victim of sociopolitical and economic alienation and lives in the
slums in an abject poverty.The novel has been analyzed by focusing on two
features of alienation; social and political with reference to economic
alienation. Anthills of the Savannah has been analyzed by focusing on two ic
alienation considering Gromso’s fundamental thesis that it is the economic
dominant class that controls the social and political apparatus. Materialists
trace all forms of alienation to Marxist theory of economic determinism and
define it in terms of social and moral code of conduct that are violated or
polluted, dislocating the social apparatus (D.D. Egbert and Renato Poggioli).
Alienation is a crisis engendered by the infrastructural base which provokes
all forms of alienation.
In Achebe’s novel, a big malaise marked by widespread public belief that
major institutions—businesses, labour unions, and especially the
government, political parties, and political leaders—are unresponsive,
remote, ineffective. Alienation has become a catchword for these sentiments,
detected among discontented workers, angry youth, and militant minority
groups. Christ, Ikem and Beatrice concerned about the increase in alienation
found that only a revolution as to the level of alienation in society, and have
debated the causes, significance, and consequences of alienation and
particularly, political alienation. In my opinion, I think Achebe portrays an
intriguing and realistic portrait of contemporary Africa in terms of
governance. Although the book is set in Nigeria, it did not seem dated at all.
While Achebe accurately portrays the venality and corruption of African
political leaders, he also depicts the genuine humanity and indomitable will
of both ordinary people and leaders who are trying to bring about significant
change. Anthills of the Savannah features a leader who, with force and fraud,
gained despotic political and social control using intimidation and terror to
disregard civil liberties in postcolonial African states. This implies
alienation.
Conclusion
This study has enabled us to understand what has become of a people in
the process of a particular form of political and cultural contact, has
discussed a crucial moment in the process of becoming a stable political
nation and come out with a theoretical paradigm which holds that
44 colonialism and imperialism join hands to be a fact of history that Africans
cannot dismiss. Achebe’s political gangs are sycophants who are
wellorganized and are at the service of the authoritarian strongman who control
and investigate the inner operations of the mind of his close collaborators
with the help of modern technological gadgets. This enables him to make
sedition or ordinance bill, to keep those who dare question his authority
gagged, send them to exile, or round them up in criminal frame and keep
them behind the bars. They only offer to behave like consultants, having and
maintaining their presence in all the parties and waiting for the one that will
eventually succeed for them to clearly identify with. Many observers believe
that the colonial machinery created a military elite that later became military
dictators in the post independence era and stands as a stumbling block to
progress.
Achebe has been radical in his approach to struggles for a more
independent, viable and a corruption free society. He has presented us with a
post colonial society where the military administration uses their political
power to oppress and alienate the poor citizens who try to make any move of
opposition during dictatorial administrations. The novelist has shown with
dexterity how the oppressed masses have reacted to military authorianism,
dictatorship and alienation through pacific means; but the police was
empowered to crush, silence, imprison and execute any opposition to the
harsh laws of the government. From this analysis, I have found that
alienation has oppressed, suppressed and subjected the masses. The novelist
has used specifically Ikem’s lover Elewa, a down-trodden member of the
society, who lives in the slum of Bassa, to represent the generality of
Nigerians who were oppressed under the dictatorial military regimes in the
1990s.
This essay has also shown that though alienation has crippled the
existence of the less privileged and mangled the aspirations of citizens; it has
all the same served as an eye opener to major characters like Ikem, Christ
and Beatrice. Although the novelist has painted the gloomy image of the
various forms of alienation in the novel, he is optimistic of future social
transformation and reformations. Achebe’s optimism is demonstrated in his
hopes, beliefs, and aspirations for a better and prosperous ahead.
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47 Cohesion in text: a systemic-functional analysis
*
of chimamanda ngozi adichie’s fiction
Abstract
This article aims to explore cohesion in text. It aims to apply the cohesion
theory drawn from neo-Firthian or Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL)
propounded by scholars like Halliday and Hasan (1976), Fowler (1986),
Eggins (1994), etc., to Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s fiction to enhance the
reading, understanding and interpretation of her creative works. The prose
fiction has long been described, treated and interpreted by linguists as a text
(Widdowson, 1975, Simpson, 2004). According to Halliday and Hasan
(1976), a text is a unit of language in use. Eggins (1994) considers it as a
semantic unit in that it coheres with itself and with its environment. Fowler
(1986) believes that a text displays some features which distinguish it from
non-texts. These features are text-forming patterns drawn from cohesion.
Indeed, these patterns are patterns of meaning (Leech, 1965) stretched across
the text. It follows from this the observation that one can only track down the
meaning of the text as it unfolds by following the patterns of meaning that
run through it from the beginning to the end. This is to say, one can only
read and interpret the text by means of the patterns of meaning therein. This
study, so to speak, seeks to unveil the text-forming properties that create
patterns of meaning in the sample texts under study, and check whether or to
what extent these properties contribute to the meaning of the texts. The
findings reveal that cohesive properties gradually function to build the
internal (or narrative) structure of texts, and by so doing they facilitate their
reading, understanding and interpretation.
Key-words: Cohesion, Internal structure, Patterns of meaning, Systemic
Functional Linguistics (SFL), Text.

