//img.uscri.be/pth/b99a738b89fedaec82ec793743142c650d5b78b7
Cet ouvrage fait partie de la bibliothèque YouScribe
Obtenez un accès à la bibliothèque pour le lire en ligne
En savoir plus

Un amour au fond de l'océan

De
232 pages
Ce roman s'inspire de faits réels et choisit la fiction pour offrir au lecteur une parabole sur la verte Casamance, l'histoire se déroulant au coeur de Ziguinchor. Un amour au fond de l'océan tient le lecteur en haleine jusqu'au moment où la tragédie du bateau le Joola vint s'incruster dans la trajectoire de Penda, ébranlant pour de bon toute la trame de son odyssée sentimentale avec Daouda.
Voir plus Voir moins

Samba Oumar Fall

Un amur

au fond
de l’océan
Roman

%2+m396+9 032. ./ l’3-é+2
63m+2

/62iF6/7 4+698i327
-h/zL’H+6m+88+2-#é2é1+l
(+8+l319/ /2 li12/ 796 h+6m+88+27/2/1+l-3m)

%$$ I,6+him+,39,63j/8 ./ 73-ié8é 4396 92#é2é1+l ém/61/28
I2i8i+8i:/ 4396 92/ 43li8i59/ ./ .é:/l344/m/28(I),/77+i,j9ill/8T
KM"M3978+4h+,LY M+m+.39#/lly,#KH,.39l+y/,
63i8 ./7+773-i+8i327 74368i:/72 l’h322/96 ./L+mi2/i+-,M/m/283
46+8i59/,3-é.i8i32"#,/77+i,j9ill/8T
KM"M3978+4h+,LY M+m+.39#/lly,#KH,.39l+y/,
#4368 /8 -3286+8 ./ 86+:+il2 l’h322/96 ./L+mi2/i+-,Mém/283
46+8i59/,3-é.i8i32"#,/77+i,j9ill/8T
KM"M3978+4h+,LY M+m+.39#/lly,#KH,.39l+y/,
#4368 /8 .63i8 ./7 73-ié8é72 l’h322/96 ./L+mi2/i+-,Mém/283
46+8i59/,3-é.i8i32"#,j9ill/8T
IH+mi.39,%I##@Y3977394h+ M,+61+2/,,39,+k6y
K+2/,L/ ./62i/6 0il7 ./ l+ 6+2./"3y+l/,3ll/-8i32«Mém3i6/7 /8
i316+4hi/7»,2R9,j9ill/8T
K,.39l,L+:i/ 796 92 0il,239:/ll/7 ./ m32 hô4i8+l,j9ill/8T
M%21/3278+28i2,/78i32 0i7-+l/ /8 -3m48+,l/ ./
l’/286/46i7/,i7-+li8é 7é2é1+l+i7/ /8 -3m48+,ili8éH,/77+i,j9i2
T
IYm+.39l+i2,vim4+77/#+l32i59/,63m+2,«39:/ll/7
L/886/7#é2é1+l+i7/7»,j9i2T
%I##@m/8h,%2/ m368 m+12i0i59/,63m+2,«39:/ll/7L/886/7
#é2é1+l+i7/7»,j9i2T
#È I,6+him+,L+.i4l3m+8i/ 7é2é1+l+i7/ ./Lé343l.#é.+6#/21h36 E
,.39l+y/'+./"/1+6. .’92 -h+2-/li/6,/77+i,j9i2T
M"lH+.jili392/,"MI L+8i0,$HIM
I,6+him+,#869-896/ /8 .y2+mi59/ ./ l’é-323mi/ 7é2é1+l+i7/,/77+i,m+i
T
Iz3,6/miF6/7 4l9i/7,43Fm/7,+:6ilT
Y I,6+him+ I,732,/m+i2,Œ9:6/ 6+443l31i59/,+:6ilT
JIh/i-k8+,,L+1y2é-3l31i/ 3,78é86i59/ 4396 l/ 16+2. 49,li-
59/78i327 ./ 0/mm/,m+67T

#M%M"LL

%2+m396+9 032. ./ l’3-é+2

63m+2

©L’H"M$$-#@@L, 
«&ill+637/»,69/ ./i396,/l,3i28,K"

h884:CC;;;li,6+i6i/h+6m+88+2-3m
.i0097i32h+6m+88+2;+2+.3306
7/2h+6m+88+21m+il-3m

I#: 98---T-
:98T

Àl+mém3i6/ ./7 :i-8im/7 .9J33l+
À8397 -/9x 59i,4396 l/96+m396,328 4/6.9 l+:i/

«L’+m396,
6é-i463-i8é,
4+7 4+68+1é

4396 G86/ .96+,l/,
il m/968 463m48/m/28
»

9

+,/73i2 ./
59+2. il 2’/78

M+6i:+9x



!9+2. l/ :i/9xM+;.3iFy/ /98 0i2i ./ 0+i6/ h322/96+9
4l+2896/9x 6iz+9 43i7732 ,i/2+77+i7322é 59/ l9i+:+i8 7/6:i
M+8yiFy/,7+7/-32./ 0/mm/,il 7’+00+l+796 732 li8 .39ill/8
J+m+i7 il 2’+:+i8 4/27é 59/ 7+7i/78/ 7/6+i8 8639,lé/Il /74é6+i8,
-3mm/ 8397 l/7+986/7 j3967,7’3006i6 92/ ,322/ 73mm/ .+27 7+
4+i7i,l/ -h+m,6/ /8 7/ 4/6.6/ .+27 732 92i:/67 i66é/l,+:+28 ./
7/ l/:/6 86+259ill/m/28 4396 7/ 6/2.6/ E l+m3759é/ E l+46iF6/

