Transformation(s) de l'école : vision et division du travail

De
Publié par

Dans le cadre des réformes éducatives récentes, les enseignants sont de plus en plus confrontés à l'injonction de « travailler ensemble ». Dans ce contexte, les cadres scolaires doivent exercer un leadership pédagogique pour accompagner les équipes à travailler collectivement, à faire évoluer leurs pratiques et à assurer des effets sur les apprentissages des élèves. Il se dégage ainsi une nouvelle vision de l'école et des défis qu'elle doit relever. Des chercheurs et formateurs français, belges, québécois et suisses étudient ici la manière dont ces changements se traduisent dans les différentes réalités scolaires.
Publié le : mardi 1 décembre 2015
Lecture(s) : 2
Tags :
EAN13 : 9782336397085
Nombre de pages : 262
Voir plus Voir moins
Cette publication est uniquement disponible à l'achat

Pratiques
en Formation

Sous la direction de
Laetitia PROGIN, Jean-François MARCEL,
Danièle PERISSET, Maurice TARDIF

TRANSFORMATION(S) DE L’ÉCOLE :
VISION ET DIVISION DU TRAVAIL



Transformation(s) de l’école :
vision et division du travail

CollectionPratiques en formationdirigée par
Daniel BERTAUX, Véronique BEDIN,
Catherine DELCROIX et Michel FOURNET

Coordination de la collection : Daniel BART

La collection Pratiques en formation regroupe des ouvrages qui
traitent de l’évolution des différents types de pratiques sociales, des
contextes dans lesquels elles s’inscrivent et de leurs méthodes
d’observation. Les travaux retenus répondent à trois objectifs
majeurs :construire des cadres de référence appropriés à l’analyse
de pratiques contextualisées, étudier les interactions entre
pratiques individuelles et organisationnelles dans des systèmes
d’activités différenciés: formation, travail social,
professionnalisation, développement local; enfin, enrichir les savoirs et
pratiques en formation tout au long de la vie selon une approche
pluridisciplinaire.

Dernières parutions

Coordonné par Dominique BROUSSAL, Pascale PONTE, et
Véronique BEDIN,Recherche-intervention et accompagnement du
changement en éducation,2015.
Sous la direction de Richard ETIENNE, Jean VINET, Josiane
VITALI,Quelle formation professionnelle supérieure pour les arts du
cirque ?, 2014.
Coordonné par Véronique BEDIN,Conduite et accompagnement
du changement. Contribution des sciences de l’éducation,2013.
Sous la direction de Bernard CALMETTES,Didactique des
sciences et démarches d’investigation, 2012.
Sous la direction de Bernard FRAYSSE,Les Sciences de l’éducation
dans les champs de formation, 2011.

Sous la direction de Laetitia PROGIN,
Jean-François MARCEL, Danièle PERISSET,
Maurice TARDIF




Transformation(s) de l’école :
vision et division du travail










































© L'HARMATTAN, 2015
5-7, rue de l'École-Polytechnique ; 75005 Paris

http://www.librairieharmattan.com
diffusion.harmattan@wanadoo.fr
harmattan1@wanadoo.fr

ISBN : 978-2-343-07369-9
EAN : 9782343073699



# ( ($$23 22(23 -3 : % "4+3? #$ 28"'.+.&($ $3
#$2 "($-"$2 #$ +i?#4" 3(.- 2(34?$ : +i4-(5$12(3? #$
.45 (-X
+ X$45$d$-$+&(04$%1 -"./'.-$eV -2+$" #1$#$2$2
"3(5(3?2#$"'$1"'$41d 4
X&1.4/$
(-3$1#(2"(/+(- (1$#$1$"'$1"'$241+ 2."( +(2 3(.-S
+i?#4" 3(.- $3 + %.1, 3(.-e (+ 2i(-3?1$22$ 47 04$23(.-2 #$
1?&4+ 3(.-#4"' ,/#$+i$-2$(&-$,$-3.!+(& 3.(1$$3 47
/.+(3(04$2 04( +i %%$"3$-3V

$$ ((2(.(S-"43 +i?##$.&4$"(.+2$.23
/1.%$22$41$:+i-(5$12(3? 1(2$2" 13$2# -2+$
#?/ 13$,$-3#$"($-"$2#$+i?#4" 3(.-V$231 5 47#$
1$"'$1"'$ /.13$-3 241 +$ 31 5 (+ : +i?".+$S 54 #4 /.(-3 #$ 54$
#$#(%%?1$-32 "3$412d?+>5$2S$-2$(&- -32S"'$%2
#i?3 !+(22$,$-3e (-2(04$241+$2+($-2$-31$"4+341$
2".+ (1$ $3 "4+341$ )45?-(+$V ++$ $23 ,$,!1$ #4 + !.1 3.(1$

X d.1!.--$ 1(2X(3?eV

3(" $%/ $23, A31$22$ #$ ".-%?1$-"$2
$2."(.+.&($:+\-(5$12(3?#$("$S1 33 "'?$ 4+ !.1 3.(1$

d-(3? #$ 1$"'$1"'$2 _ (&1 3(.-2 $3 ."(?3? `S eV
/1>2 4-$ 3'>2$ $- 2"($-"$ /.+(3(04$ d
-23(343 #i34#$2
.+(3(04$2 #$ 1(2eS $++$ /.4124(3 2$2 31 5 47 #$ 1$"'$1"'$
241 + ".-2314"3(.- #$ + "(3.8$--$3? $3 #$2 (#$-3(%(" 3(.-2
".++$"3(5$2 : +\?".+$S $3 241 + /+ "$ #$ + #(5$12(3? "4+341$++$
$31$+(&($42$# -2+i$2/ "$2".+ (1$V++$2i(-3?1$22$
?& +$,$-3 471$".,/.2(3(.-2#$+ %.1,$2".+ (1$$3#4
31 5 (+ ?#4" 3(% +(?$2 : "$13 (-$2 $7/?1($-"$2 ,$-?$2 4
2$(#$ +i?".+$ d/1.)$32 13(23(04$2 $3 "4+341$+2S -.3 ,,$-3eV