* 1 2 Leonard KOUSSOUHON , Ayodele Adebayo ALLAGBE . Laboratory for Research in
Linguistics and Literature (LabReLL).
1. Professeur Titulaire au Département d’Anglais, koussouhon@yahoo.com. 2. Doctorant à
l’Ecole Doctorale Pluridisciplinaire, ayodeleallagbe@yahoo.com, (+22997907306) FLASH,
Université d’Abomey-Calavi.
Résumé
Cet article vise à explorer la cohésion dans le texte. Il vise à appliquer la
théorie de cohésion puisée de la Linguistique Systémique Fonctionnelle (LSF)
ou néo-Firthienne avancée par les savants tels que Halliday and Hasan (1976),
Fowler (1986), Eggins (1994), etc., aux œuvres de fiction de Chimamanda
Ngozi Adichie afin d’améliorer leur lecture, compréhension et interprétation. La
fiction a été décrite, traitée et interprétée par les linguistes comme un texte
(Widdowson, 1975, Simpson, 2004). Selon Halliday and Hasan (1976), le texte
est unité de langue en usage. Eggins (1994) considère le texte comme une unité
sémantique parce qu’il est cohérent en ce qui le concerne et est cohérent avec
son environnement. Fowler (1986) pense que le texte exhibe certains traits qui le
distinguent des non-textes. Ces traits sont des ressources textuelles tirées de la
cohésion. En effet, ces ressources sont des ressources significatives étendues à
travers le texte (Leech, 1965). Il ressort de ceci que l’on ne peut suivre le sens
dans le texte dans son développement que si l’on suit les ressources
significatives qui s’y étendent du début jusqu’à la fin. Autrement dit, l’on ne
peut lire et interpréter le texte que par les ressources significatives qui s’y
trouvent. Cette étude, pour ainsi dire, vise à révéler les ressources textuelles qui
créent les ressources significatives dans les textes étudiés, et vérifier si ou a quel
point ces ressources textuelles contribuent au sens des textes. Les résultats
révèlent que les ressources textuelles fonctionnent progressivement à construire
la structure interne (ou narrative) des textes, et ce faisant facilitent leur lecture,
compréhension et interprétation.
Mots-clés : Cohésion, Structure interne, Ressources significatives,
Linguistique Systémique Fonctionnelle (LSF), Texte.
1. Introduction
Previous studies have systematically illustrated how texts are made, read
and interpreted. Such studies are those carried out by scholars working
within the neo-Firthian or SFL (Systemic Functional Linguistic) construct
like Halliday and Hasan (1976), Fowler (1986), Eggins (1994), etc. These
studies reveal that texts generally display some discourse patterns which
distinguish them from non-texts (Fowler, 1986).
These patterns are text-forming properties drawn from cohesion. Indeed,
these patterns are patterns of meaning (Leech, 1965) stretched across the text.
This prompts the observation that one can only track down the meaning of the
text as it unfolds by following the patterns of meaning that run through it from
the beginning to the end. This is to say, one can only read and interpret the text
by means of the patterns of meaning therein. In the light of this observation, this
study aims to unveil the text-forming properties that create patterns of meaning
in the sample texts under study, and check whether or to what extent these
properties contribute to the meaning of the texts.
50 2. Theoretical Background
In SFL, cohesion is viewed as a semantic concept (Halliday and Hasan,
1976). The concept has been defined diversely in the SFL tradition (Xi,
2010: 141). Eggins (1994: 88) defines the concept as “the way we relate or
tie together bits of our discourse.” Likewise, Halliday et al. claim that
cohesion refers to “the set of possibilities that exist in the language for
making text hang together” (Halliday and Hasan, 1976: 18). It is obvious in
the foregoing definitions that cohesion refers to how the parts of something
hang together to form one entity. What normally indicates the occurrence of
cohesion in text is the relation between two items: the referring item (or the
presupposing) and the item it refers to (or the presupposed). As regards this,
Halliday and Hasan give an insightful explanation:
Cohesion occurs where the INTERPRETATION of some element in the
discourse is dependent on that of another. The one PRESUPPOSES the other, in
the sense that it cannot be effectively decoded except by recourse to it. When this
happens, a relation of cohesion is set up, and the two elements, the presupposing
and the presupposed, are thereby at least potentially integrated into a text
(1976: 4)
It follows from this a view that cohesion accounts for how two items by
presupposition get integrated into a text, and in this sense it is clear that the
notion of cohesion is relational. But, cohesive relations are non-structural in
nature; i.e., the relations cohesion creates in text are not constrained by or
limited to the sentential (or grammatical) structure. This is to say,
“[c]ohesive relations have in principle nothing to do with sentence
boundaries.” (Halliday and Hasan, 1976: 08) It follows from this that
cohesion exists within the boundaries of a sentence but this form of cohesion
is not considered as a cohesive relation. It is rather considered as a structural
relation, a relation determined by the grammatical structure: “cohesive ties
between sentences stand out more clearly because they are the ONLY source
of texture, whereas within the sentence there are the structural relations [...]”
(Halliday and Hassan, 1976: 09). It is noteworthy to emphasize thus that
structural relations are irrelevant to the meaning of cohesive relations.
By the same token, in the quote above the term INTERPRETATION is
capitalized; it is used to underscore the necessity for the reader to construe
the identity of some element in the discourse or text from the relation
established between it and another element elsewhere in the discourse, the
established relation between the two elements is what is called a tie
(Halliday and Hasan, 1976) and the presence of ties in the discourse signals
the presence of semantic relations which produce what Halliday and Hasan
call texture, the enabling potential, which makes the discourse function as a
text, a complete linguistic message. Or, in a broader context, the term is used
to highlight the necessity for the reader to track down the meaning of the text
s/he is reading as it unfolds from word to word, phrase to phrase, clause to
51 clause, sentence to sentence and paragraph to paragraph, etc. It follows from
this that the fundamental role of cohesion is to produce links in terms of
lexical and grammatical cues across a text; such links ensure a succession of
propositions, ideas developed in the text. In other words, the cues in the text
ensure the coherence of its language. Halliday and Hasan (1976) outline five
distinct types of cohesion, namely:
Reference refers to “how the writer/speaker introduces participants and
then keeps track of them once they are in the text” (Eggins, 1994: 95).
Substitution/ ellipsis indicates “a formal (lexico-grammatical) relation, in
which a form (word or words) is specified through the use of grammatical
signal indicating that it is to be recovered from what has gone before”
(Halliday and Hasan 1976, p.308).
Lexical cohesion, as the name implies, is a cohesion which is drawn from
“vocabulary items-referring and predicating expressions, nouns and verbs
[…]” (Fowler, 1986: 64). According to Eggins (1994), lexical cohesion is
subdivided into two broad categories: taxonomic lexical relations and
expectancy relations (p.101).
Conjunction refers to how the writer creates and expresses logical
relationships between the parts of a text. There are three kinds of conjunctive
relations: elaboration (e.g. in fact), extension (for example, and) and
enhancement (for instance, meanwhile) (Eggins, 1994).
3. Analyzing Cohesion in the Sample Texts
This section is concerned with exploring cohesion in three sample texts
drawn from the two novels, Purple Hibiscus (2003), Half of A Yellow Sun
(2007) and a collection of twelve short stories, The Thing Around Your Neck
(2009), written by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie. Following Eggins (1994),
each of the sample texts has been split into manageable sentences and each
sentence has been given an identifying number. Here all the split texts have
been analyzed for cohesive properties (reference, conjunction and lexical
cohesion). Due to space, only the summarized statistics of the identified
cohesive properties in each text are presented here.
3.1. Analysis of Reference in the Sample Texts
3.1.1. Text 1 (Purple Hibiscus, 2003: 97-99)
The identified reference types in Text 1 are counted and tabulated in the
table below.

52 Table 1: Reference Types in Text 1
Reference Endophoric Homo-
CompaExophoric Bridging Locational Types phoric rative AnaphoricCataphoric Esphoric
Frequency 23 01 45 00 00 00 01 00
Percentage
32.85 01.42 64.28 00 01 00
(%)

The table above indicates that Text 1 contains all in all 70 reference
items. The distribution of these items is, however, not even. As the table
shows, the text contains 23 (i.e., 32.42 %) homophoric references, 01 (i.e.,
01.42 %) exophoric reference, 45 (i.e., 64.28 %), endophoric references, 00
(i.e., 00 %) comparative reference, 01 (i.e., 01.42 %) bridging reference and
00 (i.e., 00 %) locational reference.
From the analysis, it is inferred that Text 1 contains 29 head words. Out
of these head words, 05 chains are most remarkable. The head words of the
longest chains are: “Papa” in (1), “us” (the narrator (Kambili) and her father
(Papa) or her entire family (the Achikes)) in (1), “Aunty Ifeoma” in (2), “the
Priest” in (8) and “You people” in (10). The first two chains span the entire
text, so they are the major participants therein. The text, so to speak, spins
around the 02 participants. Papa with his family attends a morning Mass at
St. Paul’s. In the first long chain, the tokens “we” and its variants “us”,
“ours”, “our” and “he” and its variants “his” and “him” are identified. While
“we”, “us”, “ours” and “our” refer anaphorically to the narrator (Kambili) of
the text and her father (Papa) or her entire family (the Achikes), “he”, “his”
and “him” simply point back to the narrator’s father (Papa). Similarly, in the
second long chain, such pronouns as “I” and its variant “my” and “We” and
its variants “us” “ours” and “our” are identified. The use of “I” and its
variant “my” in the current text points back to the narrator, Kambili.
Similarly, the use of “We” and its variants “us” “ours” and “our” refers to
the narrator, Kambili, and her father (Papa) or her entire family (the
Achikes).
The third chain exhibits such reference items as “he” and its variant “his”,
I” and “we”. While all the reference items here refer anaphorically to the
referent “the Priest”, “we” basically refers to both the referent and his
audience. The fourth and fifth chains include a number of cohesive ties
inferior to that of the aforementioned 03 chains. The fourth chain exudes
“she” and its variant “her”, “they” and its variant “their”. The reference
items “she” and “her” clearly refer to the referent “Aunty Ifeoma”. The
referent and her children are subsequently referred to with “they” and
“their”. The item “They” in (3), for instance, refers to “Aunty Ifeoma and her
children” in (2). The fifth chain typically contains only one reference item
“You” which is repeated 04 times consecutively in the text. It refers
anaphorically to “the pews” the priest is addressing in the text.
53 There are many other reference items in the text whose retrieval is not
anaphoric but context-dependent or through bridging. These are:
Homophoric references: 23 homophoric items are identified in the
current text. The following are some of them: “Papa” in (1), “Christmas
Mass” in (1), “St. Paul’s” in (1), “Aunty Ifeoma” in (2), “their station
wagon” in (2), “the Mercedes” in (2), “the early Mass” in (4), “Amaka” in
(4), “the priest” in (8), “the gospel during the sermon” in (8), “You people”
in (10), etc. The use of a huge number of homophoric reference items here
denotes that the current text depends heavily on the shared context of culture
for its interpretation.
Exophoric references: “your lips” in (7) is exophoric in that its referent
can only be retrieved from the immediate context of situation. Here, the
narrator, Kambili, paints a situation around Amaka’s lipstick which carries
within itself an image of doubt and surprise.
Bridging references: “it” in (19) is the only bridging reference item
identified in the text. This item bridges its reference from “… we
accompanied Papa to a fund-raising…” in (18).
3.1.2. Text 2 (Half Of A Yellow Sun, 2007: 146-148)
Table 2: Reference Types in Text 2
Reference Endophoric Homo- Exopho-
CompaBridging Types phoric ric rative Anaphoric Cataphoric Esphoric
Frequency 38 01 105 01 02 00 01 00
Percentage
25.67 00.67 72.97 00 00.67 00
(%)