./$+9 77+2 3976#32 46316+mm/+ll+i8 m+lh/96/97/m/28
G86/ -h+m,39lé
+6/77+28 732 :/286/ 6/m4li E ,l3-,il mé.i8+i8 796 7+4/27i32
59’il+ll+i8 ,i/28ô8 839-h/6 /8 7/ li:6+i8 E .’i28/6mi2+,l/7 -+l-9l7
’h+,i89./,il 7’/2 7368+i8 6/m+659+,l/m/28 ,i/2+:/- -/88/
3,3l/,59’il 4/6-/:+i8 8397 l/7 86im/786/7M+i7,./49i7 59’il
7’é8+i8 4+yé l/ l9x/ ./ 46/2.6/,86/iz/+22é/7+94+6+:+28,92/
7/-32./ 0/mm/,7/7 -h+61/7 7’é8+i/28 -327i.é6+,l/m/28+--69/7
/8 7+4+9:6/ 73l./ 7’é:+436+i8+9 ,398 ./ 59/l59/7 j3967
M+;.3+:+i8 4/i2/ E 6é+li7/6 ./7 é-323mi/7 .+27 92/ 8/ll/
7i89+8i32,7968398+:/- 8398/7 l/7 ,39-h/7 59’il+:+i8 E 23966i6Il
+:+i8 -h/6-hé 8398/7 7368/7 ./ 73l98i327 4396+m3i2.6i6 l/7
.é,3967Il+:+i8 /2:i7+1é 23m,6/ ./ 4377i,ili8é7 4396 G86/ E
j396,m+i7 l/7 m/886/ E /xé-98i32 -3m4li59/6+i8 l/7 -h37/7Il
+96+i8 ,i/2 49 0+i6/ -3mm/ l+4l94+68 ./ -/7 4F6/7 ./ 0+mill/
6321é7 4+6 l/ .é29/m/28,59i .é:+l9+i/28 l/96 .é4/27/
5938i.i/22/ /8 l+i77+i/28 l/967 0/mm/7 7/ .é,639ill/6,m+i7 l/
:i/9xM+;.3 7/ 6/097+i8 .’/21/2.6/6 ./7 463,lFm/7 7397 732
83i8Il+96+i8 ,i/2+imé 6é+li7/6 ./7 é-323mi/7,m+i7 4+7 ./ -/88/
m+2iF6/-lE
À73ix+28/ /8 32z/+27,il+:+i8+88/i28 l/ -6é497-9l/ ./ 7+:i/
.mi2i786+8/96 -i:il,il+:+i8 7/6:i l’@8+8 .9#é2é1+l 4/2.+28