$(3 ())($%.1/32$114$22#3? (31$4
#?/ 13$,$-3#,(-(231 3(.-$3%.-#$,$-32#$+i?#4" 3(.-
#$+i-(5$12(3?#$.-31? +S-#1?1 22 1##$,$41$
/1.%$22$41 22."(? : "$ #?/ 13$,$-3 $3 4 #?/ 13$,$-3
#$ +i-(5$12(3? #$ '$1!1..*$V .4).412 "3(%S (+ / 13("(/$ :
#$2 1$"'$1"'$2 241 + $23(.- 7?$ 241 +$2 1?24+3 32 $3 241 +$

".,/.13$,$-3 #$2 &$23(.-- (1$2 #$ +i?#4" 3(.-V
+ 5($-3 #$
/4!+($1 4- 13("+$ (-3(34+? _
".,,(22(.- 2".+ (1$ ".,,$
+($4 #$ &.45$1- -"$ 43.-.,$ dksosXljkmeZ` d$54$
$+(&-$ ?+?2"./$S lj dleS ljknS kqXmneV

$$*+&( /$23 /1.%$22$41 #$ 2"($-"$2 #$
+\?#4" 3(.-:+\-(5$12(3?#$
.45 (-V
+$23?& +$,$-3
#(1$"3$41 #4
S "$-31$ #$ 1$"'$1"'$ 4 2$(- #404$+ (+
#?5$+.//$ #$2 1$"'$1"'$2 # -2 +$ #., (-$ #$ +\ - +82$ #$2
/.+(3(04$2$3#$2.1& -(2 3(.-2?#4" 3(5$2S 5$"4-$
33$-3(.- / 13("4+(>1$ : + 04$23(.- #$2 (-?& +(3?2 2."( +$2
% "$ : +\?".+$ $3 47 / 1".412 ?#4" 3(%2V $2 31 5 47 +$2 /+42
1?"$-32 /.13$-3 241 +\ - +82$ #$2 /1."$2242 #$ "' -&$,$-3
/?# &.&(04$ # -2 +$2 2823>,$2 $3 ?3 !+(22$,$-32 2".+ (1$2V

$*"%(* (#."3.1 -$233-$,$31 /?#4 $3
#,(-(231 3(.- $3 %.-#$,$-32 #$ +\?#4" 3(.- #$ +\-(5$12(3?
#$.-31? +V++$ G451?/$-# -3/+42#$ko -2:3(31$
#\$-2$(&- -3$$3#$#(1$"31("$ #).(-3$ 42$".-# (1$V++$
2\(-3?1$22$ 47 /1 3(04$2 #$2 "'$%2 #\?3 !+(22$,$-3 2".+ (1$
04 -3 : +\ "".,/ &-$,$-3 #$2 $-2$(&- -32 # -2 +$ ".-3$73$
#$ + &$23(.- 7?$ 241 +$2 1?24+3 32V

(( &% $*$23 /1.%$22$41 &1?&? 4 ?/ 13$,$-3
#\ #,(-(231 3(.- $3 %.-#$,$-32 #$ +\?#4" 3(.- #$ + "4+3?
#$2 2"($-"$2 #$ +i?#4" 3(.- #$ +i-(5$12(3? #$ .-31? +V
/?"( +(23$$-?5 +4 3(.-(-23(343(.--$++$S(+$-2$(&-$
+\ #,(-(231 3(.-#$+\?#4" 3(.-# -2+$/1.&1 ,,$#$
%.1, 3(.-(-(3( +$#$2#(1$"3(.-2#i?3 !+(22$,$-3V$2
1$"'$1"'$2 1?"$-3$2 /.13$-3 241 +$2 /.+(3(04$2 #$
&$23(. 7?$ 241 +$2 1?24+3 32S +$ %.-"3(.--$,$-3 #$2 ?3 !+(22$,$-32
$3 +i - +82$ #4 31 5 (+ #$2 #(1$"3(.-2 #\?3 !+(22$,$-3V

%+ ) ))+($23 /1.%$22$41 &1?&? : + "4+3? #$2
2"($-"$2#$+\?#4" 3(.-#$+\-(5$12(3?
5 +$3"'$1"'$41
22."(? 4$-31$#$1$"'$1"'$(-3$14-(5$12(3 (1$241+
%.1, 3(.- $3 + /1.%$22(.- $-2$(&- -3$ d
eV ."(.+.&4$
#$+\?#4" 3(.-S2$231 5 47/.13$-3241+ "4+341$2".+ (1$
d(-2314"3(.-S2."( +(2 3(.-S"1(3(04$eS+\?#4" 3(.-# -2+$

".-3$73$ #$ + ,.#$1-(3?S +\'(23.(1$ #$ +\?#4" 3(.- 4 4?!$"
$3 +$2 /.+(3(04$2 #\?#4" 3(.-V

$?($1% )
("/1.%$22$41 #$ "($-"$2 #$ $23
+i?#4" 3(.-:+i-(5$12(3?.4+.42$$ -X 41>2V
+$23
1$2/.-2 !+$ #$ +i.%%1$ 23$1 #4 #?/ 13$,$-3 #$2 "($-"$2
#$ +i?#4" 3(.- $3 #$ + %.1, 3(.-V
+ /1?"?#$,,$-3 $7$1"?
: +i #$ .4+.42$ .H (+ 5 (3 + "' 1&$ #$ + (1$"3(.- #$
+ 1$"'$1"'$V
+ ?& +$,$-3#(1(&?+i-(3?(73$#$
$"'$1"'$ _#4" 3(.-S .1, 3(.-S 1 5 (+S 5.(12` d
eV $2 1$"'$1"'$2 /.13$-3 241 +$ 31 5 (+ $-2$(&- -3S +$
#?5$+.//$,$-3 /1.%$22(.--$+ $3 241 +$2 #8- ,(04$2 #$
"' -&$,$-3 4 2$(- #$2 (-23(343(.-2 #i$-2$(&-$,$-3 $3 #$
%.1, 3(.-V