The table above reveals that Text 2 displays 148 reference items. The
figures drawn from the analysis indicate the text includes 38 (i.e., 35.67 %)
homophoric references, 01 (i.e., 00.67 %) exophoric reference, 108 (i.e.,
72.97 %) endophoric references, 00 (i.e., 00 %) comparative reference, 01
(i.e., 00.67 %) bridging reference and 00 (i.e., 00 %) locational reference. As
the table shows, endophoric references rank first in the current text followed
by homophoric ones. In fact, this passage contains the 03 sub-categories of
endophoric references, viz. anaphoric, cataphoric and esphoric. The most
dominating sub-category here is anaphoric references. Out of the 108
endophoric references counted in this text, 105 (i.e., 97.22 %) are anaphoric.
From the study, it is noted that Text 2 displays a total number of 42 head
items. Out of these items, 03 chains are most significant because they span
the entire text. The head items in the longest chains contains: “Olanna” in
(1), “Mohammed” in (1) and “They” (Muslim students) in (3). As the
analysis exudes, the text is built around these 03 participants. Olanna and
Mohammed are trapped in a riot organized by Muslim students. In the first
long chain, the reference items “she” and its variants “her” and “hers”, “I”
54 and its variants “me” and “my”, “you” and its variant “your”, “’s” and
“they” are employed. The use of “she” and its variants “her” and “hers”, “I”
and its variants “me” and “my”, “you” and its variant “your” refers
anaphorically to the referent “Olanna” but “’s”, and “they” point back to the
referent and her ex-boyfriend “Mohammed”. Likewise, in the second long
chain, the participants “he” and its variants “his” and “him”, “you”, “’s” and
“they” are identified. While the use of “he” and its variants “his” and “him”
and “you” points back to the referent “Mohammed”, that of “’s” and “they”
refers anaphorically to the referent and his ex-girlfriend “Olanna”.
The third chain contains such reference items as “They” and its variants
“their” and “them”, “we”, “he” and its variant “his”. In fact, the item “They”,
appears 05 times in the chain. It is noted that the “They” in (3) is cataphoric
in that it points forward to the referent “the students” in (4). Apart from this,
the remainder; we mean the 04 “they”, “their”, “them” together with “we”,
“he” and its variant “his” are anaphoric. While the 04 “they” refer
anaphorically to the referent “the students”, “their”, “them” and “we” point
back to the referent “the crowd of men drifting into the yard”. The use of
“he” and its variant “his” points back to one of the rioting men called
“Abdulmalik” in the text.
Other reference items’ identity in the text is not retrieved endophorically
but homophorically, exophorically or through bridging:
Homophoric references: 38 homophoric reference items are noted in the
text. Here are some: “Olanna” in (1), “Mohammed” in (1), “Mohammed’s
veranda” in (1), “the delicious cold trickle down her throat” in (1), “the
stickiness on her lips” in (1), “the gateman” in (1), “What looked like a
pamphlet” in (1), “the students” in (4), “Sule” in (9), “the roads” in (9),
“Infidels” in (9), “a short cut to the train station” in (21), “Arize” in (22),
“Sabon Gari” in (25), “my uncle’s house in Sabon Gari” in (25), etc. The
huge number of homophoric reference here implies that the current text
depends heavily on the shared context of culture for its interpretation.
Exophoric references: The only exophoric reference item in this text is
“people who were Western-dressed” in (14). With this reference, the
narrator-writer portrays a situation of riot which bears out the attitudes of the
rioters and the people they often victimize.
Bridging references: The only bridging reference item in this Extract is
“it” in (5). This item bridges its reference from “it” in (4) to the fact that
“they’re rioting” in (3).

55 3.1.3. Text 3 (The Thing Around Your Neck, 2009: 128-130)
Table 3: Reference Types in Text 3
Endophoric
Reference Homo- Brid-
LocaExophoric Comparative Cata-Types phoric ging tional Anaphoric Esphoric
phoric
Frequency 33 00 46 01 01 00 00 00
Percentage
40.74 59.25 00 00 00
(%)

The analysis of Text 3 exudes that it contains 81 reference items. Just like
in other sample Extracts, the items are distributed evenly. As shown in the
table above, the text includes 33 (i.e., 40.74 %) homophoric references, 00
(i.e., 00 %) exophoric reference, 48 (i.e., 59.25 %) endophoric references, 00 %) comparative reference, 00 (i.e., 00 %) bridging reference and 00
(i.e., 00 %) locational reference. The dominant category of reference type
here is endophoric reference. This is followed by homophoric reference.
From the investigation, it is clear that Text 3 involves 32 head words. Out
of these head words, only 02 chains are most outstanding in that they span
the entire text. The head words in the 02 outstanding chains are: “She” (the
nameless woman who goes to the American embassy for a visa interview) in
(1) and “the man” in (7). As the analysis exudes, the text is built around
these 02 participants, both of whom are victims of the Abacha regime. In the
first chain, the reference items “she” and its variants “her” and “herself”,
“you”, “our” and “they” are identified. The reference items “she” and its
variants “her” and “herself” and “you” are anaphorically used to refer to the
head word “She”. The use of “our” and “they” in the chain refers
anaphorically to either the head word “She” and the man who talks to her
from time-to-time on the line or all the people on the line in search of a visa
or all the people (the Nigerian people) in general. The second chain entails
reference items like “he”, “our” and “they”. While “he” refers to the referent
“the man” “our” and “they” point back either to the referent and the head
word “She” he talks to from time-to-time on the line or all the people on the
line in search of a visa or all the people (the Nigerian people) in general.
Other reference items’ identity in the text is not retrieved endophorically
but homophorically:
Homophoric references: 33 homophoric reference items are extracted
from this text. These are some of them: “the American embassy” in (1), “line
outside the American embassy in Lagos” in (1), “the smaller, vine-encrusted
gates of the Czech embassy” in (2), “the newspaper vendors” in (3), “The
Guardian, Thenews…The Vanguard” in (3), “the beggars” in (4), “the
icecream bicycles” in (5), “the tiny fly” in (6), “the man” in (7), “abeg” in (7),
“The air” in (8), “Dr. Balogun” in (9), “the visa interview” in (10), “those
images of her son Ugonna’s small, plump body…” in (11), “her son” in (11),
etc. The extensive use of homophoric reference items here suggests that the
56 current text depends greatly on the shared context of culture for its
interpretation.
3.2. Analysis of Lexical Cohesion in the Sample Texts
3.2.1. Text 1 (Purple Hibiscus, 2003: 97-99)
The types of lexical cohesion in Text 1 are summarized in table 4.
Table 4: Lexical Cohesion Types in Text 1
Taxonomic
Classification Composition
Types of
ExpecSimilarity L. R. tancy Cohy- Class/
Contrast Meronymy ComeronymySyno- Repe-ponymy Subclass
nymy tition

