//img.uscri.be/pth/16712ec84dd622120fc82bbe7e01c55a0a50d701
Cette publication ne fait pas partie de la bibliothèque YouScribe
Elle est disponible uniquement à l'achat (la librairie de YouScribe)
Achetez pour : 28,99 €

Lecture en ligne (cet ouvrage ne se télécharge pas)

Le Douaire des reines de France à la fin du Moyen-Âge

De
350 pages
De Bettrade de Monfort (1067-1117) à Marie d'Angleterre (1519-1589) 31 reines de France se sont succédé et 16 d'entre elles sont devenues douairières. Au travers notamment de l'étude de la vie de ces 16 douairières, nous établirons la première grande synthèse sur cette institution majeure qu'est le douaire durant la période médiévale.
Voir plus Voir moins

Historiques

Jean-Marc Cazilhac

sérieTravaux

Le Douaire
des reines de France
à la n du Moyen Âge

Historiques
Travaux







/H 'RXDLUH GHV UHLQHV GH )UDQFH
j OD ILQ GX 0R\HQ ÆJH

+LVWRULTXHV
Dirigée par Bruno Péquignot et Vincent Laniol



/D FROOHFWLRQ © +LVWRULTXHV ª D SRXU YRFDWLRQ GH SUpVHQWHU OHV UHFKHUFKHV
OHV SOXV UpFHQWHV HQ VFLHQFHV KLVWRULTXHV /D FROOHFWLRQ HVW RXYHUWH j OD
GLYHUVLWp GHV WKqPHV G
pWXGH HW GHV SpULRGHV KLVWRULTXHV
(OOH FRPSUHQG WURLV VpULHV OD SUHPLqUH V¶LQWLWXODQW ©WUDYDX[ ªHVW
RXYHUWH DX[ pWXGHV UHVSHFWDQW XQH GpPDUFKH VFLHQWLILTXH O¶DFFHQW HVW
SDUWLFXOLqUHPHQW PLV VXU OD UHFKHUFKH XQLYHUVLWDLUH WDQGLV TXH OD GHX[LqPH
LQWLWXOpH ©VRXUFHV ªD SRXU REMHFWLI G¶pGLWHU GHV WpPRLJQDJHV GH
FRQWHPSRUDLQV UHODWLIV j GHV pYpQHPHQWV G¶DPSOHXU KLVWRULTXH RX GH SXEOLHU
WRXW WH[WH GRQW OD GLIIXVLRQ HQULFKLUD OH FRUSXV GRFXPHQWDLUH GH O¶KLVWRULHQ
HQILQ OD WURLVLqPH © HVVDLV ª DFFXHLOOH GHV WH[WHV D\DQW XQH IRUWH GLPHQVLRQ
KLVWRULTXH VDQV SRXU DXWDQW UHOHYHU G¶XQH GpPDUFKH DFDGpPLTXH


6pULH 7UDYDX[


'LGLHU &+$89(7Les autodafés nazis. Mémoire du 10 mai 1933
$QQH 0e7e1,(5Ségrégation raciale aux États-Unis. Six portraits de
stars
'LGLYHU &+$89(7Hitler et la Nuit des Longs Couteaux (29 juin – 2 juillet
1934), La Sturmabteilung (SA) décapitée
-HDQ<YHV &+$89(7La transmission des maisons lorraines, Familles et
e e
maisons paysannes de la fin du XVIIau milieu du XXsiècle
7FKDYGDU 0$5,129ancêtres les Thraces, Usages idéologiques de« Nos
l’Antiquité en Europe du Sud-Est
)UDQoRLVH '$648(6La pensée française de l’architecture mexicaine,
Paris–Mexico 1784-1910, Architectures et univers mental, Tome III,
)UDQoRLVH '$648(6Du style parisien à l’éclectisme porfirien, Paris–
Mexico 1784-1910, Architectures et devenir des formes, Tome II,
)UDQoRLVH '$648(6Deux Rome, Paris–Mexico 1784-1910, Architectures
et transferts, Tome I,
0XULHOOH 3(55,(5Utopie et libertinage au siècle des Lumières. Une
allégorie de la liberté
:HOOHGD 08//(5Les stalles, siège du corps