$ 2"3( ))*4 $3 +$:$214+$?".$2.%/13$2
/?# &.&(04$#4 + (2$3/1(5 3X#."$-3$:+i-(5$12(3?#$
$->5$V $2 1$"'$1"'$2 /.13$-3 241 +i'(23.(1$ 2."(.X/.+(3(04$
#$2 %.1, 3(.-2 : +i$-2$(&-$,$-3 d(-23(343(.-2 $3 #(2/.2(3(%2e
#4 ks$ 2(>"+$ : -.2 ).412S 241 + ,(2$ $- /+ "$S + 1? +(2 3(.-S
$3+i?5 +4 3(.-#$2#(2/.2(3(%2#$%.1, 3(.-/.41+$2
" -#(# 32:+i$-2$(&-$,$-3 (-2(04$241+$/1."$2242#$
/1.%$22(.-- +(2 3(.-# -2+$" #1$#$2-.45$++$2/.+(3(04$2
?#4" 3(5$2V

, (($%+A ,2(13#$1$-4\#$$4+ (3(3$23
2."(.+.&($#$+\-(5$12(3?#$$->5$V/1>2 5.(131 5 (++?
/$-# -34-$#(9 (-$#\ --?$2$-3 -304$2."(.+.&4$
(-#?/$-# -3S(+ (-3$-2(%(?2$2".++ !.1 3(.-2 5$"
+\-(5$12(3?$3+$2 43$2?".+$2S3 -3241+$/+ -#$+
1$"'$1"'$ 04$ #$ +\$-2$(&-$,$-3V $/4(2 ljkkS (+ $23 , A31$
#\$-2$(&-$,$-3 : +\
-23(343 %?#?1 + #$2 ' 43$2 ?34#$2
$%.1, 3(.- /1.%$22(.--$++$ d

eS 4 2$(- #404$+
(+ 224,$+ 1$2/.-2 !(+(3?#4,.#4+$#$%.1, 3(.-#$2
" #1$22".+ (1$2#$4(22$1., -#$S/.41+ .1, 3(.-$-
(1$"3(.- #\
-23(343(.-2 #$ %.1, 3(.- d
eV

((. %*$23 /1.%$22$41 $- 2"($-"$2 #$ +i#4" 3(.- :
+i-(5$12(3?#$ $- 22$X.1, -#($$3(+#(1(&$+$
+ !.1 3.(1$spoV$231 5 47/.13$-3241+$
#?5$+.//$,$-3 /1.%$22(.--$+ # -2 +$2 ,?3($12 #1$22?2 :
4314(U?#4" 3(.-S2.(-S31 5 (+2."( +S%.1, 3(.-VVV
+ - +82$
-.3 ,,$-3 ".,,$-3 2$ ".-2314(2$-3 +$2 ".,/?3$-"$2
1$+ 3(.--$++$2 $3 ".,,4-(" 3(.--$++$2 04( .451$-3 241 4-$
+.&(04$#$".++ !.1 3(.- 28,?31(04$$31?"(/1.04$$-31$
#i4-$ / 13 +$ /1.%$22(.--$+ $3#i 431$ / 13+$2 /$12.--$2
/.41a 5$" 04( (+ 31 5 (++$V .- " #1$ 3'?.1(04$ #$ 1?%?1$-"$
$23 "$+4( #$ + #(# "3(04$ /1.%$22(.--$++$V

* * (% $2$3$,!,$1#4
!.1 3.(1$#$
1$"'$1"'$
--.5 3(.-X.1, 3(.-X#4" 3(.-d
e#$
+\-(5$12(3? #$ $->5$ $3 "' 1&?$ #\$-2$(&-$,$-3 : + 43$
".+$?# &.&(04$#4" -3.-#$ 4#d4(22$eS# -2+$
#., (-$#$2 //1."'$231 -25$12 +$2V$231 5 47/.13$-3
241 + "4+341$ #\?3 !+(22$,$-3S +$ 31 5 (+ #$2 #(1$"3(.-2S+$2
1$+ 3(.-2 /1.%$22(.--$++$2 $3 +$2 1 //.132 #$ /.45.(1 4
2$(#$2?".+$2#4#$&1?/1(, (1$$32$".-# (1$V 3'>2$#$
#."3.1 3 2\(-3(34+$ _ 1 )$9M/'.$-#! I/) ( .$.9 ' -
' -.#$+ 6 'M9+- 01 ' -9'$/9J ),0:/ .0- 'M )/-9 ).
0) (9/$ - 9( -" )/`V

+( ( $23 /1.%$22$41 3(34+ (1$ : + "4+3? #$2
2"($-"$2 #$ +\?#4" 3(.- #$ +\-(5$12(3? #$ .-31? + d - # e
.H (+ $-2$(&-$ +\'(23.(1$ #$ + /?# &.&($ $3 + 2."(.+.&($ #$
+\?#4" 3(.-V
+ /4!+(?4-$31$-3 (-$#\.451 &$2241+
/1.%$22(.-$-2$(&- -3$$3+$/$12.--$+2".+ (1$S241+$
31 5 (+#$2$-2$(&- -32$3+$4122 5.(12S (-2(04$241+$41
%.1, 3(.-V
+$23,$,!1$#$+\" #?,($#$22"($-"$2
2."( +$2#4 - # V



&$!'&! VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
$& 8I

#(5(2(.- #4 31 5 (+ ?#4" 3(% $-31$ +$2
#(%%?1$-32 "3$412VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
' /(31$ kVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
--$ 11>1$ $3 ?1 +#(-$ .9$"
' /(31$ lVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV

.4(2
$5 22$41 $3 41("$ 1#(%
' /(31$ mVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
'($118 (.3
$& 9I

\?5.+43(.- #$2 1 //.132 $-31$ +$2
" #1$2 2".+ (1$2 $3 +$2 $-2$(&- -32VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
' /(31$ nVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
($11$
/.(-3$S -#1? 1 22 1# $3 ' -3 + .13($1
' /(31$ oVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
,(1 1! - $3 (-"$-3 4/1($9
' /(31$ pVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV

$3(3( 1.&(- $3 -(>+$ ?1(22$3
$& :I

$2 31 -2%.1, 3(.-2 #$ +i?3 !+(22$,$-3 2".+ (1$ $3
+$2 31 -2%.1, 3(.-2 #4 31 5 (+ $-2$(&- -3VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
' /(31$ qVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
5(# $11$-.4#
' /(31$ rVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
$ -X1 -=.(2 1"$+
!$"VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV

km
KP
ls
oo
qs
JIN
kjq
kmo
koo
JPN
kqq
ljo
KLN


$2 2823>,$2 ?#4" 3(%2 .-3 5?"4 #$ -.,!1$47 "' -&$,$-32
4".412#$"$2#$1-(>1$2#?"$--($2V
\?".+$S$-3 -3
04\(-23(343(.- /4!+(04$S 1$23$ "$-31 +$ , (2 2$2 .1($-3 3(.-2
2.-3 #?2.1, (2 #(2"43?$2S #?! 334$2 / 1 3.43 4- "' "4-V
$2
"1(3(04$2 #1$22?$2 47 2823>,$2 ?#4" 3(%2S 47 (-23(3432#$
%.1, 3(.-S 4 31 5 (+ #$2 $-2$(&- -32 .4 : "$+4( #$2 "'$%2
#\?3 !+(22$,$-32.-3#$5$-4$2,.-- ($".41 -3$V5$"+$
#?"+(- #4 /1.&1 ,,$ (-23(343(.--$+ $- "$ 04( ".-"$1-$
+\?".+$ d4!$3S ljjleS +$2 2."(?3?2 .-3 "04(2 4- #1.(3 #$
1$& 1# (,/.13 -3 241 +\(-23(343(.- 2".+ (1$S 5$" #$2 33$-3$2
3.43 422( !.-# -3$2 04$ ".-2(#?1 !+$2V

$2".,/ 1 (2.-2S"+ 22$,$-32$33$232(-3$1- 3(.- 47
.-3 1$-%.1"? "$33$ 3$-# -"$V
$2 / 82 (-2( 04$ +$2 1?&(.-2
3$11(3.1( +$2 2.-3 #?2.1, (2 ,$241?2 $3 "+ 22?2 : +\ 4-$ #$
#(%%?1$-3223 -# 1#2V+\>1$#$+ ,.-#( +(2 3(.-$3#$+
&+.! +(2 3(.-S.-/$43/$-2$104$3.43$23".,/ 1 !+$$3
#.-"04 -3(%( !+$V@,$2(+$2 "3$412S241+$3$11 (-S-$
2 5$-3/ 23.4).412".,,$-32$/.2(3(.--$1% "$ 47
1?24+3 32.!3$-42$3 47(-#(" 3$41243(+(2?2S+$2$-)$47
/.+(3(04$22\ 5>1$-3".-2(#?1 !+$2V
$2,?#( 2#(%%42$-3
+ 1&$,$-3 +$2 1?24+3 32 .!3$-42 $3 #.--$-3 +$41 5(2 241 +$2
% "3$41204(2$1 ($-3:+\.1(&(-$#\4-2".1$)4&?
(-2 3(2% (2 -3 #4 /.(-3 #$ 54$ /.+(3(04$V

-2!($-#$2/ 82S
2\$,/ 1$-3 #.-" #4 24)$3S "$ 04(
/(+.3 &$ #$2 2823>,$2 ?#4" 3(%2V

+$2/ 13(2/.+(3(04$2
(-%+4$-"$ 2241?,$-3 +$

(-2(S: 31 5$12 #(5$12$2 1?%.1,$2 "$-2?$2
./3(,(2$1 +$ 2823>,$S +$2 ,.#>+$2 #$ &.45$1- -"$ $3 #$
1?&4+ 3(.- 31 -2%.1,$-3 +$2 ".-#(3(.-2 #\$7$1"("$ #4 31 5 (+
?#4" 3(%S $- //$+ -3 .4 -.- +\$22.1 #$ -.45$++$2 ,.# +(3?2
#\.1& -(2 3(.- #4 31 5 (+ ".++$"3(%S % 5.1(2 -3 +\?,$1&$-"$ #$
-.45$ 47 &1.4/$2 #\ "3$412 .4 +$41 1$".-5$12(.- # -2 #$
-.45$ 47 3$11(3.(1$2 #$ 31 5 (+V

-2"$33$ /$12/$"3(5$S + 3$-3 3(.- $23 &1 -#$ #$
2\(-2/(1$1 #$2 .43(+2 #4/) ( ") 2
0'$d.4 #$