Frequen00 02 11 20 99 17 24 33
cy

Percen00 00.97 05.33 57.76 08.25 11.65 16.01
tage (%)

As shown in the table above, Text 1 comprises all in all 206 lexical
cohesion items. These items are not distributed evenly. Out of the 206 items,
173 (i.e., 83.96 %) are taxonomic and 33 (i.e., 16.01 %) are expectancy. The
02 sub-categories of taxonomic relations are identified in this text:
classification and composition (Eggins, 1994). But, the former is more used
than the latter here. In fact, the analysis of lexical cohesion of this text
exudes that 132 (i.e., 64.06 %) classification items and 41 (i.e., 19.90 %)
composition items are employed in it. As regards the distribution of
classification items in the text, it is noted that similarity (119/ 57.76 %) ranks
first, contrast (11/ 05.33 %) second, class/subclass (02/ 00.97 %) third and
co-hyponymy fourth (00/ 00 %). It is also noted that, within the sub-type of
similarity, repetition (99/ 48.05 %) dominates over synonymy (20/09.70 %).
The most repeated lexical item in the text is “Papa”. It is repeated 08
times: (1), (3), (14), (16), (17), (18), (21) and (23). This is followed by
“Priest”. It is mentioned 05 times: (8), (14), (19), (20) and (22). The
following lexical items appear 04 times in the text, “Mass”: (4), (7), (8) and
(18), “church”: (2), (11), (12) and (18), “house”: (12), (16), (19) and (20),
and “said”: (4), (6), (17) and (23). The observation here is that these lexical
items encode the field or area of focus of the text. The field of the text can
actually be inferred from its major lexical string (s) (Halliday and Hasan,
1985/1989, Eggins, 1994). Drawing on the major lexical string (s) in the
text, one can say that the text develops around the participants “Papa” and
“Priest”, their actions (said) and the settings of their actions (Mass, church or
house).
57 3.2.2. Text 2 (Half Of A Yellow Sun, 2007: 146-148)
Table 5: Lexical Cohesion Types in Text 2
Taxonomic
Classification Composition Types of
Expectancy
L. R. Similarity Cohypo- Class/
ComeContrast Meronymy
nymy Subclass ronymy Synonymy Repetition
Frequency 00 00 31 53 219 28 32 56
Percentage
00 07.39 64.91 06.68 07.63 13.36
(%)

The table above indicates how lexical cohesion items are distributed
across Text 2. In fact, it contains a total figure of 419 items. As indicated in
the table, the distribution of these items is not even. Out of the 419 items,
363 (i.e., 86.61 %) are taxonomic relations and 56 (i.e., 13.36 %) are
expectancy relations. This study reveals that the text contains the 02
subcategories of taxonomic relations, viz. classification and composition
(Eggins, 1994). Indeed, classification is more employed in this passage than
composition. With regard to the distribution of classification items in the
text, it is discovered that similarity (272/ 64.91 %) comes first followed by
contrast (31/ 07.39 %). It is noted that class/subclass (00/ 00 %) and
cohyponymy (00/ 00 %) are absent in the text. It is also noted that, within the
sub-type of similarity, repetition (219/ 52.26 %) dominates over synonymy
(53/ 12.64 %).
The most repeated lexical item in the text is “Mohammed”. It is repeated
17 times: (1), (2), (8), (13), (15), (19), (23) (26), (31), (38), (44), (48), (60),
(67), (75), (78) and (83). It is followed by “Olanna”. It is mentioned 13
times: (1), (4), (12), (17), (23), (26), (31), (34), (47), (59), (73), (77) and
(79). This item is followed by “said” that is mentioned 09 times: (3), (9),
(30), (37), (48), (64), (68), (78) and (83). The subsequent lexical items
appear 06 times in the text, “head”: (11), (17), (38), (56), (80, and (82),
“looked”: (2), (18), (31), (39), (50) and (77), “go”: (15), (20), (25), (41), (42)
and (43), “car”: (26), (48), (52), (67), (74) and (75), and “Arize”: (22), (61),
(62), (63), (64) and (65). The observation here is that these lexical items
encode the field or area of focus of the text. The field of the text can actually
be inferred from its major lexical string (s) (Halliday and Hasan, 1985/1989,
Eggins, 1994). From the major lexical string (s) in the text, one can infer that
the text spins around the participants “Mohammed” and “Olanna”, their parts
(head), their actions (said, looked, and go), their objects (car), etc.

58 3.2.3. Text 3 (The Thing Around Your Neck, 2009: 128-130)
Table 6: Lexical Cohesion Types in Text 3
Taxonomic
Classification Composition Types of
Expectancy
L. R. Similarity Cohypo- Class/
ComeContrast Meronymy
nymy Subclass ronymy Synonymy Repetition
Frequency 00 00 24 15 88 17 19 27
Percentage
00 12.63 54.21 08.94 10 14.21
(%)

As shown in the table above, Text 3 consists of all in all 190 lexical
cohesion items. These items are not distributed evenly. Out of the 190 items,
163 (i.e., 85.78 %) are taxonomic relations and 27 (i.e., 14.21 %) are
expectancy relations. The 02 sub-categories of taxonomic relations are
identified in this text: classification and composition (Eggins, 1994).
However, classification is more employed than composition here. Indeed,
the study of lexical cohesion of this text reveals that 127 (i.e., 66.84 %)
classification items and 36 (i.e., 18.94 %) composition items are employed in
it. Regarding the distribution of classification items in the extract, it is
noticed that similarity (103/ 54.21 %) comes first followed by contrast (24/
12.63 %). It is noticed that class/subclass (00/ 00 %) and co-hyponymy
(00/00 %) are not used at all in this text. It is also noticed that, within the
sub-type of similarity, repetition (88/ 46.31 %) predominates over synonymy
(15/ 07.89 %).
The most repeated lexical item in the text is “said”. It is repeated 08
times: (7), (9), (11), (16), (17), (23), (25) and (26). The following lexical
items are mentioned 07 times in the text, “man”: (7), (14), (20), (23), (26),
(29) and (29) and “do”: (3), (6), (7), (9), (17), (27) and (28). These are also
followed by “soldier”. It appears 06 times in the text: (17), (20), (22), (23),
(24) and (28). The observation here is that these lexical items encode the
field of the text. The field of the text can actually be inferred from its major
lexical string (s) (Halliday and Hasan, 1985/1989, Eggins, 1994). Based on
the major lexical string (s) in the text, one can say that the present text is less
concerned with the participants “Man” and “Soldier” than it is with their
actions (said and do).