-HDQ0DUF &D]LOKDF




/H 'RXDLUH GHV UHLQHV GH )UDQFH
j OD ILQ GX 0R\HQ ÆJH
















































'X PrPH DXWHXU

-HDQQH G¶(YUHX[ HW %ODQFKH GH 1DYDUUH
GHX[ UHLQHV GRXDLULqUHV GXUDQW OD JXHUUH GH FHQW DQV




/¶+$50$77$1
UXH GH O¶eFROH3RO\WHFKQLTXH 3DULV
ZZZKDUPDWWDQIU
GLIIXVLRQKDUPDWWDQ#ZDQDGRRIU
,6%1
($1

$9$17352326


/H WUDYDLO SUpVHQWp GDQV FHW RXYUDJH HVW LVVX G¶XQH WKqVH G¶KLVWRLUH
PpGLpYDOH VRXWHQXH j O¶XQLYHUVLWp 3DULV ,9 6RUERQQH HQ GpFHPEUH VRXV
OD GLUHFWLRQ GX SURIHVVHXU +HQUL 'XERLV 6XLWH j VD VRXWHQDQFH HOOH Q¶DYDLW
D
HQFRUH MDPDLV pWp SXEOLpH &¶HVW FKRVH IDLWH DXMRXUG¶KXL GH IDoRQ j
SHUPHWWUH j FHOOHV HW FHX[ TXL V¶LQWpUHVVHQW QRWDPPHQW j OD GpYROXWLRQ GX
GRPDLQH UR\DO HQ IDYHXU GHV UHLQHV GH )UDQFH PDLV DXVVL SOXV JpQpUDOHPHQW j
O¶+LVWRLUH GHV LQVWLWXWLRQV GX UR\DXPH GH )UDQFH HQ FHWWH ILQ GH PR\HQ kJH
GH SRXYRLU SXLVHU GH QRXYHOOHV GRQQpHV 8Q FHUWDLQ QRPEUH GH GRFXPHQWV
MDPDLV HQFRUH SXEOLpV ILJXUH HQ ILQ G¶RXYUDJH
&H WUDYDLO VHUD SURORQJp GDQV XQ DXWUH OLYUH j SDUDvWUH SDU XQH pWXGH
FRPSOpPHQWDLUH VXU OHV DSDQDJHV GH PDQLqUH j IRXUQLU XQH YLVLRQ JOREDOH GH
OD GpYROXWLRQ GX GRPDLQH UR\DO DX PR\HQ kJH HQ IDYHXU GHV HQIDQWV GH
)UDQFH


D TXHOTXHV UpIpUHQFHV ELEOLRJUDSKLTXHV QRXYHOOHV RQW pWp DMRXWpHV


,1752'8&7,21

/
pWXGH GH OD GpYROXWLRQ G
XQH SDUWLH GX GRPDLQH UR\DO HQ IDYHXU GH OD
YHXYH GX URL GH )UDQFH Q
D MDPDLV IDLW O
REMHW G
XQH V\QWKqVH 3RXUWDQW FHWWH
SUDWLTXH pWDLW REOLJDWRLUH ORUV GH OD FpUpPRQLH GX PDULDJH HW FRQFHUQDLW DXVVL
ELHQ OD UHLQH TXH j XQ DXWUH QLYHDX OD IHPPH G
XQ QREOH RX G
XQ ERXUJHRLV
3HXWrWUH HVWFH FHWWH DSSDUHQWH VLPSOLFLWp TXL D IDLW TXH SHX GH MXULVWHV RX
G
KLVWRULHQV VH VRQW SHQFKpV VXU FHWWH TXHVWLRQ /D QRWLRQ GH GRXDLUH D
FHSHQGDQW IDLW O
REMHW GH QRPEUHX[ WUDYDX[ SRXU OD SOXSDUW DQFLHQV ;,;
YRLUH PrPH WUqV DQFLHQV ;9,, HW ;9,,, 0DLV FHV pWXGHV Q
DERUGHQW MDPDLV
OH FDV GH FHWWH IHPPH VLQJXOLqUH TX¶HVW OD UHLQH GH )UDQFH (VWFH j GLUH TXH
FHWWH GHUQLqUH pWDLW FRQVLGpUpH SDU FHV pUXGLWV FRPPH XQH IHPPH FRPSDUDEOH
DX[ DXWUHV" &HUWHV QRQ 0DLV IRUFH HVW GH FRQVWDWHU TXH OH U{OH GH OD UHLQH GH
)UDQFH Q
D SDV VXVFLWp EHDXFRXS G
HQWKRXVLDVPH FKH] OHV KLVWRULHQV ,O D IDOOX
DWWHQGUH SRXU TX
XQ SUHPLHU RXYUDJH FRQVDFUp DX[ GURLWV GH OD UHLQH GH