13

.45$++$&$23(.-/4!+(04$e/.41/ 15$-(1: ,?+(.1$1
+\$%%(" "(3?#$+\?".+$V -2+$2,(+($47?#4" 3(%2S2(/$4
' !(34?2/.413 -3:"$38/$#\$-5(1.--$,$-3, - &?1( +S
4- 38/$ #$ 1'?3.1(04$ // 1 A3S 04( 43(+(2$ )4204\: +$2 1$-#1$
% ,(+($12 #$2 ,.32 3$+2 04$- #.+$G() " ()/G/ ./.G'
/' 03 *-G$)$/ 0-.G./)-$./$*)G*)0-- ) G
(-#9 .*'$- V 4$ "$2 ".-"$/32 $3 .43(+2 2.($-3 (2242 #4
,(+($4 #$ +\$-31$/1(2$ .4 #$ + .45$++$ &$23(.- /4!+(04$S
+$412 1?/$1"422(.-2 241 +$ %.-"3(.--$,$-3 #$2
?3 !+(22$,$-322".+ (1$22.-3(-"$13 (-$2V-$%%$3S"$2
?5.+43(.-2 -?.+(!?1 +$2 ".$7(23$-3 5$" 4-$ .1& -(2 3(.- #4
31 5 (+2".+ (1$04(-\ S$++$S/ 224!(#\(,/.13 -32
"' -&$,$-32 4 ".412 #$ "$2 #$1-(>1$2 #?"$--($2V

\$-2$(&- -3.4+$%.1, 3$411$23$-3b+ /+4/ 13#4
3$,/2 b +$ 2$4+ $3 4-(04$ 1$2/.-2 !+$ #$ + "+ 22$ $3 #$ "$
04( 2$ #?1.4+$ $-31$ 2$2 04 31$ ,412V .43$%.(2S +$ 31 5 (+
?#4" 3(% 04( $23 $%%$"34? 4).41#\'4( 4 2$(- #$2 (-23(3432
#\$-2$(&-$,$-3 $3 #$ %.1, 3(.- -\$23 /+42 4-(04$,$-3
224,?-(".-#4(3/ 1+$22$4+2$-2$(&- -32d 1#(%K

$5 22$41S ljkjeV

\$23 4 -(5$ 4 #$2 ?3 !+(22$,$-32 04$ +$2 /+42 &1 -#$2
?5.+43(.-2.-3/ 1 (++$412/4@31$1$+$5?$2d 1#(%K

$5 22$41SljkjT4/1($9K +$3SljkmeS 5$"+$
#?5$+.//$,$-3 #$ %.-"3(.-2 '(?1 1"'(04$2 (-3$1,?#( (1$2
.""4/?$2/ 1+$2_" #1$22".+ (1$2`$3#(5$12
/1.%$22(.--$+2V$2 &$-322".+ (1$2S#.-3+$2%.-"3(.-2
,4+3(/+$2 #(%%>1$-3 2$+.- +$2 / 82S 5.(1$ +$2 1?&(.-2S .-3 $47X
,@,$2 1$=4 #(5$12$2 (-).-"3(.-2S #.-3 "$++$ #\ "".,/ &-$1
+$2 ?04(/$2 #\$-2$(&- -32 04( .-3 ?3? ,(2 4 31 5 (+ ".++$"3(%
/.411? +(2$1#$2/1.)$32".,,4-2S, (2 422(/.41% (1$
?5.+4$1 +$2 /1 3(04$2 (-#(5(#4$++$2 # -2 + "+ 22$S /1 3(04$2
#.-3 +\$%%(" "(3? $23 / 1%.(2 ?5 +4?$ $- %.-"3(.- #$2 $%%$32
.!2$15?2 241 +$2 //1$-3(22 &$2 #$2 ?+>5$2V

$13 (-$2" 3?&.1($2#$"$2-.45$ 47 &$-322".+ (1$2
(-3$15($--$-3?& +$,$-3#(1$"3$,$-3 4/1>2#$2?+>5$2S
-.3 ,,$-3#$2?+>5$2$-#(%%("4+3?V -2+$" #1$#$2
1?%.1,$2 ?#4" 3(5$2 1?"$-3$2S +$2 $-2$(&- -32 2.-3 #.-"

14

".-%1.-3?2 : +\(-).-"3(.-S 5.(1$ : + /1$2"1(/3(.- #$ 31 5 (++$1
_$-2$,!+$`S".++$"3(5$,$-3S$-".++ !.1 3(.-.4
"../?1 3(.-S 4 2$(- #\?04(/$2 /?# &.&(04$2 /+42 .4 ,.(-2
?+ 1&($2d 1"$+S4/1($9S?1(22$3K 1#(%SljjqT
.11(5$ 4S
$3.1S ?1(22$3 K 5.($S ljkj T 1"$+S (.3 K
4/1($9S ljkje 43.41 #$ /1?.""4/ 3(.-2 /?# &.&(04$2 .4
/.41 /1./.2$1 $3 1? +(2$1 #$2 /1.)$32 #\?3 !+(22$,$-3V
$41
31 5 (+-$2$+(,(3$"+ (1$,$-3/+42:+\ "3(.-/?# &.&(04$
42$-2231("304( +($4$-"+ 22$T(+".,/1$-#4-$
#(,$-2(.- ".++$"3(5$ #$ /+42 $- /+42 (,/.13 -3$V

$ % (3S $3 ,@,$ 2( +\$-2$(&- -3 ".-3(-4$ : $-2$(&-$1
# -22 "+ 22$S2.-31 5 (+2\$23?+ 1&($3$-/ 13($#?/+ "?
'.12 #$ +\$2/ "$ _"$++4+$X"+ 22$ `/1./1$,$-3 #(3V
$2
-.45$ 47 3$11(3.(1$2 $3 #(2/.2(3(%2 /?# &.&(04$2 04( .-3 % (3
+$41 // 1(3(.-d/1.)$32#\?3 !+(22$,$-3S".-2$(+2
#\?3 !+(22$,$-3S VVVe .-3 ?3? (-5$23(2 / 1 "$2 -.45$ 47 &$-32
2".+ (1$2S-.45$ 47 "3$412(-23(343(.--$+2U"'$%2
#\?3 !+(22$,$-32S"..1#(- 3$412/?# &.&(04$2S".-2$(++$12
/?# &.&(04$2S%.1, 3$412S/$12.--$+3$"'-(04$S
/1.%$22(.--$+2 47".,/?3$-"$22/?"(%(04$2S/ 1$-32
#\?+>5$2S $3"V $ -.45$++$2 %.1,$2 #$ #(5(2(.- #4 31 5 (+ 2.-3
#.-" // 14$2 04( #?/+ "$-3S /+42 .4 ,.(-2 .45$13$,$-3S +$
1E+$ #$2 $-2$(&- -32S #$ +$412 ".++$"3(%2 $3 #$ +$412 1 //.132
: + '(?1 1"'($S : +\?3 !+(22$,$-3 $3 : 2.- $-5(1.--$,$-3V