59 3.3. Analysis of Conjunction in the Sample Texts
3.3.1. Text 1 (Purple Hibiscus, 2003: 97-99)
The analysis of Conjunction in Text 1 is tabulated in Table 7.
Table 7: Conjunction Types in Text 1
Elaboration Extension Enhancement
Conjunction Types
Implicit Explicit Implicit Explicit Implicit Explicit
Frequency 12 00 02 03 00 02
Percentage (%) 63.15 26.31 10.52

The table above indicates how conjunction is distributed in Text 1. As the
table shows, the analysis exudes the 03 categories of conjunction, viz.
elaboration, extension and enhancement, propounded by Eggins (1994).
However, the 03 categories are not distributed evenly. In fact, 19 conjunctive
elements are identified in Extract 4. Out of the 19 elements, 12 (i.e.,
63.15 %) are elaborating, 05 (i.e., 26.31 %) extensive and 02 (i.e., 10.52 %)
enhancing. It is obvious in the foregoing that the dominant category here is
elaboration (12/19). This suggests thus that the current text is mainly
concerned with restating information in another way. Given that elaboration
is an internal (rhetorical) conjunctive item, its frequent use here is indicative
of written mode. In fact, all the elaborating relations in the text are encoded
in the conjunctive item “In fact”. The subsequent example illustrates this.
Example 1: Papa drove us to Christmas Mass at St. Paul’s (X ). (In fact) Aunty 1
Ifeoma and her children were climbing into their station wagon as we drove into
the sprawling church compound (X ). 2
It is obvious in the example above that (X ) latches on (X ) with the help 2 1
of the elaborating conjunction “In fact”. It should be noted, however, that
this conjunction is not marked explicitly in the text. This is to say, none of
the elaborating relations in the present text is expressed explicitly. The 02
other categories (extension and enhancement) also function to organize the
structure of the current text. The use of extension (05/19), for instance,
denotes that the text is not only concerned with restating information in a
different number of ways but also with extending it by stating additions and
variations. The extensive conjunctive relations in the current text are
encoded in such conjunctions as “But”, “And”, “Although”, “Instead” and
“After all”, as in:
Example 2: (But) They waited for Papa to stop the Mercedes and then came
over to greet us (X3). (And) Aunty Ifeoma said they had gone to the early Mass
and they would see us at lunchtime (X4)… Although I tried to concentrate on
Mass, I kept thinking of Amaka’s lipstick, wondering what it felt like to run
colour over your lips (X7)… Instead he talked about the zinc (X9)… “After all,
how many of you give to this church, gbo? (X11).
60 It is obvious in the above that some of the extensive relations here are
implicit (02/05) and others explicit (03/05). Again, the use of enhancement
shows that the text is concerned with presenting a sequence of events. The
02 enhancing conjunctions “After” and “When” in the text confirms this.
This is illustrated in the example below.
Example 3: After Mass, we accompanied Papa to a fund-raising in the
multipurpose hall next to the church building (X18)…When the M.C.
announced the amount, the priest got up and started to dance, jerking his behind
this and that, and the crowd rose up and cheered so loudly it was like the
rumblings of thunder at the end of the rainy season (X22).
It appears above that all the enhancing conjunctive items in the present
text are stamped explicitly. It should be noted that this text has all in all
14/19 (i.e., 73.68 %) implicitly marked conjunctions. This suggests thus that
the text has little explicit conjunctive structure which is uncommon in a well
rehearsed written text.
3.3.2. Text 2 (Half Of A Yellow Sun, 2007: 146-148)
Table 8: Conjunction Types in Text 2
Elaboration Extension Enhancement Conjunction
Types Implicit Explicit Implicit Explicit Implicit Explicit
Frequency 26 00 05 02 10 01
Percentage (%) 59.09 15.90 25

The conjunctive structure of Text 2 exudes the three types of conjunction.
As shown in the table above, this text contains a total number of 44
conjunctive properties: 26 (i.e., 59.09 %) are elaborating, 07 (i.e., 15.90 %)
extensive and 11 (i.e., 25 %) enhancing. It follows from the foregoing that
the dominant category here is elaboration, suggesting that the text is mainly
concerned with restating information in another way. As elaboration is an
internal (rhetorical) conjunctive item, its frequent use here is indicative of
written mode. Indeed, all the elaborating relations in the text are expressed
with the conjunctive item “In fact”. This is illustrated in the example below.
Example 4: He was already heading indoors (Y ). Olanna followed (Y ). (In 11 12
fact) He worried too much, did Mohammed (Y ). (In fact) Muslim students 13
were always demonstrating about one thing or the other, after all, and harassing
people who were Western-dressed, but they always dispersed quickly enough
(Y ). 14
It is clear in the example above that (Y ) elaborates upon (Y ) and (Y ) 13 11 12
with the elaborating conjunction “In fact”. It is of note, however, that this
conjunction is not marked explicitly in the Extract. This is to say, none of the
elaborating relations in the present text is expressed explicitly. The 02 other
61 categories (extension and enhancement) also function to organize the
structure of the current text. The use of extension (07/44), for example,
indicates that the current text is not only concerned with restating
information in a different number of ways but also with extending it by
stating additions and variations. The extensive conjunctive relations in
Extract 5 are realized by “And” and “But”. The example below illustrates
this.
Example 5: He was already heading indoors (Y ). (And) Olanna followed 11
(Y )…‘I look like a proper Muslim woman,’ she joked (Y ). But Mohammed 12 18
barely smiled (Y ). 19
It is obvious in the example above that some of the extensive relations
here are implicit (05/07) and others explicit (02/07). Again, the use of
enhancement proves that the text is concerned with presenting a sequence of
events. In fact, there are 11 (i.e., 25 %) enhancing relations in the current
text. These are encoded in the conjunctive item “Then”. Note that only 01 of
the 11 extensive relations is marked explicitly. This is illustrated in the
example below.
Example 6: The street looked strange, unfamiliar; the compound gate was
broken, the metal flattened on the ground (Y ). Then she noticed Aunty Ifeka’s 50
kiosk, or what remained of it: splinters of wood, packets of groundnuts lying in
the dust (Y )…‘Who are you?’ another asked, standing in front of the car (Y74). 51
(Then) Mohammed opened his door, the car still on, and spoke in rapid, coaxing
Hausa (Y75).
It is obvious in the analysis that the present text has all in all 41/44 (i.e.,
93.18 %) implicit conjunctions. This suggests thus that the text has little
explicit conjunctive structure which is uncommon in a well rehearsed written
text.
3.3.3. Text 3 (The Thing Around Your Neck, 2009: 128-130)
Table 9: Conjunction Types in Text 3
Elaboration Extension Enhancement
Conjunction Types
Implicit Explicit Implicit Explicit Implicit Explicit
Frequency 15 00 01 02 02 02
68.18 13.63 18.18 Percentage (%)