)UDQFH SDUDLVVH ,O V
DJLW GH OD WKqVH GH ) %DUU\ VXU OD UHLQH GH )UDQFH

TX
HOOH FRPSOqWH HQ SDU XQH DXWUH SXEOLFDWLRQ VXU OH PrPH VXMHW &HV
GHX[ RXYUDJHV UHVWHQW OHV VHXOV HVVDLV GH V\QWKqVH VXU OD UHLQH GH )UDQFH DX
PR\HQ kJH ,QYHUVHPHQW LO \ D HX GH QRPEUHXVHV ELRJUDSKLHV GH UHLQHV GH
)UDQFH 0DLV FHV ELRJUDSKLHV UHVWHQW ELHQ VRXYHQW DSSUR[LPDWLYHV VXU GH
QRPEUHX[ SRLQWVHW OD QRWLRQ GH GRXDLUH \ HVW DX PLHX[ WUDLWpH HQ TXHOTXHV
OLJQHV
&HWWH pWXGH QRXV O
DYRQV YRORQWDLUHPHQW OLPLWpH GDQV OH WHPSV (OOH

GpEXWH DYHF %HUWUDGH GH 0RQWIRUW YHXYH GRXDLULqUH GH 3KLOLSSH , SRXU VH

WHUPLQHU DYHF 0DULH G
$QJOHWHUUH YHXYH GRXDLULqUH GH /RXLV ;,, /H FKRL[
GH FHWWH SpULRGH IXW GLFWp SDU OHV VRXUFHV (Q HIIHW OH GRXDLUH GH %HUWUDGH GH
0RQWIRUW HVW OH SOXV DQFLHQ GRQW QRXV D\RQV WURXYp WUDFH 3DU FRQWUH OD GDWH
OLPLWH FRUUHVSRQG j XQH UXSWXUH FHUWDLQH GDQV OD YLH SROLWLTXH GX UR\DXPH
/RXLV ;,, SRXYDQW rWUH FRQVLGpUp FRPPH OH GHUQLHU URL GX PR\HQ kJH