-2+$" #1$#$"$3.451 &$S-.42"'$1"'.-2:
".-"$/34 +(2$1"$33$#(5(2(.-#431 5 (+?#4" 3(%$--.42
(-3?1$22 -3 47#(5$12$2, -(>1$2#\$-5(2 &$1+\.1& -(X
2 3(.-$3+ #(%%?1$-"( 3(.-#431 5 (+ 42$(-#$22823>,$2
04$ "$ 2.(3 : +\(-3?1($41 #\4- / 82S #\4-$ 1?&(.-S
#\4?3 !+(22$,$-3S$--.42"$-31 -33 -3241+$2#(2/.2(3(%2
/ 13("4+($12 04$ 241 +$2 "3$412 (,/+(04?2 $3 +
#(231(!43(.#4 /.45.(1 $-31$ "$2 "3$412V

$ 2.-3 "$2 %.1,$2 -.45$++$2 $3 #(5$12$2 #$ +
#(5(2(.#431 5 (+ 42$(-#$2(-23(343(.-2#\$-2$(&-$,$-3$3#$
%.1, 3(.- 04$ +$2 ".-31(!43$412 #$ "$33$ /4!+(" 3(.- .-3 ?3?
(-5(3?2 : - +82$1V

15

.42 5.-2 "'.(2( #\?34#($1 /+42 /1?"(2?,$-3 +$2
-.45$++$2 #8- ,(04$2 04( .-3 ?,$1&? "$2 #$1-(>1$2
#?"$--($2 $- 3$-3 -3 #$ ".,/1$-#1$ ".,,$-3 +$2 "3$412 b
(-#(5(#4$++$,$-3 $3 ".++$"3(5$,$-3 b 2$ 2.-3 $,/ 1?2 #$ "$2
"' -&$,$-32 +.12,@,$04$+ %.1,$2".+ (1$
_ 31 #(3(.--$++$ ` 1$23$ 3.4).412 $3 $-".1$ #\ "34 +(3?V
+ -.42
$23 (-2( // 14 / 13("4+(>1$,$-3 (-3?1$22 -3 #\(-3$11.&$1 $3
#\ - +82$1+ , -(>1$#.-3+$2 "3$4125(5$-3#$2,.#>+$2
'8!1(#$2 04( 2$,!+$-3 ".-)4&4$1 _?5.+43(.- `$3
_ 31 #(3(.- `V

.41 "$ % (1$S -.42 5.-2 1?4-( #$2 "'$1"'$412 $3
%.1, 3$412#$4(22$S#$1 -"$S#$$+&(04$$3#4 - #
%(- #$ 3$-3$1 #$ ,($47 ".,/1$-#1$ #$ 04$++$ , -(>1$ +$2
?5.+43(.-2 #$ "$2 #$1-(>1$2 --?$2 .-3 ?3? 1? +(2?$2 :
+\(-3?1($41#$#(%%?1$-322823>,$2?#4" 3(%2$3#\ //1?X
'$-#$1 ".,,$-3 "$2 ?5.+43(.-2 2$ 2.-3 1?/$1"43?$2 241 +$
31 5 (+$3+ #(5(2(.-#431 5 (+?#4" 3(%V

\(-31.#4"3(.- #$ "$3 .451 &$ .451$ #$2 /.13$2
#(%%?1$-3$2 241 4-$ 5 23$ /1.!+?, 3(04$ #.-3 +$2 31.(2
/ 13($2 #4 +(51$ 2$15$-3 $- 2.,,$ #$ /.(-3 #\.1&4$ U

kV
#(5(2(.-#431 5 (+?#4" 3(%$-31$+$2#(%%?1$-32
"3$412 T
lV
\?5.+43(.-#$2 1 //.132 $-31$ +$2 " #1$2 2".+ (1$2 $3
+$2 $-2$(&- -32 T
mV
$231 -2%.1, 3(.-2#$+i?3 !+(22$,$-32".+ (1$$3+$2
31 -2%.1, 3(.-2#431 5 (+$-2$(&- -3V
$231.(2/ 13($2S".,/+?,$-3 (1$2S/$1,$33$-3
#\ - +82$1".,,$-3+$2 "3$412S(-#(5(#4$++$,$-3.4
".++$"3(5$,$-3S &(22$-3S (-3$1/1>3$-3S ,$33$-3 $- G451$ +$2
(-).-"3(.-2 $3 /1$2"1(/3(.-2S #$ 04$++$2 , -(>1$2 +$2 " #1$2
2".+ (1$2 2\$,/ 1$-3 #$2 (-).-"3(.-2 #4 /.+(3(04$ 4 2$(- #$
+$41 (-23(343(.- $3 $- 04.( +$41 1E+$ $23 ,$-? : ?5.+4$1S
5.(1$ : @31$ 1$#?%(-(V

$ /+42S 8 -3 31 (3? + 04$23(.- #$2 1$+ 3(.-2 #$ 31 5 (+
$-31$ +\$-2$,!+$ #$2 "3$412 ".-"$1-?2S -.42 !.1#$1.-2 +
04$23(.- #$ + /+ "$ $3 +\(-%+4$-"$ #$2 /.+(3(04$2 ?#4" 3(5$2