6iF6/ ./ l’+46F7-mi.i



86/28/-7/48 l3219/7+22é/7Il+:+i8 0+i8 7/7+6m/7 EM+8+m,.+27
l/ 236. .9 4+y7,49i7 E$hiF7,+k+6 /8L391+,+:+28 .’+88/66i6
.+27 l+:/68/+7+m+2-/,3ù il+:+i8 86+:+illé 4/2.+28 .39z/
+22é/7,+:+28 .’+ll/6 E l+6/86+i8/
:+28 ./ .é-39:6i6 -/88/ ,/ll/ 6é1i32+9x 6i-h/77/7 :+6ié/7,
l/ :i/9xM+;.3 l’+:+i8+imé/Il+:+i8 839j3967 6G:é .’y
7éj3962/6,./ :i7i8/6 7/7 23m,6/9x 7i8/7,.328 il+:+i8 739:/28
/28/2.9 4+6l/6’é8+i8 :/67 l+0i2 ./7+22é/7TM+i7,./49i7
59/ l+6é,/lli32 y+:+i8 é-l+8é /298,i2+9196+28 92/ 7+i732
.’h366/96,732+446é-i+8i32+:+i8 -h+21é/88/ m+12i0i59/
-3286é/ é8+i8 ./:/29/ l/ -h+m4 ./ 16+2./7 :i3l/2-/7L/7
6/,/ll/7 .96328 4396 l+ Li,é6+8i32 ./ l++7+m+2-/(L),
03687 ./ l/96+lli+2-/ /8 ./ l/967+6m/m/287 /8 -32:+i2-97 ./
li:6/6 92/ 19/66/ j978/,+:+i/28 7/mé l+4/96,l’+213i77/Il7
+:+i/28 86+27036mé -/ 4+6+.i7 /2 92 :é6i8+,l/ /20/6,m/88+28
-3m4lF8/m/28 E 1/239x l’é-323mi/ ./ -/88/ ,/ll/ 6é1i32
"i/2 59’/2 4/27+28+9x milli/67 .’/20+287 /8 ./ 0/mm/7
,/78i+l/m/28 /78634ié7 /8 m98ilé7 4+6 l/7 mi2/7,-/7 /21i27
m/9686i/67,59/ l/ -h/0 6/,/ll/,/686+2.3ly,/8 7/7 h3mm/7
+:+i/28 7/mé7 92 4/9 4+68398 /8 -/7 mF6/7,59i+:+i/28 4/6.9
8398 /743i6,M+;.3+96+i8 46é0é6é 6+y/6 -/88/ 6é1i32 ./ l+-+68/
.9 4+y7M+i7,l/ ./78i2 :39l98 59’92/+22é/+46F7 l/
.é-l/2-h/m/28 ./ -/88/ 6é,/lli32,il 73i8«mi6+-9l/97/m/28»
m98é .+27 -/88/ z32/H+7+6. 39 -3L2-i./2-/6$39j3967 /78-il
59/ 59+2. il+446i8 l+239:/ll/,il 6/097+./ 6/1+12/6 732 4378/
Il -6+i12+i8 ,/+9-394 4396 7+7é-96i8é /8 4396 -/ll/ ./ 7+0+mill/
Il+96+i8 46é0é6é+ll/6 7/6:i6 .+27 l/ 0i2 032. .9#+h+6+39
+ill/967 4l98ô8 59/ .’+ll/6 .+27 -/8 /2.63i8 mi2é 4+6 l/7
+006328/m/287#/7 4+6/287 /8+mi7 é8+i/28 3,li1é7 .’i28/6:/2i6
4396 l/ 6+m/2/6 E ./ ,i/2 m/ill/967 7/28im/287
%2 ,/+9 m+8i2 ./ 7/48/m,6/98,il 437+7/7 ,+l9-h327 E
Zi19i2-h36,+:/- 8398/ 7+0+mill/Il+:+i8,+9 .é,98,él9 .3mi-il/
E39-388,+:+28 ./ 7’i278+ll/6 .é0i2i8i:/m/28 E6+2.+k+6,
92 59+68i/6 .i00é6/28 ./ -/l9i ./ l+16+2./ ,+2li/9/ 4349l/97/
.9 mGm/ 23m E+k+6L/7 4349l+8i327 ./ -/ 59+68i/6
+44+68/2+i/28 E 46/759/ 8398/7 l/7 /8h2i/7 .9 4+y7i3l+7,#3-é7,


+l+28/7,M+2+12/7,M+2j+- 7,+L239 7,$39-39l/967,/9l7,#é6F6/7,

M+2.i219/7 /8M+li2 é7y :i:+i/28 -ô8/ E -ô8/,8i77+28 /286/ /9x
./7 li/27 ./ 4+6/28é,./ 06+8/62i8é /8 ./ 73li.+6i8éL’/286+i./,l/
4+68+1/,l+83lé6+2-/ /8 l/ 6/74/-8 7/ 46+8i59+i/28
4/64é89/ll/m/28 .+27 -/ 59+68i/6 /8 -3mm/ .+27 8398/7 l/7
l3-+li8é7 3ù il+:+i8 /9 E 7/6:i6,il 7’é8+i8 é46i7 ./ -/88/ ,/ll/ :ill/,
./ 732 -lim+8,./ 732 4+y7+1/,./ 7/7 m+i7327,./ 7/7 h+,i8+287,
./ l/96 0+ç32 ./ :i:6/ /8,E l+l3219/,il 7’y é8+i8 -3m4lF8/m/28
4l9#+0+mill/ é1+l/m/28 7’é8+i8+.+48é/#+0/mm/,9lim+8+
.+;,+00/-89/97/m/28+44/lé/.j+ 9ly,/8 7/7 /20+287 7’y
é8+i/28 8/ll/m/28+--3mm3.é7 59’92 é86+21/6+96+i8 j96é 59’il7 y
+:+i/28 839j3967 :é-9
H3mm/ 0/6:/28,./ mé6i8/,M+;.3+:+i8 79 -3259é6i6 l/
-œ96 ./7 4349l+8i327 ./Zi19i2-h36 /8 1+12/6 l/96 /78im/
+68398,E$ilF2/,K/2y+,ém+,39k388,39.3.y,K+27+l+,
7-+l/,#+28hi+,+,i8éi+19i,Li2.i+2/,#39k394+4+y/,
/l0368,/83l3,+2/,il é8+i8 2383i6/m/28 -3229Il é8+i8
-327i.é6é -3mm/ 92 0il7 .9 8/663i6#+16+2./96 .’âm/ /8 732
39:/6896/ .’/746i8+:+i/28 0+-ili8é 7/7 6+443687+:/- 8398 l/
m32./Il é8+i8,4+6 /x-/ll/2-/,./:/29 -/l9i 59i 439:+i8
46/759/ 8398 /8 l/7 4l97 .ém92i7 8639:+i/28 839j3967+946F7 ./
l9i+mi8ié /8 ,i/2:/ill+2-/
46F7 .39z/+22é/7 ./ 7/6:i-/ ,i/2 6/m4li /2 -/7 li/9x,il
+:+i8 46i7 7+6/86+i8/L/ j396 ./ 732 .é4+68,7/7 -3ll+,36+8/967,
59i l’+im+i/28 ,i/2,+:+i/28 4l/96é 8398/7 l/7 l+6m/7 ./ l/96
-3647#/7 :3i7i27,+mi7 /8 7ym4+8hi7+287 é8+i/28+886i78é7 E l’i.é/
59’il l/7 59i88/6+i8,-3mm/ 8397 -/7 032-8i322+i6/7,59i
7/-39+i/28 E 8398 j+m+i7 l+43977iF6/ ./ l/967 4i/.7 92/ 03i7 59/
l/96 7/6:i-/ é8+i8 8/6mi2éM+i7,E l+79646i7/ 1é2é6+l/,il é8+i8
6/78éIl+im+i8Zi19i2-h36 /8 8397 -/7 1/27,59’il+:+i8 4/i2/ E
l/7 59i88/6Il y+:+i8+-h/8é 92/ m+i732,+:+i8 46i7 92/ 7/-32./
0/mm/ /8+:+i8 ./m+2.é+9x 238+,l/7 59’E 7+m368,il7
l’/28/66/28,-3mm/ 8397 l/7 0il7 ./ -/ 8/663i6,.+27 -/88/ :ill/