) %DUU\ /HV GURLWV GH OD UHLQH VRXV OD PRQDUFKLH IUDQoDLVH MXVTX
HQ
/LOOH

) %DUU\ /D UHLQH GH )UDQFH 3DULV





'
DXWDQW TX¶DSUqV 0DULH G
$QJOHWHUUH LO IDXW DWWHQGUH &DWKHULQH GH 0pGLFLV
SRXU TX
XQH UHLQH GH )UDQFH GHYLHQQH j QRXYHDX GRXDLULqUH 6XU OHV TXDWUH
VLqFOHV TXH SRUWH QRWUH UHJDUG OHV ;,9 HW ;9 VLqFOHV RQW pWp SULYLOpJLpV
GDQV OD PHVXUH R OHV VRXUFHV VRQW EHDXFRXS SOXV QRPEUHXVHV HW SHUPHWWHQW
XQH DQDO\VH SOXV ILQH
&HWWH UHFKHUFKH VH GLYLVH HQ TXDWUH JUDQGHV SDUWLHV 7RXW G
DERUG LO
QRXV D SDUX QpFHVVDLUH G¶LQWHUURJHU OHV RULJLQHV GH FHWWH LQVWLWXWLRQ GX
GRXDLUH HW GH YRLU FRPPHQW HOOH D pYROXp MXVTX
j OD SpULRGH TXL QRXV
FRQFHUQH &HWWH TXrWH GHV UDFLQHV GX GRXDLUH HVW HVVHQWLHOOH SRXU SRXYRLU
G
XQH SDUW WHQWHU GH OH GpILQLU HW HQVXLWH FRPSUHQGUH FH HQ TXRL LO HVW GLIIpUHQW
FKH] OD UHLQH GH )UDQFH &HWWH DQDO\VH pWDQW IDLWH LO VHPEOH SHUWLQHQW GH
SRXYRLU PLHX[ FRQQDvWUH OHV SHUVRQQHV TXL YRQW HQ EpQpILFLHU &
HVW j GLUH GH
UHFKHUFKHU QRQ VHXOHPHQW FRPPHQW OHV URLV HW IXWXUV URLV GH )UDQFH RQW
FKRLVL OHXUV pSRXVHV PDLV DXVVL GH WHQWHU GH GpILQLU OH VWDWXW PDWULPRQLDO GH
OD UHLQH (Q pSRXVDQW OH URL GH )UDQFH XQH SULQFHVVH SRXYDLWHOOH DFTXpULU
GHV GURLWV VXU OH GRPDLQH UR\DO" (QILQ SRXU WHUPLQHU FHWWH SUHPLqUH SDUWLH
QRXV pWXGLHURQV OH IRQGHPHQW GX GRXDLUH HW OHV FRQGLWLRQV TXH OD UHLQH GHYDLW
UHPSOLU SRXU SRXYRLU HQ EpQpILFLHU
/D VHFRQGH JUDQGH SDUWLH GH FH WUDYDLO VHUD FRQVDFUpH j OD FRQVLVWDQFH
GX GRXDLUH j VD YDOHXU ILQDQFLqUH HW j OD UpDOLVDWLRQ GH VRQ DVVLHWWH 6XU XQH
SpULRGH DXVVL YDVWH TXH FHOOH TXL QRXV RFFXSH LFL OH GRXDLUH FRPPH WRXWH
LQVWLWXWLRQ YLYDQWH Q
D FHVVp G
pYROXHU &
HVW FHWWH pYROXWLRQ TXL UHWLHQGUD
QRWUH DWWHQWLRQ 'H PrPH QRXV QRXV GHPDQGHURQV VL OH GRXDLUH GH OD IHPPH
GH O
KpULWLHU SUpVRPSWLI GH OD FRXURQQH HVW HQ UDSSRUW DYHF FHOXL GH OD UHLQH GH
)UDQFH (QILQ QRXV WHQWHURQV GH GpILQLU FRPPHQW O
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ UR\DOH
XQH IRLV OD YDOHXU GX GRXDLUH IL[pH SURFpGDLW SRXU pWDEOLU XQH SULVpH /D
PDQLqUH GRQW HOOH HVW HIIHFWXpH OD SRVVLELOLWp RX QRQ GH PRGLILHU O
DVVLHWWH DX
FRXUV GX GRXDLUH VHURQW OHV TXHVWLRQV DX[TXHOOHV QRXV WHQWHURQV GH UpSRQGUH
GDQV FH FKDSLWUH
6L OD YDOHXU SpFXQLDLUH GX GRXDLUH HVW FHUWDLQHPHQW TXHOTXH FKRVH GH
WUqV LPSRUWDQW SRXU XQH GRXDLULqUH OD ORFDOLVDWLRQ GHV WHUUHV TXL FRPSRVHQW OH
GRXDLUH O
HVW WRXW DXWDQW $ SDUWLU GHV GLIIpUHQWHV SULVpHV TXH QRXV DYRQV SX
UHWURXYHU QRXV IHURQV LFL XQ HVVDL GH JpRJUDSKLH GHV GRXDLUHV RX SURPHVVHV
GH GRXDLUH /H KDVDUG GH OD FRQVHUYDWLRQ GHV VRXUFHV D\DQW YRXOX TXH QRXV
D\RQV SX UHFRQVWLWXHU OHV SULVpHV GH GHX[ GRXDLUHV SURFKHV GDQV OH WHPSV
QRXV IHURQV XQH FRPSDUDLVRQ GX GRXDLUH GH -HDQQH G
(YUHX[ HQ &KDPSDJQH
HW %ULH DYHF OD SURPHVVH GH GRXDLUH GH -HDQQH ,, GH %RXUJRJQH HQ *kWLQDLV