16

# -2"$2d1$e".-%(&41 3(.-2S2.(3+ 04$23(.-#$2 5.(1
".,,$-3 +$2 /.+(3(04$2 ?#4" 3(5$2 %%$"3$-3 +$2 (-23(343(.-2
#\$-2$(&-$,$-3 $3 #$ %.1, 3(.- (-2( 04$ + "..1#(- 3(.- $3
+ #(5(2(.- #4 31 5 (+ $- +$41 2$(-V

J= , ) %$+*(, "$*(") 3($*)*+()
@,$ 2( +$2 (-).-"3(.-2 4 31 5 (+ ".++$"3(% 2.-3 #$ /+42
$/+42 /1?&- -3$2S /+42($412 1$"'$1"'$2 33$23$-3 #$ +\ !2$-"$
1?"411$-3$#\4-$5?1(3 !+$"4+341$#$"../?1 3(.-
/1.%$22(.--$++$ 4 2$(- #$ + "4+341$ $3 #$2 ".-"$/3(.-2 #4
,?3($1 04$ / 13 &$-3 +$2 $-2$(&- -32V $+.- +$2 31 5 47 : "$
24)$3d 11>1$Sljjl-.3 ,,$-3eS"$3(-#(5(#4 +(2,$
_ // 1 A3# 5 -3 &$".,,$+$/1.#4(3#$2".-#(3(.-2
"34$++$2#$+\.1& -(2 3(.-#431 5 (+$-2$(&- -3S 43.41#$
+ "$++4+$X"+ 22$04$".,,$4-$#(2/.2(3(.-, ).1(3 (1$$3
/ 13 &?$ d 1#(% K
$22 1#S kssse ` d"(3? / 1 11>1$S ljjlS
/VnrqeV.,,$+$/1?"(2$-3 1#(%$3
$22 1#dljjjeS
_ +\?".+$ "' -&$S + "+ 22$ 1$23$ `V

41+$/+ -#$+\.1& -(2 3(.-#431 5 (+$-2$(&- -3S+$2
?3 !+(22$,$-322".+ (1$22.-3$%%$"3(5$,$-3".--42/.41
@31$ #$2 .1& -(2 3(.-2 %1 &,$-3?$2 $3 "$++4+ (1$2V

$2 1$+ 3(.-2 ! +* -(2?$2 d 3'$1 '41+$1S ljjje $-31$
$-2$(&- -32 04( 1?24+3$-3 #$2 "+.(2.--$,$-32 /$12(23 -32 :
#(%%?1$-32-(5$ 47d#(2"(/+(- (1$2S1$+ 3(.--$+2S
'(?1 1"'(04$2SVVVe-$% 5.1(2$-3/ 2%.1"?,$-3+
".,,4-(" 3(.-$3+$2?"' -&$2V
$/ 13 &$#$22 5.(12$3
#$2".,/?3$-"$22$1? +(2$#(%%("(+$,$-3S"' "4-1$23 -3
".,/?3$-3 $3 $7/$13 : +\(-3?1($41 #$ 2 "+ 22$V

.413 -3S+\ // 1(3(.-#$-.45$ 47 &$-32.4 "3$412
(-3$15$- -3# -2+$"' ,//?# &.&(04$S+$1E+$
/?# &.&(04$ 04$ +$2 " #1$2 2".+ (1$2 "'$1"'$-3 # 5 -3 &$ :
.""4/$1 $3 + /1?2$-"$ #$ -.45$ 47 $2/ "$2 $3 #(2/.2(3(%2
1$+ 3(%2:+\$-2$(&-$,$-3X //1$-3(22 &$".-#4(2$-3b.4
.!+(&$-3b+$2$-2$(&- -32:#$5.(1 ""$/3$1#$".' !(3$1
5$"#\ 431$2(-3$15$- -32241+$3$11(3.(1$2".+ (1$$3
?#4" 3(%V

17

- .!2$15$S # -2 + /+4/ 13 #$2 / 82S +\?,$1&$-"$S 5.(1$
+\$22.1 ""?+?1? #$/4(2 4-$ 31$-3 (-$ #\ --?$2 #$ -.45$++$2
" 3?&.1($2#\ &$-32?#4" 3(%2d/1.%$22(.--$+22/?"( +(2?2S
3$"'-("($-2S " #1$2S (-3$15$- -32 $73$1-$2S $3"Ve 04(S #\4-$
, -(>1$.4#\4-$ 431$S,.#(%($-3+$2#8- ,(04$2
".++$"3(5$2 42$(-#$2?3 !+(22$,$-32S(-23 41$-3#$
-.45$ 47,.#$2S#$-.45$ 473$11(3.(1$2$31 //.132#$
31 5 (+ 5$" +$2 ?+>5$2S $- /+42 #\(-5$23(1 +$2 $2/ "$2 $3 +$2
"3(5(3?231 #(3(.--$++$,$-3#?5.+42 47$-2$(&- -32
d 1#(% K
$5 22$41S ljkjeV

$2 &$-32S #.-3 +$ /.(#2 -4,?1(04$S +$2 23 3432 $3 +$2
(#$-3(3?2/1.%$22(.--$++$25 1($-3#\4-/ 82:+\ 431$S
(-31.#4(2$-3 %.1"?,$-3 # -2 +$2 2823>,$2 2".+ (1$2 $3 +$2
?3 !+(22$,$-32#$-.45$++$2,.# +(3?2#$/ 13 &$$3#$
#(5(2(.-#431 5 (+?#4" 3(%04$+$2$-2$(&- -32-\.-3/ 2
"'.(2(V