6394/7 /8h2i59/7 46é7/287+9#é2é1+l


,736,é 4+6 7/7 4/27é/7,l/ :i/9xM+;.3 73m23l+i8 59+2.
92 ,69i8 -96i/9x l/ 0i8 7967+98/6$/l 92 03x 59i 0l+i6/ 92 -h+8,il
l/:+7974i-i/97/m/28 l/7 y/9x :/67 l+4368/ /8 098 79646i7
.’+4/6-/:3i6.j+ 9ly,7+46/miF6/ é4397/,4l+28é/ -3mm/ 92
4i59/8 796 l/ 7/9ilIl 2’/98 mGm/ 4+7 l/ 8/m47 ./ lâ-h/6 l/ j9632
59’il+:+i8 796 l/ ,398 ./ l+l+219/ 59/ -/ll/--i /2-h+K2+
«lH+.ji,j’+i E 8/ 4+6l/6,7i 89+7 92 m3m/28,,i/2 /28/2.9
–’/78 :6+im/28 /x+74é6+28,0i8 l/ 7/x+1é2+i6/ i66i8é,32 2/
4/98 mGm/ 4l97 7/ 6/437/6+46F7 7/7 6/4+7’/78 l+59+86iFm/
03i7 /2 m3i27 .’92/ 7/m+i2/ 59/ 89 ./m+2./7 E m/ 4+6l/6#i
-’/78 4396 :37 hi783i6/7 ./ 8328i2/7,-/ 2’/78 mGm/ 4+7 l+4/i2/
./ 4/67i78/6’/78 232J/ 79i7 E l+6/86+i8/ /8 j’+i .’+986/7
46é3--94+8i327 59/ ./ j/8/6 l’+61/28 4+6 l+0/2G86/
–#3i7 6+7796é,m32+mi,j’/2+i 0+i8 m32 ./9il ./49i7 0368
l3218/m47J/ :39.6+i7 8’/286/8/2i6+9j396.’h9i+9 79j/8 ./
/2.+/8 ./+39.+,0i8-/ll/ /2 7/ l+i77+28 -h3i6 ./ 8398 732
43i.7 796 l/ -+2+4é
–!9’/78--/ 59’il7 328 0+i8 ./ 7i /x86+36.i2+i6/ 4396 59/ 89
8i/22/7 8+28 E m/ 4+6l/6 .’/9x E -/88/ h/96/--i6
–"i/2 .9 8398,m32 -h/6+mi
–+27 -/ -+7,.i8-il /2 7/ 6/l/:+28,j/ 8’é-398/»
L+.+m/ 7/ 6éi278+ll+l/ 4l97 -320368+,l/m/28 4377i,l/,7/
6+-l+l+1361/,49i7,.’92+i6 86F7 7é6i/9x,/2-h+K2+ +:/- 7+
l3219/ 4l+i28/9 .é,98,/ll/ 0i8 92 l321 .é8396,m+i7,59+2.
/ll/ :i8 59/ 732 h3mm/ -3mm/2ç+i8 E 4/6.6/ 4+8i/2-/,/ll/
/286+.+27 l/ :i0 .9 79j/8ll/ l9i 0i8 4+68 ./ l+6/l+8i32 59/ l/96
0ill/ /286/8/2+i8+:/- l/96 2/:/9,./ 7/7 -6+i28/7 /8 ./7
.é7+16ém/287 59/ -/88/ 6/l+8i32 43966+i8 /21/2.6/6/2.+28
.ix mi298/7,/ll/ /77+y+.’/m,3,i2/6 732 h3mm/ /8,59+2. /ll/
/98 8/6mi2é,l/ :i/9x ./m/96+i28/6l359é
«J’i1236+i7,m+-hF6/+mi/,59/ 89 .é8/78+i7 m32 2/:/9 E -/
43i28,l9i l+2ç+l/ :i/9xM+;.3
–8 -3mm/28 :39.6+i7-89 59/ j/ l’+im/,h/i26$32 2/:/9
/78 92 4+6/77/9x$9 7+i7 59/ 7’il :+l+i8 59/l59/ -h37/,il 2/