(QILQ OD GHUQLqUH JUDQGH SDUWLH VHUD FRQVDFUpH DX U{OH SROLWLTXH TXH
SHXW MRXHU XQH UHLQH GRXDLULqUH HW j OD IDoRQ GRQW HOOH DGPLQLVWUH VRQ GRXDLUH
6L OD UHLQH HVW DYDQW WRXW DX PR\HQ kJH O
pSRXVH GX URL TXH OXL UHVWHWLO
FRPPH SRXYRLU SROLWLTXH XQH IRLV VRQ PDUL GLVSDUX" 'H OD PrPH PDQLqUH
QRXV SRXYRQV QRXV LQWHUURJHU VXU OD IDoRQ GRQW XQH GRXDLULqUH JqUH VRQ
GRXDLUH HW VXU OD OLEHUWp TXH SHXW RX QRQ OXL ODLVVHU OH QRXYHDX URL GDQV OD
JHVWLRQ GH VHV GURLWV

$ OD VXLWH GH FHWWH pWXGH ILJXUH XQ FHUWDLQ QRPEUH GH SLqFHV
MXVWLILFDWLYHV 3DUPL FHOOHVFL QRXV SUpVHQWRQV TXHOTXHV FDUWHV JpRJUDSKLTXHV
SHUPHWWDQW G¶DYRLU XQH YLVLRQ SOXV DLVpH GH OD VLWXDWLRQ GHV FKkWHOOHQLHV
FRPSRVDQW GLIIpUHQWV GRXDLUHV 1RXV SXEOLRQV pJDOHPHQW GHV FRSLHV G¶DFWHV
DWWULEXDQW XQ GRXDLUH j GHV UHLQHV GH )UDQFH &HV GRFXPHQWV TXL Q¶DYDLHQW
MDPDLV HQFRUH pWp SXEOLpV FRPSOqWHQW FH TXL DYDLW pWp GpMj SXEOLp SDU G¶DXWUHV
DXWHXUV FRQFHUQDQW SDU H[HPSOH -HDQQH G¶(YUHX[ RX G¶DXWUHV UHLQHV




, 3$57,(
/( '28$,5( (7 /$ '28$,5,(5(

$ 2ULJLQH HW GpILQLWLRQ GH OD QRWLRQ GH GRXDLUH

% &KRL[ GHV pSRXVHV GHV SULQFHV HW URLV GH )UDQFH

& 6LWXDWLRQ PDWULPRQLDOH GH OD UHLQH

' )RQGHPHQW GX GRXDLUH

( &RQGLWLRQV G
REWHQWLRQ GX GRXDLUH

$
2ULJLQH HW GpILQLWLRQ GH OD QRWLRQ GH GRXDLUH


/HV RULJLQHV GH FHWWH LQVWLWXWLRQ TXL HQ )UDQFH VH VWUXFWXUH VRXV OH Uq
JQH GH 3KLOLSSH$XJXVWH HW V
pWHLQW RIILFLHOOHPHQW DYHF OD UpYROXWLRQ
IUDQoDLVH RQW VXVFLWp XQ GpEDW FKH] OHV KLVWRULHQV HW OHV MXULVWHV j OD ILQ GX
VLqFOH GHUQLHU 8QH WKqVH GH GURLW SXEOLpH HQ SDU -ROOLYHW LQWLWXOpH
© 'HVRULJLQHV GX GRXDLUH HW GH OD FRPPXQDXWp HQ GURLW IUDQoDLVª VHPEOH
rWUH OH GHUQLHU JUDQG WUDYDLO FRQVDFUp j O
RULJLQH GH FHWWH LQVWLWXWLRQ TX
HVW OH
GRXDLUH (Q HIIHW DXFXQ DXWUH KLVWRULHQ RX MXULVWH Q
HVW UHYHQX SDU OD VXLWH VXU
FH WKqPH GH PDQLqUH H[KDXVWLYH
5HFKHUFKHU OHV RULJLQHV GX GRXDLUH QRXV REOLJHUDLW j UHPRQWHU j GHV
pSRTXHV WUqV ORLQWDLQHV SXLVTXH VHORQ 9LQFHQW 'RXFHW%RQ XQH IRUPH GH