As shown in the table above, the conjunctive structure of Text 3 exhibits
the 03 types of conjunction, viz. elaboration, extension and enhancement,
propounded by Eggins (1994). However, the 03 categories are not
distributed evenly. In fact, 22 conjunctive patterns are identified in Extract 6.
Out of the 22 patterns, 15 (i.e., 68.18 %) are elaborating, 03 (i.e., 13.63 %)
extensive and 04 (i.e., 18.18 %) enhancing. The dominant category here is
62 elaboration (15/22). This suggests thus that the current text is mainly
concerned with restating information in another way. Since elaboration is an
internal (rhetorical) conjunctive item, its frequent use here is indicative of
written mode. Indeed, all the elaborating relations in the Extract are
expressed by the conjunctive item “In fact”. The subsequent example
illustrates this.
Example 7: She stood in line outside the American embassy in Lagos, staring
straight ahead, barely moving, a blue plastic file of documents tucked under her
arm (Z ). (In fact) She was the forty-eighth person in the line of about two 1
hundred that trailed from the closed gates of the American embassy all the way
past the smaller, vine-encrusted gates of the Czech embassy (Z ). (In fact) She 2
did not notice the newspaper vendors who blew whistles and pushed The
Guardian, Thenews, and The Vanguard in her face (Z ). 3
It is obvious in Example 1 that (Z ) latches on (Z ) and (Z ) on (Z ) with 2 1 3 2
the elaborating conjunction “In fact”. Note, however, that this conjunction is
not marked explicitly in the text. This is to say, none of the elaborating
relations in the present text is expressed explicitly. The 02 other categories
(extension and enhancement) also function to organize the structure of the
current text. The use of extension (03/22), for instance, denotes that the text
is not only concerned with restating information in a different number of
ways but also with extending it by stating additions and variations. The
extensive conjunctive relations in the current text are encoded in such
conjunctions as “And” and “Or”, as in:
Example 8: Or the beggars who walked up and down holding out enamel plates
(Z ). Or the ice-cream bicycles that honked (Z )… (And) The man behind her 4 5
tapped her again (Z ). 14
It is obvious in the above that 02 of the 03 extensive relations here are
implicit and only 01 explicit. Again, the use of enhancement confirms that
the text is concerned with presenting a sequence of events. The use of the 04
enhancing conjunctions encoded in “When” and “Then” and “Because” in
the text confirms this. This is illustrated in the example below.
Example 9: When the man standing behind her tapped her on the back and
asked, “Do you have change, abeg, two tens for twenty naira?” she stared at him
for a while, to focus, to remember where she was, before she shook her head and
said, “No (Z )”… (Then) She jerked around and nearly screamed from the sharp 7
pain that ran down her back (Z )… (Then) She turned to look across the street, 15
moving her neck slowly (Z )… Because they had all woken up early-those who 18
had slept at all-to get to the American embassy before dawn; because they had all
struggled for the visa line, dodging the soldiers’ swinging whips as they were
herded back and forth before the line was finally formed; because they were all
afraid that the American embassy might decide not open its gates today, and they
would have to do it all over again the day after tomorrow since the embassy did
not open on Wednesdays, they had formed friendships (Z ). 28
63 It is clear in the example above that some of the enhancing conjunctive
items (02/04) in the present text are stamped explicitly and others (02/04)
implicitly. Note the structural parallelism created with the conjunction
“Because” in (Z ). This conjunction is mentioned 03 times consecutively in 28
the sentence and this denotes emphasis. Like the other texts, Text 3 contains
18/22 (i.e., 81.81 %) implicitly marked conjunctions. This suggests thus that
the text has little explicit conjunctive structure which is uncommon in a well
rehearsed written text.
4. Discussion of Findings and Conclusion
The analyses carried out above exude that Texts 1, 2 and 3 display a sum
total figure of 295, 611 and 293 respectively. This figure is in actual fact
shared by the 03 cohesive features viz. reference, lexical cohesion and
conjunction.
As for the analysis of reference, it has been noted that the 03 texts are
knit mainly with endophoric reference ties (64.28 % for Text 1, 72.97 % for
Text 2 and 59.25 % for Text 3) and homophoric reference ties (32.85 % for
Text 1, 25.67 % for Text 2 and 40.74 % for Text 3). A close analysis of
endophoric reference in the 03 texts further reveals that a very large part of
the endophoric reference ties is anaphoric (45/70 (i.e., 64.28 %) in Text 1,
102/148 (i.e., 68.91 %) in Text 2 and 46/81 (i.e., 56.79 %) in Text 3. The
extensive use of anaphoric reference ties here denotes a written mode. It has
also been noted that these anaphoric reference items are specific and
personal participants. This is a characteristic of a spoken mode. The
anaphoric reference items identified in the texts under study here actually
spin around many participants. Some of these participants are noted to span
the whole texts while others are not. The participants that truly span the 03
texts are considered as the major participants therein. As a result, they are
considered as what is being talked about in the 03 texts. In Text 1, the 02
major participants that are being talked about are “Papa” and “us” (the
narrator, Kambili and entire family (the Achikes)). In Text 2, the 03 major
participants that are being talked about are “Olanna”, “Mohammed” and
“They” (the Muslim students). In Text 3, the 02 major participants that are
being talked about are “She” (the nameless woman who goes to the
American embassy for a visa) and “the man”. The extensive use of
homophoric reference items in the 03 texts simply exudes that the texts
depend heavily on the shared context of culture for their interpretation.
As regards the analysis of lexical cohesion, it has been discovered that the
03 texts contain a huge number of lexical cohesion ties (206/295 (i.e.,
69.83 %) for Text 1, 419/611 (i.e., 68.57 %) for Text 2 and 190/293 (i.e.,
64.84 %) for Text 3). This denotes lexical density. The study further reveals
that the identified lexical cohesion ties are shared by the 02 categories:
taxonomic and expectancy. In fact, more than 85 percent of the identified
64 lexical cohesion items in the 03 texts are taxonomic relations. Also, the
taxonomic relations involve the 02 sub-types of classification and
composition. It has been noted that more than 60 percent of the taxonomic
relations are classification items. The classification items also entail the 04
sub-categories of co-hyponymy, class/subclass, contrast and similarity. But
the study shows that similarity is the dominant sub-category used in the 03
texts. It represents more than 50 percent of the total number of classification
items. The similarity items also involve the 02 sub-types of synonymy and
repetition. Repetition is marked to be the dominant sub-type in the 03 texts
with an average figure of 48 percent. This denotes that the 03 texts are
latched mainly with repeated lexical items. The repeated items in Text 1 are
“Papa”, “Priest”, “Mass”, “church”, “house” and “said”. The repeated lexical
items in Text 2 are “Mohammed”, “Olanna”, “Arize”, “head”, “said”,
“looked”, “go” and “car”. The repeated items in Text 3 are “man”, “soldier”,
“said”, “do” and “go”. It follows from this to note that the identified repeated
lexical items here encode or are constructed around the field or area of focus
of the 03 texts. Given the frequency of each of the repeated items, it can be
put forth here that Text 1 develops around the participants “Papa” and
“Priest”, their actions (said) and the settings of their actions (Mass, church or
house). Text 2 spins around the participants “Mohammed” and “Olanna”,
their parts (head), their actions (said, looked, and go), their objects (car), etc.
But Text 3 is less concerned with the participants “man” and “soldier” than it
is with their actions (said and do).
The analysis of conjunction exudes that the conjunctive structure of the
03 texts displays the 03 types of conjunction, viz. elaboration, extension and
enhancement, propounded by Eggins (1994). However, the 03 categories are
not distributed evenly. The dominant category in the 03 texts is elaboration
(12/19 (i.e., 63.15 %) for Text 1, 26/44 (i.e., 59.09 %) for Text 2 and 15/22
(i.e., 68.18 %) for Text 3. In fact, all the elaborating relations in the 03 texts
are encoded in the conjunctive item “In fact”. This item is not marked
explicitly across the 03 texts. The item adds to, resays or elaborates upon
what goes before in the texts. In doing so, it functions to ensure the
rhetorical (internal) organization of the texts. Note that most of the logical
relations in the 03 texts (Text 1 (12/19), Text 2 (26/44) and Text 3 (15/22)
derive from the internal organization of the texts. This reflects thus that the
narrator-writer’s concern is with the repackaging of the same information in
a number of different ways, rather than with the presenting of a sequence of
events in the 03 texts. The 03 texts can then be said to have a little explicit
conjunctive structure in that they include many implicit conjunctive items
(14/19 (i.e., 73.68 %), 41/44 (i.e., 93.18 %) and 18/22 (i.e., 81.81 %) for
Texts 1, 2 and 3 respectively). This implies thus that the reader will have to
supply the unmentioned logical relations where necessary.
In conclusion, this study has helped gain a full insight into the patterns of
meaning in fictional texts. These patterns created by the cohesive features:
65 reference, lexical cohesion and conjunction, function gradually to build the
internal (or narrative structure) of the texts. This is to say, they gradually
function to generate texture (Halliday and Hasan, 1976) in the 03 texts.
Texture is actually what ensures the unity of the language of the 03 texts
both at textual and contextual levels (Halliday and Hasan, 1976, Halliday
and Hasan 1985/1989, Eggins, 1994, etc.). It is still the same texture that fits
the texts into context, which creates meaning (Blommaert, 2005).
Références
Adichie, C.N. (2003). Purple Hibiscus, First Edition. Lagos: Farafina.
Adichie, C.N. (2007). Half Of A Yellow Sun, First Edition. Lagos: Farafina.
Adichie, C.N. (2009). The Thing Around Your Neck, First Edition. Lagos: Farafina.
Blommaert, J. (2005). Discourse: A Critical Introduction, First Edition. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Eggins, S. (1994). An Introduction to Systemic Functional Linguistics, London:
Pinter Publishers.
Finch, G. (2003). How to Study Linguistics: A Guide to Understanding Language,
Second Edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Fowler, R. (1986). Linguistic Criticism, First Edition. UK: Oxford University Press.
Halliday, M. A. K. and Hasan, R. (1976). Cohesion in English, First Edition.
London: Longman.
Halliday, M. A. K. and Hasan, R. (1985/1989). Language, text and context: aspects
of language in a semiotic perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Koussouhon, A. L. and Allagbe, A. A. (2013). “The Lexicogrammar of
Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Fiction: A Systemic Functional Contribution”, in
Langage & Devenir, N°22, Revue Semestrielle. Pp. 19-44.
Leech, G. N. (1965). “This Bread I Break: Language and Interpretation”, in Freeman
D. C. (1970) Linguistic and Literary Style. London: Oxford University Press.
Simpson, P. (2004). Stylistics: A Resource Book for Students, First Edition. London:
Routledge.
Xi, Y. (2010). “Cohesion Studies in the Past 30 Years: Development, Application
and Chaos”, in The International Journal-Language Society and Culture, Issue
31, pp.139-147.
Widdowson, H.G. (1975). Stylistics and the teaching of literature, First Edition.
Hong kong: Longman Group (FE) Ltd.
Yule, G. (2010). The Study Of Language, Fourth Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
66 Abraham Lincoln:
*
an Abolitionist or a Clever Politician?
Abstract
Abraham Lincoln, the sixteenth President of the United States, is famous
because he succeeded in putting an end to slavery in America with the
Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863. The main objective of this
paper is to examine the ideas behind that Proclamation. As a matter of fact,
Abraham Lincoln’s position with regard to slavery and the problem of race
is ambiguous and his actions to put an end to it in the US seemed more
strategic than a conviction to challenge a system which was contradictory to
the Declaration of Independence according to clearly “All men are created
equal.” This ambiguous position can be attributed either to his family
background, his late contact with slavery or his political ambition. Whatever
the case may be, it is undeniable that his Emancipation Proclamation opened
the way to all the different processes that officially put an end to segregation.
The American Constitution of 1787 mentions nowhere the words ‘slaves’ or
‘slavery’ though section 9 refers to ‘migration or Importation of Persons’ to
allude to slaves.
The study analyses the historical context of the Emancipation
Proclamation, the actions carried out by Lincoln in order to investigate
clearly the hidden side of the man. It can also shed light on the very causes
of the American Civil War which was another revolution in America.
Keywords: slavery-Abraham Lincoln - Abolitionist – race - Emancipation
Proclamation.
Introduction
Abraham Lincoln was born in a one-room log cabin on his father’s farm
near Hogdenville, Kentucky on February 12, 1809 in the South. But his
father, Thomas decided to leave Kentucky in 1816 and take his family to the