7/6+i8 4+7 lE E .36mi6+9 m3m/28 3ù 7/7 4+i67 1+lF6/28 4396
1+12/6 l/96 :i/$9 6/097/7 ./ l’+.m/886/,m+i7 -/ j/92/ h3mm/
/78 92 :+96i/2 /8,7’il -328i29/+i27i,il 6i759/ ./ .é7h3236/6
2386/ 0+mill/
–/ 1+6ç32 /78 -/ 59’il y+./ 4l97 m/6:/ill/9x 796 -/88/
8/66/Il+7/7 .i4lôm/7,7/9l/m/28,l/ ./78i2 2/ l’+4+7 /2-36/
0+:36i7é!9’/78--/ 59’il y 4/986"i/2 .9 8398’/78 l/32
i/9 59i .322/Il /78+im+,l/,il+.9 -œ96Il+j978/ ,/73i2
59’32 l/ 7398i/22/
–h+59/ 46G86/ l39/ 7/7 6/li59/7,m32+mi+27 -/
m32./,,/+9-394 ./ j/92/7 .+27 7+7i89+8i32 7/ .é,639ill/28
,i/2,4/2.+28 59/ l9i mF2/ 92/ /xi78/2-/ i298il/,/74é6+28
59’92 86+:+il :i28 l/ 8639:/6 .+27 732 li88 59+2. 32 .i8 92
7/9l m38 796 l9i,89 l/ .é0/2.7 -3mm/ 7’il é8+i8 92 4634hF8/
–/l+:+7’/2 .i6/ 49i759’il /78 m32 2/:/9 /8 j/ l’/78im/
,/+9-394Il /78 l/ 7/9l E m’G86/+977i .é:39é /8 j/ 79i7 7û6 59’E
l’+:/2i6,j/ 43966+i -3m48/6 796 l9i
–328i29/ ./ 6G:/6,89 /2+7 l/ .63i8M3i,-/ 59i m/
46é3--94/,-’/78 m+ /2.+/8 j/ :/9x 59/ -/ :+96i/2 7+27
+m,i8i32 -/77/ ./ 6ô./6+98396 ./ 2386/ 0ill/J/ :/9x 59/ 89
l’él3i12/7 ./ 2386/ 0ill/ l/ 4l97 l3i2 4377i,l/L/7 1/27
-3mm/2-/28 E j+7/6 /8 -’/78 ./ m+9:+i7+9196/
–!9’il7 4+6l/28Il7 0i2i6328 ,i/2 4+6 7/ 8+i6/ 92 j396 39
l’+986/
–2 8398 -+7,j/ 2/ :/9x 4l97 59/+39.+7’+4463-h/ .’/ll/
–’/78--/ 4+7 m+0ill/6
–386/ 0ill/,6/-8i0i+l+.+m/»
/88/ 3,7/6:+8i32 063i77+l/ :i/9x,59i l+039.63y+.’92 ./
-/7 6/1+6.7 -+4+,l/7 ./ .é-l/2-h/6 92 i2-/2.i/
«$9 m/ -3286/.i7,m+i28/2+28J/ :+i7 .32- G86/ 86F7 -l+i6
J’+i l3218/m47 0+i8 l/ :œ9 ./ .322/6 m+0ill//2.+/2 m+6i+1/
E m32 -h/6 2/:/9$+28 59/ l/32i/9 m/ l+i77/6+796 -/88/
8/66/,j/ 6/74/-8/6+i -/8 /21+1/m/28 /8 4/67322/ 2’y 43966+6i/2