GRXDLUH H[LVWDLW GpMj FKH] OHV $VV\ULHQV HW HQ 0pVRSRWDPLH 1RXV QRXV
ERUQHURQV LFL VLPSOHPHQW j pWXGLHU GDQV TXHOOHV FRQGLWLRQV HVW Qp OH GRXDLUH
TXL V
HVW DIILUPp DX ;,,, VLqFOH
/H GRXDLUH WHO TX¶LO H[LVWH VRXV 3KLOLSSH$XJXVWH SURYLHQW GH
O
pYROXWLRQ HW GH OD IXVLRQ GHV WURLV OLEpUDOLWpV TXH OH PDUL IDLVDLW j VD IHPPH
HQ GURLW JHUPDQLTXH OH SUL[ GHV ILDQoDLOOHV OH 0RUJHQJDEH HW OHV JDLQV GH
VXUYLH /H SUL[ GHV ILDQoDLOOHV pWDLW GDQV OD ORL IUDQTXH OH SUL[ SDU OHTXHO OH

PDUL DFTXpUDLW SXEOLTXHPHQW OD SHUVRQQH GH VD IHPPH 6RXV
O
LQIOXHQFH GH O
(JOLVH XQH SDUWLH SXLV OD WRWDOLWp GH O
DUJHQW YHUVp SDU OH IXWXU
PDUL DX SqUH GH VD IXWXUH pSRXVH pWDLW UHYHUVpH j OD PDULpH &
HVW DLQVL TXH
QDTXLW OD GRV TXL SDU FRQIXVLRQ DYHF OH V\VWqPH GRWDO URPDLQVH JpQpUDOLVD
HQ 2FFLGHQW 'H OD GRV GHX[ FDUDFWpULVWLTXHV HVVHQWLHOOHV DSSDUDLVVHQW GDQV
OH GRXDLUH '
DERUG OH IDLW TXH OD GRV HW OH GRXDLUH QH VRQW FRQVWLWXpV TX
DX
SURILW GH O
pSRXVH HW HQVXLWH OH IDLW TXH OH GRXDLUH FRPPH OD GRV VRQW LQVWLWXpV
DX PRPHQW GX PDULDJH /D VHFRQGH OLEpUDOLWp HVW OH 0RUJHQJDEH '
RULJLQH
JHUPDQLTXH OH 0RUJHQJDEH GRQ GX PDWLQ HVW XQ GRQ TXH OH PDUL IDLVDLW j
VD QRXYHOOH pSRXVH OH OHQGHPDLQ GX MRXU GHV QRFHV SRXU OXL H[SULPHU WRXWH VD
VDWLVIDFWLRQ /j HQFRUH O
(JOLVH YD IDLUH pYROXHU FHWWH SUDWLTXH HQ REOLJHDQW OH
PDUL j LQGLTXHU DYDQW OH PDULDJH FH TX
LO GRQQHUDLW j VD IHPPH /H