* Dr. Ferdinand KPOHOUE FLASH / Université d’Abomey - Calavi. Email :
ferdinandkpo@yahoo.fr Tel. (229) 97083049 / (229) 95978991.
new state of Indiana. In 1830, Thomas decided to move to Macon County,
Illinois. Abraham Lincoln was then 21 years old. He decided to be a lawyer.
He borrowed law books and read them while he held other jobs. When he
finished studying the books, he moved to Springfield, Illinois, and became a
lawyer. In November 1860, Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the
United States, and on January 1, 1863, he signed the final draft of the
Emancipation Proclamation. For some Americans, he remains the Great
Emancipator, the man who freed the African-American slaves. For others, he
was an opportunist who lagged behind the abolitionist movement, an
advocate of black Americans’ voluntary emigration, and even a white
supremacist.
This paper undertakes to evaluate Lincoln in the context of his times and
of his role in public life as a politician, a pragmatist who subscribed to
abolitionist principles but recognized that they could only be achieved in
gradual, step-by-step fashion through compromise and negotiation, in pace
with progressive changes in public opinion and political realities.
Lincoln assumed that he had always hated slavery as much as any
abolitionist in 1858. “I have already disliked slavery. If slavery is not wrong,
nothing is wrong. No man is good enough to govern another man without
1that man’s consent” he added. But when political opponent, Stephen A.
Douglas, charged that Lincoln favored racial equality, he responded that he
had never been in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political
equality of the white and black races. It is difficult to identify Lincoln’s
actual side about the issue of slavery in America. Anyway, he discovered
slavery later and used it as a political tool to become president, then seized
the outbreak of the American Civil War opportunity and social pressure to
issue the Emancipation Proclamation to free Blacks to preserve the union.
Never had he planned to put an end to slavery with Emancipation
Proclamation, he supported a gradualist approach as a solution to free Blacks
in America. He is but a racist and friend of African Americans at the same
time because his opportunist action opened the way to the freedom of four
thmillion African Americans in the 19 century.
1. Abraham Lincoln’s childhood and his encounter with slavery
Abraham Lincoln was born in Kentucky on February 12, 1809. Kentucky
became a slave state in 1792. By the time Lincoln left Kentucky and moved
north across the Ohio River to Indiana (a non-slave territory) in 1816, he had
probably learned the alphabet but not much more than that. Indiana, north of
the Ohio River, had been part of the Northwest Territory, a vast tract
between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes and the Mississippi, which the

1 Commager, Henry Steele. The Great Proclamation, A Book For Young
Americans. New-York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., 1960. p. 14.
68 new republic had won from Britain in the War of Independence. In 1787, in
an attempt to organize the process required for a territory to become a state,
the Confederation Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance. This
legislation stipulated as well that there should be no slavery in the territory.
Abraham Lincoln was about seven in 1816 and was unaware of slavery.
When he was nineteen years old, he was hired by James Gentry, owner of
some of the largest farms around Pigeon Greek, to co-steer a flatboat down
the Mississippi River to unload produce to be sold at the plantations in the
South and to return with the money earned. For these services, Abraham was
paid eight dollars a month.
More importantly, these forays into the South opened Abraham’s eyes to
the world beyond the Indiana frontier and likely began to shape his views
toward the horrors of slavery as he witnessed the auctions and treatment of
slaves firsthand:
It was the year 1828. Young Lincoln was just nineteen years old. He and Allen
Gentry started off on their journey of a thousand miles down the muddy Ohio
and into the broad Mississippi River. They were on their way to New Orleans,
the exciting city of the south, with its French and Spanish background. By day,
the two young men guided their boat down the main current of the river. At night
they tied up along the shore. On both sides of the Mississippi, Abe Lincoln saw
strange sights. Here were Negroes working on the cotton fields, with white men
standing by and telling them what to do. He had seen none of this in Indiana.
2What did it all mean?
New Orleans was a good experience for Lincoln:
He also saw colored slaves, fastened in a long line with handcuffs, headed for
their work in the cotton fields. He heard talk about buying and selling human
beings, Negro men and women who worked on the huge plantations. Abe
3Lincoln had never before known that such things happened.
In March 1830, a milk sick broke out in the little community. Thomas
decided to move to Macon County, Illinois, where John Hanks, one of
Nancy’s relatives, lived. Now 21, Abraham felt obliged to help his father
make the move westward. But in July 1831 Lincoln separated from his
Family to settle in the nearby community of New Salem. Lincoln overcame
the poverty and isolation of his youth mainly by reading and studying any
book that he could find. He was ever willing to learn, to study new facts and
to listen to those around him for their opinions. He decided to be a lawyer.
He borrowed law books and read them while he held other jobs. He read and
studied all the best professors of law of his time: Blackstone, Greenleaf,
Chitty and Story. When he finished studying the books, he moved to
Springfield, Illinois, and became a lawyer.