–+27 -/ -+7,89 -3mm/886+7 l+4l97 16+:/ /66/96 ./ 8398/
832 /xi78/2-/7-89 -327-i/28 ./7 -327é59/2-/7 59/ -/88/ 03li/
43966+i8 /21/2.6/66$9 2’y 4/27/7 4+7 .9 83983mm/28
37/6+i7-89 .322/6 l+m+i2 ./ 2386/ 0ill/ E -/ léz+6. 7+27 83i8 2i
86+:+il6lH+.ji,2/ m/ .i7 7968398 4+7 59’il7 :328 :i:6/ .’+i6,
/8 ./ j/ 2/ 7+i7 593i /2-36/8 3ù /78--/ 59’il7 :328 h+,i8/6,
h/i26+27 l+69/ 7+27 .398/
–M+-hF6/9ly,j/ 8/ 6+44/ll/ 59/ 59+2. j/ 8’é4397+i7,
j’é8+i7 92 7im4l/ é89.i+28+:/- 92/ mi7é6+,l/ ,3967/8
43968+28,j/ m’/2 79i7 ,i/2 8i6é 4+6 l+79i8/
–’/78 .i00é6/28À-/88/ é4359/-lE,l+:i/ é8+i8 4l97 ,/ll/ /8
l’32 439:+i8 7/ 4/6m/886/ ./ 6G:/6
–#i j/ -3m46/2.7 ,i/2,89 :/9x m/ 0+i6/ -63i6/ 59/ l/7
-h37/7 328+9j396.’h9i -h+21éJ/ 8/ 7i12+l/ 59/ l/ m32./ /78
839j3967 E 7+4l+-/ /8 29l 2/ 7+i8 ./ 593i ./m+i2 7/6+0+i88
49i7,59i 8/ .i8 59/ m32 2/:/9 2/ 7/6+4+7,.+27 l/7 463-h+i27
j3967,86F7 6i-h/,h/i26#’il .3i8 m396i6 4+9:6/,4/67322/ 2’y
43966+6i/2,m+i7,m3i,j/ 79i7 4/679+.é 59/ l+-h+2-/ :+,i/28ô8
l9i 39:6i6 7/7 4368/7 /8 il /2 4630i8/6+ +9 m+xim9mIl 7/6+2+28i
/8 89 :i/2.6+7 8/ 46378/62/6 E 7/7 4i/.7 4396 l9i 46é7/28/6 8/7
/x-97/78 j/ :+i7 8/ .i6/ 92/ ,322/ -h37/:/2.+/8+39.+
036m/28 92 -394l/ 4+60+i8 /8 j/ 7/27 59’il7 7/6328 ,i/2 h/96/9x
/27/m,l/
–$9 4/6.7 -3m4lF8/m/28 l+8G8/,m32+mi,6é83659+-8-/ll/
.+27 8397 7/7 é8+87J/ 2’+--/48/6+i j+m+i7 92/ 8/ll/ h9mili+8i32
–’/78 -/ 59/ l’32 :+:3i6
–J’+i 92 h322/96 E 46é7/6:/6,m3i,/8 j’+i ,/+9-394
.’/22/mi77-89,92/ 7/9l/ 03i7,7321é E 8398 -/ 59’il7 .i6328 7i
j+m+i7 -/ 139j+8 :/2+i8 E é4397/6 2386/ 0ill/6J/ 2/ :+9.6+i7 4l97
6i/2 E l/967 y/9x
–8+l3676/2.+é4397/6+ +39.+,-’/78 8398
–’/78 -/ 59/ l’32 :/66+,0i8-/ll/ h367 .’/ll/J/ 0/6+i 8398 -/
59i /78 /2 m32 439:3i6 4396 /m4G-h/6 -/ .é7+786/