\?,$1&$-"$ $3 +\$22.1 #$ "$2 &1.4/$2 #\ &$-32S #.-3
"$13 (-22.-3/+42 -"($-2$3#\ 431$2-$33$,$-3/+42
1?"$-32S %.-3 $- 2.13$ 04$ +$ 31 5 (+ ?#4" 3(% $23 #$5$-4
431 5 (+ ".++$"3(% : + %.(2 / 13 &? $3 #(5(2? T / 13 &?S / 1"$ 04$
3.42 "$2 &$-32 ".-31(!4$-3 $- /1(-"(/$ : 4-$ G451$
".,,4-$U+\(-2314"3(.-$3+ 2."( +(2 3(.-#$2?+>5$2:
31 5$12 +$ ".-3(-44, 2".+ (1$ -?"$22(3$-3 %.1"?,$-3 + ,(2$
$-/+ "$#\ "3(5(3?2#$"..1#(- 3(.-, (2 422(#$2
,?" -(2,$2 $3 ".-31E+$2T 31 5 (+ ".++$"3(% #(5(2?S / 1"$ 04$
"$2 &$-32 2.-3 1$2/.-2 !+$2 #$ 3;"'$2 #(%%?1$-3$2S 04\(+2
.""4/$-3 #$2 $2/ "$2 $3 #$2 3$,/2 #$ 31 5 (+ 2/?"(%(04$2 $3
#$2 /.2(3(.-2 (-23(343(.--$++$2 #(%%?1$-3$2S 04\(+2 .-3 422(
#$2 %.1, 3(.-2S #$2 ".,/?3$-"$2 $3 2 5.(12S #$2 %.-"3(.-2 $3
#$2 23 3432 #(%%?1$-32 # -2 +$412 1 //.132 47 ?+>5$2V

.-"1>3$,$-3S +$2 04$23(.-2 24(5 -3$2 /$45$-3 @31$
%.1,4+?$2U04$+22.-3+$2-.45$ 47$2/ "$2$3 "3$412
".-"$1-?2Z.,,$-3+$2-.45$ 473$11(3.(1$2#$
31 5 (+ 2.-3X(+2#(2"43?2S -?&."(?2S / 13 &?2S #(5(2?2 $3
1$".,/.2?2S $- %.-"3(.- -.3 ,,$-3 #$ &1.4/$2
$/1?2$-"$ Z

18

- 04.( +$2 %.1,$2 #$ 2/?"( +(2 3(.- $7(23 -3$2 d/1(2$
$"' 1&$#$2/4!+("2$-#(%%("4+3?S(-31.#4"3(.- 47+ -&4$2
2$".-#$2S#?".4/ &$2#(2"(/+(- (1$2S#(5(2(.-2/ 1#$&1?S
-(5$ 4S $3"Ve ".-31(!4$-3X$++$2 .4 1?2(23$-3X$++$2 47 $%%.132
#$ 1?.1& -(2 3(.- #4 31 5 (+ ?#4" 3(%Z .41 $204(22$1 4-$
1?/.-2$ : "$2 5 23$2 04$23(.-2S -.42 5.-2 1?4-( # -2 "$33$
/1$,(>1$/ 13($+$2".-31(!43(.-2#\--$ 11>1$$3
?1 +#(-$.9$"d1 -"$eS#$
.4(2
$5 22$41$3 41("$
1#(% d4?!$"e $3 #$ '($118 (.3 d1 -"$eV

-2 +$ "' /(31$ kS --$ 11>1$ $3 ?1 +#(-$ .9$" .-3
?34#(?S# -24-".-3$73$%1 -= (2S+ #(5(2(.-#$21E+$2
$7(23 -32$-31$#$2 13(23$2$3#$2$-2$(&- -32(,/+(04?2
2(,4+3 -?,$-3 # -2 #$2 /1.)$32 $3 #$2 #(2/.2(3(%2 "4+341$+2
/ 13("4+($12V

++$2(-3$11.&$-3/+42/1?"(2?,$-3+ , -(>1$#$
".-"$5.(1 +$ 31 5 (+ ?#4" 3(% : +\(-3?1($41 #$2 ?3 !+(22$,$-32
+.1204$ #$2 "3$412 47 / 1".412 $3 47 ,(+($47 2( #(%%?1$-32
(-3$15($--$-3 4/1>2 #$2 ,@,$2 ?+>5$2V

-2 +$ "' /(31$ lS
.4(2
$5 22$41 $3 41("$ 1#(% 2$
2.-3S04 -3:$47S(-3?1$22?2:4-$" 3?&.1($#\ &$-32
2".+ (1$2 //$+?$ 4 4?!$" +$2 _3$"'-("($-2 $- ?#4"
3(.2/?"( +(2?$`"$-2?2 224,$14-$/ 13&1 -#(22 -3$#$2
3;"'$2?#4" 3(5$204(-$1$+>5$-3/ 2#431 5 (+
#\(-2314"3(.-V
+2 .-3 -.3 ,,$-3 04$23(.--? +$2 #(5$12$2
%(- +(3?2 /.4124(5($2 / 1 +\(-31.#4"3(.- #$ "$ 38/$ #\ "3$412
$3 +$2 31 -2%.1, 3(.-2 #4 31 5 (+ ?#4" 3(% 04( b 4 %(- + b
$1?24+3$-3V

-2+$"' /(31$mS'($118(.3 - +82?".,,$-32$
#(5(2$+\ "3(5(3?/?# &.&(04$# -2+$" #1$#\4-$%.1, 3(.-
/1.%$22(.--$++$ / 1 +3$1- -"$S $- 1 -"$V
+ 2\$23 "$-31? 241
+ #(5(2(.- $3 + "..1#(- 3(.- #4 31 5 (+ $-31$ #$2 "3$412 04(
(-3$15($--$-3 # -2 4-$ ,@,$ %.1, 3(.- : / 13(1 #\$2/ "$2
#(%%?1$-32S:2 5.(1+$2%.1, 3$412(,/+(04?2 42$(-#$
+\(-23(343 /1.%$22(.--$+S +$2 %.1, 3$412 241 +$ 3$11 (- #$2
23 &$2 $3 +$ %.1,?V

19

K=

Soyez le premier à déposer un commentaire !

17/1000 caractères maximum.