2 Bailey, Bernadine. Abraham Lincoln, Man of Courage. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 1960. pp. 48-49.
3
Ibid. p. 52.
69 Lincoln’s childhood was not an easy one and his parents’ successive
relocations prevented him fortunately or unfortunately from discovering the
actual face of slavery at early age. In effect, the rare moments when he got
directly into contact with Negro slaves were practically limited to the two
times when he saw them in 1828 and 1830 while transporting goods to New
Orleans with a flatboat across the Mississippi. These were the only direct
contacts that he had with them. The other times’ contacts were not contacts
as such; but were limited to the sight that he caught of them through the
Capitol’s window when he was in US Congress. Therefore his attitude
vis-àvis slaves and the whole system was biased and held on the leg of the
interest each position about the matter offered on the very field of politics.
His political ambition took him to speak out his opinion about the criminal
bondage imposed on Blacks in America since 1619. But before his political
involvement, it is of interest to investigate Lincoln’s side with slavery in
America.
2. Lincoln’s position to Negroes
The problem of the Negroes was a central debate in the nineteen century
in America and people all over the country were taking sides on the matter.
The problem was always present but was not so salient. The Declaration of
Independence postponed the debate by deleting it from the first draft. But the
evil was there, becoming more and more monstrous because the population
of Blacks was increasing. Therefore, nobody could skip the debate and be
elected at any level of the political life of America. This unavoidable passage
took Abraham Lincoln to develop his ideas about slavery.
Early in 1832, Denton Offut closed his store where Lincoln was working.
Young Lincoln was jobless, penniless and homeless. Convinced by James
Rutlegde, he decided to run for the state legislature. The election took place
on August 6, 1832 and Lincoln failed. In1834, he ran again for the state
legislature, and this time he was elected at twenty-five.
In 1837, he Lincoln was admitted to the Bar, Springfield, Illinois.
Abraham Lincoln did speak and even write about slavery seventeen in 1837
precisely, when he was in the Illinois legislature. He wrote a protest against
slavery26 with Dan Stone, another Whig member of the same legislature.
Their declaration criticized bitterly the system of bondage, depicting it as
bad and unjust. They nevertheless deemed that the abolitionists’ attitudes
could not constitute a valid contribution to the solution of slavery. They
considered that Congress by itself was not able to suppress slavery in the
South, but that if the voters of the national capital agreed, it could be locally
extinguished. In fact, state governors received resolutions and then sent to
the state legislatures of the North. In December 1836, the Illinois legislature
which was holding its session received the southerners’ delegation with the
documents, including the resolutions. In early January 1837, the latter had to
70 be voted on by the Illinois House of Representatives. The resolutions
branded abolitionists as dangerous men, affirmed the constitutional right of
Southerners to own slaves, and declared that the government couldn’t uproot
slavery. On March 3, 1837 they presented their protest to the House, which
was read and ordered to be spread on the journals. Resolutions upon the
subject of domestic slavery were rejected by Daniel Stone and Abraham
Lincoln. They believed that the institution of slavery is founded on both
injustice and bad policy; but that the promulgation of abolition doctrines
tends rather to increase than to abate its evils. They insisted that the
Congress of the United States has the power, under the constitution, to
abolish slavery in the District of Columbia; but that that power ought not to
be exercised unless at the request of the people of said District. They
believed that the Congress of the United States has no power, under the
constitution, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the different States.
He, together with his political mate, played a political trick in favor of the
Whig party. Lincoln was known for his gradualism and separatism over the
en of slavery in America.
3. Gradualism
Just after the revolutionary war ended, the institution of slavery in the
North started to change. Slavery peaked in New Haven and in Connecticut
during the 1780s.
In 1784, "gradual emancipation" was passed in Connecticut (and Rhode
Island). This law was intended to slowly "phase out" slavery, and would
become the primary mechanism of abolition throughout New England. In
Connecticut, it worked like this: All slaves born on or after March 1, 1784,
remained bonded while children, but were released upon reaching a certain
age (first 25, later reduced to 21). All slaves born before 1784 remained
slaves for life. This allowed slavery to slowly disappear Lincoln’s advocacy
of colonization was direct and honest: He wanted blacks to leave the country
and tried to talk them into doing so. Exactly one month before the
Emancipation Proclamation was to go into effect, December 1, 1862,
Lincoln sent his Second Annual Message to Congress. The message itself
began with routine reports from cabinet officers, and then Lincoln picked up
the baton. He began with an elegant description of why the Union had to be
united, quoting paragraphs from his First Inaugural, and then showing how
the nation was united physically and economically. Only the ideas of the
time divided the nation, he implied, and they might be changed in a
generation. Then he turned to the question of slavery in the nation. He
proposed a plan for gradual, compensated emancipation with colonization,
and demonstrated how his plan would be far less costly fiscally than the
estimated cost of the war. To that end he proposed three constitutional
amendments. Then he turned to the question of how African Americans
71 could fit into a free society. This was essentially an argument that blacks,
even those not colonized, would not threaten white society once slavery
ended. Blacks would stay in the South, which was made congenial by
climate, familiarity, and their longtime commitment of their labor. They
would not take white jobs; if they stayed where they were, they would, said
Lincoln, "jostle no white laborers; if they leave their old places, they leave
them open to white laborers." And even if they moved into new places,
surely their numbers were so small compared to the white population that no
white person would be threatened. The duration of that gradual process was
supposed to last as long as 37 years. This means that many slaves who were
then held in bondage would have died, thus failing to enjoy the measure of
freedom that had been planned for them. On that point, Lincoln answered
that their children would enjoy it.
The plan that Lincoln was pleading for was not the Emancipation
Proclamation, nor a plan to arm the slaves to fight for their own freedom and
the Union. It was a passionate defense of the three constitutional
amendments that Lincoln proposed to the Congress. Together they were
Lincoln’s plan for gradual, compensated emancipation with colonization.
The first amendment offered compensation to every slave state that
would abolish slavery by "the year of our Lord one thousand and nine
hundred" (thirty-eight years, more than a generation). The government
would pay the states in interest-bearing bonds for every slave freed at the
time he or she was freed. But, if any state reintroduced slavery, it would
have to refund the bonds and the interest to the federal government. The
second amendment compensated the loyal owners of slaves who had gained
freedom "by the chances of war." This offered repayment for the loss of
property when slaves freed themselves by escaping to Union lines. The third
amendment said that "Congress may appropriate money and otherwise
provide, for colonizing free colored persons, with their own consent, at any
place or places without the United States."
To modern eyes the contrast between Lincoln’s eloquence and the three
proposed amendments is stark. The amendments include the possibility, even
the likelihood, that some states would keep slavery for more than a
generation. More surprising still is the possibility that states might renege on
emancipation if they were willing to return the compensation they had been
given. Furthermore, the idea of compensation seemed to many people at the
time to concede the premises of slavery—slaves were pieces of property.
Then there was the colonization proposal, which most blacks (though not
all—remember Martin Delany, Henry Highland Garnet, and one of Frederick
Douglass’ sons) rejected as endorsing the racist idea that they could not live
beside whites but that, even after making southern lands productive, they
would have to leave the land of their birth. And yet Lincoln spoke of "giving
freedom to the slave, assuring freedom to the free."
72

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