9LQFHQW 'RXFHW%RQ /H PDULDJH GDQV OHV FLYLOLVDWLRQV DQFLHQQHV

1RXV UHSUHQRQV LFL OHV FRQFOXVLRQV GH OD WKqVH GH -ROOLYHW 'HV RULJLQHV GX GRXDLUH
HW GH OD FRPPXQDXWp HQ GURLW IUDQoDLV

0RUJHQJDEH V
HIIHFWXD GpVRUPDLV DYDQW OH PDULDJH HW IXVLRQQD
SURJUHVVLYHPHQW DYHF OD GRV SRXU HQ SUHQGUH OH QRP GqV OH ; VLqFOH (QILQ
OD WURLVLqPH HW GHUQLqUH OLEpUDOLWp j O
RULJLQH GX GRXDLUH VRQW OHV JDLQV GH
VXUYLH &HX[FL H[LVWDLHQW GpMj VRXV OH %DV(PSLUH /j DXVVL O
(JOLVH VHPEOH
MRXHU XQ U{OH LPSRUWDQW TXDQW DX GpYHORSSHPHQW GH FHWWH SUDWLTXH &HV JDLQV
SHXYHQW VH UHWURXYHU GDQV WURLV VRUWHV G
DFWHV OHV WHVWDPHQWV OHV GRQDWLRQV HQ
FRXUV GH PDULDJH OHV GRQDWLRQV SDU FRQWUDW GH PDULDJH 'HV JDLQV GH VXUYLH
WURLV FDUDFWpULVWLTXHV VH UHWURXYHQW GDQV OH GRXDLUH SUHPLqUHPHQW FHV
GRQDWLRQV QH VRQW IDLWHV TXH VRXV OD FRQGLWLRQ GH VXUYLH HQVXLWH HOOHV
SRUWHQW VXU XQH TXRWHSDUW GX SDWULPRLQH GX PDUL GpFpGp HW HQILQ HOOHV VRQW
GRQQpHV HQ XVXIUXLW
'HV WURLV W\SHV GH OLEpUDOLWpV TXH QRXV YHQRQV G
pQRQFHU GHX[

VHXOHPHQW H[LVWHQW HQFRUH DX ; VLqFOH OD GRV GRV HW 0RUJHQJDEH HW OH
GRWDOLWLXP RX SHWLWH GRVOHV JDLQV GH VXUYLH 3URJUHVVLYHPHQW OH GRWDOLWLXP
YD GHYHQLU SOXV LPSRUWDQW SRXU OD IHPPH TXH OD GRV (Q HIIHW ORUVTXH
VXUYLHQW OD GLVVROXWLRQ GX PDULDJH F
HVW OH GRWDOLWLXP TXL HVW H[DPLQp HW TXL
SUHQG WRXWH VD YDOHXU '
DXWUH SDUW OHV DFWHV FRQVWLWXWLIV GH OD GRV HW GX
GRWDOLWLXP VH IDLVDQW OH PrPH MRXU OH WHUPH JpQpULTXH GH GRWDOLWLXP YD
UHJURXSHU j WHUPH FHV GHX[ LQVWLWXWLRQV &H SKpQRPqQH TXL DSSDUDvW G
DERUG
DX QRUG GH OD )UDQFH V
pWHQG SURJUHVVLYHPHQW MXVTX
DX VXG
/H GRWDOLWLXP SUpPLFHV GX GRXDLUH GX ;, VLqFOH FRPSRUWH GRQF
TXDWUH FDUDFWpULVWLTXHV LO HVW IDLW DYDQW OH PDULDJH GHYDQW OHV GHX[ IDPLOOHV
SUL[ GHV ILDQoDLOOHV LO Q
HVW DFTXLV TXH ORUVTXH OH PDULDJH HVW FRQVRPPp
0RUJHQJDEH QH V¶H[HUFH TX¶DX GpFqV GX PDUL JDLQV GH VXUYLH HW HQILQ
Q
HVW DFFRUGp j OD IHPPH TX
HQ XVXIUXLW JDLQV GH VXUYLH &¶HVW DLQVL TXH
SURJUHVVLYHPHQW V
HVW FRQVWLWXpH DX FRXUV GX KDXW PR\HQ kJH O
LQVWLWXWLRQ GX
GRXDLUH DX ;,qPH VLqFOH &RPPH WRXWH LQVWLWXWLRQ YLYDQWH FHOOHFL YD
FRQWLQXHU j pYROXHU DX FRXUV GHV WURLV VLqFOHV TXL SUpFqGHQW QRWUH pWXGH
qPH
-XVTX
DX ;VLqFOH OHV VHXOHV WUDFHV GH GRXDLUH TXL QRXV VRLHQW SDUYHQXHV
FRQFHUQHQW XQLTXHPHQW GHV SHUVRQQHV GH UDQJ pOHYp /
DSSDULWLRQ HW OH
GpYHORSSHPHQW GH OD ERXUJHRLVLH YRQW IDYRULVHU O
pPHUJHQFH G
XQ GRXDLUH
QRXYHDX TXHOTXH SHX GLIIqUHQW '
DLOOHXUV FH Q
HVW SOXV OH PrPH WHUPH TXL
HVW HPSOR\p SRXU OH GpVLJQHU 'pVRUPDLV SRXU XQH FRXUWH SpULRGH j F{Wp GX