–$9 4/9x -3mm/2-/6 .F7 E 46é7/28,-+6 -/ m+6i+1/ /286/
.+27 m/7 4l+27 /8 j/ :+i7 86F7 :i8/ /2-l/2-h/6 l/ 463-/7797»
$398/ 096i/97/,.j+ 9ly 7’/2+ll+,/2 4638/78+282
59+6+28/-./9x+22é/7 ./ :i/ -32j91+l/,l/ -394l/ 7’é8+i8
839j3967 m3286é i66é463-h+,l/!9/l59/03i7,il7 7/ 59/6/ll+i/28,
m+i7 l/ :i/9xM+;.3 2/ 7’/2 036m+li7+i8 j+m+i7Il j/8+i8 839j3967
l’é4321/ /8 7’/x-97+i8,mGm/ 7’il+:+i8 6+i732 /8 59/ 7+0/mm/
+:+i8 8368Il7 7’é8+i/28 92i7 4396 l/ m/ill/96 /8 4396 l/ 4i6/ /8,
mGm/ 7i 4+603i7 l/967 i.é/7 .i:/61/+i/28,il7 8639:+i/28 839j3967
92 m3y/2 ./ l/ 6é739.6/,7+27 él/:/6 l+:3ix
.j+ 9ly+:+i8 839j3967 79 0+i6/ m3286/ .’92/ 86F7 16+2./
-3m46éh/27i32,m+i7 -/ j396-lE,/8 4396 l+46/miF6/ 03i7,732
h3mm/ l’+:+i8 463032.ém/28 i66i8é/ /2 6/j/8+28 7+6/59G8/i6/,
il :39l+i8 92i6 7+0ill/ E -/ 1+6ç32,59i 2/ :+l+i8 4+7 16+2.--h37/ E
7/7 y/9xll/ 8639:+i8 -/88/ i2i8i+8i:/+,796./ /8 ill31i59/L/
739h+i8 ./ 8398/ mF6/ é8+i8 ./ ,i/2 él/:/6 7+0ill/ /8 ./ l9i
8639:/6,4l97 8+6.,92 m+6i i.é+l 59i 43966+i8 l+-3m,l/6 /8 l9i
+44368/6 8398 l/ ,32h/96 59’/ll/ mé6i8/%2/ mF6/ 2/ 439:+i8
mi/9x 6G:/6,m+i7.j+ 9ly,+9 0il ./7 8/m47 /8 E 036-/ ./
06é59/28/6 ./7 :i4F6/7 -3mm/ ./+839Ki2éi34,+:+i8
-3286+-8é l/ :i697 .9 -3m4l/x/ .’i20é6i36i8é,59i+:+i8 29i E ,32
23m,6/ ./ 0/mm/7
ll/ 2/ 739h+i8+i8 4+7 :3i6 7+0ill/ 7/ m+6i/6+:/- 59/l59’92
.+27 l/ ,/73i2,i2-+4+,l/ ./ 7/ 4+y/6 92/ li:6/ ./ 7/l3mm/
,/+9-394 ./ 0/mm/7 46é8/28i/97/7,/ll/ :39l+i8 4396 7+0ill/ 92
m+6i ./ 7+21 23,l/,6i-h/ /8 1é2é6/9x,92 m+6i 59i l9i 1+6+28i6+i8
92/ m+i732 -3779/ /8 59i l9i+7796/6+i8 92+:/2i6 0l36i77+28,92
m+6i 59i l’h+,ill/6+i8,/ll/+977i,/8 6é1l/6+i8,E -3947 ./ ,ill/87 ./
,+259/,8397 7/7 463,lFm/7 .’36.6/ 0i2+2-i/6
L/ :i/9xM+;.3,59i+:+i8 j9759/-lE 8398 0+i8 4396 /ll/,é8+i8
+9j396.’h9i E l+6/86+i8/ /8 2/ 439:+i8 4l97 6i/2 4396 /ll/#/7
-i25 /20+287,59i 86+:+ill+i/28 E+k+6,2’é8+i/28 4+7 4+6:/297 E
7+8i70+i6/ 8397 7/7 -+46i-/7977i,2/ -3m48+i8-/ll/ 59/ 796 l/
m+6i+1/ ./ 7+0ill/ -+./88/+:/- 92 6i-h/ 4396+66i:/6 E 7/7 0i27



’é8+i8 732 :œ9 l/ 4l97 -h/6 /8 732 m+6i é8+i8 /2 86+i2 ./ 8398
,39l/:/67/6
#+.é-i7i32 6/46é7/28+i8 E 7/7 y/9x 92 :é6i8+,l/ 7-+2.+l/ll/
:3y+i8 .éjE 7/7 4i6/7 /22/mi7 7/ m359/6 .’/ll/ /8,-/l+,732 :i/9x
m+6i 2’+:+i8 4+7 l’+i6 ./ 8634 7’/2 739-i/6Il 2’+:+i8 -96/ ./7
6G:/7 ./ 7+0/mm/,./ 7/7 /21+1/m/287,./ 732 46é8/2.9
h322/96,/8 mGm/ .’é:/289/l7 59’/2-.i6+-8-32Il+:+i8 j96é
.’92i6 7+0ill/ E 732 2/:/9 /8 il -3m48+i8 ,i/2 l/ 0+i6/.j+ 9ly
l/ 7+:+i8Il é8+i8 h3mm/ ./ 4+63l/,/8 4+7 92/ 7/9l/ 03i7,il 2’y
+:+i8 m+259é
3968+28,+39.+ iFy/ é8+i8+im+,l/$6F7 ,/+9 1+6ç32,il
é8+i8 1/28il /8 .39x -3mm/ 92+12/+9$39j3967 -366/-8,73i12é
/8 43li,il é8+i8 i66é463-h+,l/,+:+i8 .9 6/74/-8 4396 8398 l/
m32./ /8 732 39:/6896/ .’/746i8 0+i7+i8 59/ l’32 2/ 439:+i8 l/
:3i6 7+27 l’+.36/6Il é8+i8 92i59/ .+27 732 1/26/,732 7/9l 4é-hé
é8+28 ./ 2’+:3i6 4+7 /2-36/ 6é977i E .é-63-h/6 92 /m4l3iIl é8+i8
8398/03i7 92 1+6ç32 /x/m4l+i6/,59/ 8398/ mF6/ ./ 0+mill/
+96+i8 6G:é .’+:3i6 -3mm/ 0il7’+ill/967,.j+ 9ly,+9 .é,98,
+:+i8+00i-hé 7+46é0é6/2-/ 4396 l9ill/ l’+:+i8+imé /8 -h3yé
-3mm/ 732 46346/ /20+28 /8 92 é86+21/6+96+i8 j96é 59/ -/
j/92/ h3mm/ é8+i8 l/ 7i/2
M+i7,./49i7 59/ ./7 69m/967 .’92/ li+i732 .9 1+6ç32+:/-
7+0ill/+.36é/+:+i/28 -3mm/2-é E -396i6 l/7 69/7 /8 l9i é8+i/28
4+6:/29/7,ç+ +:+i8 é8é l+694896/ll/+:+i8 6/83962é 7+:/78/ /8
+39.+é8+i8,/2 92 8/m47 6/-36.,./:/29 l+4/67322/ 59’/ll/
mé46i7+i8 l/ 4l97+9 m32./ll/ l9i 6/463-h+i8 732+88i89./
m/759i2/ /8 :3y+i8 /2 l9i 92 4+6+7i8/,92 8639,l/-0G8/ E m/886/
/2 59+6+28+i2/I2739-i+28,l/ 4+9:6/ 1+6ç32 é8+i8 l3i2 ./ 7/
.398/6 59’il 0+i7+i8 l’3,j/8 ./ 8+28 .’i2imi8ié ./ l+4+68 ./ -/88/
.+m/ 59’il+.mi6+i8 ,i/2