GRXDLUH VH VLWXH OD YLYHORWWH /HV DVSLUDWLRQV GHV ERXUJHRLV pWDQW GH


9RLU GDQV © 9HXYHV HW YHXYDJHV GDQV OH KDXW PR\HQ kJH ª OD FRQWULEXWLRQ GH 5 /H
-DQ+HQQHELFTXH VXU OHV RULJLQHV GX GRXDLUH PpGLpYDO 9,;, VLqFOHV

-ROOLYHWLELG SDJH

UHMRLQGUH OHV SULYLOqJHV GH OD QREOHVVH OD YLYHORWWH GLVSDUDvW UDSLGHPHQW HQ VH
IRQGDQW GDQV OH GRXDLUH
qPH qPH
(QWUH OH ;HW OH ;,VLqFOH QRXV SRXYRQV QRWHU WURLV JUDQGV D[HV
G
pYROXWLRQ WRXV WURLV IDYRUDEOH j OD GRXDLULqUH -XVTX
DORUV OH PDUL SRXYDLW
GLVSRVHU FRPPH LO O
HQWHQGDLW GHV ELHQV VXU OHVTXHOV pWDLW IL[p OH GRXDLUH GH
qPH
VRQ pSRXVH 'qV OH ;,VLqFOH FHWWH UqJOH YD V
LQYHUVHU 'pVRUPDLV OH PDUL
RX VHV KpULWLHUV GRLYHQW JDUDQWLU j OD GRXDLULqUH OH GRXDLUH IL[p DX PDULDJH RX
j GpIDXW O
LQGHPQLVHU V
LO \ D DOLpQDWLRQ GH FH TXL pWDLW SURPLV HQ GRXDLUH
$LQVL GDQV OHV ©(WDEOLVVHPHQWV GH 6DLQW /RXLVª RQ SHXW OLUH 6L TXHOTXH
JHQWLOKRPPH RX FRXWXPLHU YHQG VD WHUUH HW j VD PRUW VD IHPPH SRXUUD
UpFODPHU VRQ GRXDLUH VXU OH ELHQ YHQGX HW j OD PRUW GH OD IHPPH LO UHWRXUQHUD
j O
DFTXpUHXU /HV FRXWXPLHUV QRUPDQGV YRQW HQFRUH SOXV ORLQ SXLVTX
RQ
SHXW \ WURXYHU 0DLV V
LO Q \ D DXFXQH KpUpGLWp O
DFKHWHXU IRUFp GH UHQGUH

OHV ELHQV GX GRXDLUH TXL OXL DYDLW pWp YHQGXV Q
DXUD ULHQ HQ pFKDQJH /D
IHPPH SHXW GRQF LQWHUYHQLU GDQV WRXWH DOLpQDWLRQ G
XQH SDUWLH GH VRQ
GRXDLUH HWj GpIDXW OD YHQWH IDLWH VDQV VRQ DFFRUG VHUD DQQXOpH $XWUH
qPH
pYROXWLRQ QRWDEOH GX GRXDLUH GqV OH ;,VLqFOH OD SRVVLELOLWp G
DXJPHQWDWLRQ
GX GRXDLUH HW pJDOHPHQW O
pODUJLVVHPHQW GHV ELHQV VXU OHVTXHOV LO SRUWH 'qV OD
qPH
ILQ GX ;VLqFOH OH GRXDLUH HVW GpVRUPDLV XQH TXRWLWp IL[pH DX WLHUV GHV
ELHQV SRVVpGpV SDU OH PDUL &HWWH TXRWLWp GX WLHUV VH UHWURXYH GDQV GH

QRPEUHXVHV FRXWXPHV 1RUPDQGLH $QMRX 0DLQH $QJRXPRLV 3RLWRX
G
DXWUHV FRXWXPHV OD IL[HQW j OD PRLWLp 8QH RUGRQQDQFH GH 3KLOLSSH

$XJXVWH MDPDLV UHWURXYpH PDLV UDSSRUWpH SDU %HDXPDQRLU IL[H HQ OH
GRXDLUH GH OD IHPPH QRQ SOXV DX WLHUV PDLV j OD PRLWLp GHV ELHQV GX PDUL ORUV

GX PDULDJH &
HVW OH GRXDLUH OpJDO OD PRLWLp