8



@8+lé 796 732 li8,+39.+,92 j/92/ 1+6ç32 élé1+28,./ 8+ill/
m3y/22/,mé.i8+i8 463032.ém/28 .+27 l’92/ ./7 23m,6/97/7
-h+m,6/7 59/ -3m48+i8 l+m+i732 .9 :i/9xM+;.3il7 -+./8
./#/y2+,39,4/8i8/ 7œ96 .9 :i/9xM+;.3,il+:+i8 :i218-59+86/
+27#ix+22é/7 4l97 8ô8,il é8+i8 92 ,6ill+28 é89.i+28 /2#-i/2-/7
é-323mi59/7 /8 73-i+l/7 E l’92i:/67i8éh/ikh28+ i34 ./
+k+663mi7 E 92 86F7 ,/l+:/2i6,l’+.3l/7-/28+:+i8 6é977i E
.é-63-h/6 92/ 46éi27-6i48i32 E l+ H+98/ @-3l/ ./ -3mm/6-/ ./
+6i7#32 4F6/ /8 7+mF6/ 59i 8/2+i/28 E l9i -3mm/ E l+4692/ll/
./ l/967 y/9x,2’+:+i/28 4+7 :39l9 l/ l+i77/6 4+68i6 7397 l/ 7/9l
46é8/x8/ 59/ l/967 863i7 /20+287,4+68i7 é89.i/6 /26+2-/ ./49i7
92/ .é-/22i/,2’é8+i/28 4+7 6/:/297
9 .é,98,il7 8élé4h32+i/28 8398 l/ 8/m47,/2:3y+i/28 ./7
-+68/7 4378+l/7 49i7,4l97 6i/2M+i28/7 03i7,il7+:+i/28 463mi7
./ 6/286/6+9 ,/6-+il /8 ./ 4+77/6 l/967 :+-+2-/7 /2 0+mill/,m+i7
il7+:+i/28 839j3967 6/43977é l/96 6/8396,+9 16+2. .+m ./ l/967
4+6/287 59i+:+i/28 4/6.9 8398 /743i6 ./ l/7 6/:3i6+39.+é8+i8
l/ 7/9l 59i l/96 6/78+i8 /8,4396 6i/2+9 m32./,il7 2’+96+i/28
:39l9 7/ 7é4+6/6 ./ l9iIl7 7’é8+i/28 34437é7 E 732 .é4+68 /8 l/
j/92/ h3mm/+:+i8 /9 .9 m+l E .i1é6/6 -/ 6/097 ./ 7/7 4+6/287
59’il+77imil+i8 E 92 7+-6i0i-/ ./ 732+:/2i6396 7/ 6é:3l8/6
-3286/ -/88/ .é-i7i32,il+:+i8 mi7 92 8/6m/ E 7/7 é89./7 /8
-3286/ 8398/+88/28/,+:+i8 59i88é l/ .3mi-il/ 0+mili+l 4396 7/
6+,+886/ 796Zi19i2-h36Il 7’é8+i8 é8+,li -h/z 732 32-l/M+;.3
3ù il+:+i8 l’h+,i89./ ./ 4+77/6,-h+59/+22é/,l/7 16+2./7
:+-+2-/7#/7 4+6/287+:+i/28 73900/68 ./ -/8 /xilIl7+:+i/28
8398 0+i8 4396 l/ 0+i6/ 6/:/2i6,7+27 7/ .398/6 59/ 59+2. 92
-+m/l38+:+i8 0+i8 732 4li,-’é8+i8 4396 839j3967
ÀZi19i2-h36,+39.+7’é8+i8 7/28i -3mm/ -h/z l9iIl 7’é8+i8
,i/2 4l9 .+27 -/88/ -3286é/ l3i2 .’G86/ l+7i/22/M+i7,E 036-/
./ 6/78/6 7+27 6i/2 0+i6/,732 /xi78/2-/ é8+i8 ./:/29/ ./7 4l97
9

8/62/7h+59/ j396 l9i 4+6+i77+i8 i28/6mi2+,l/ -3mm/ 92 j396
7+27 4+i2+603i7,il l9i+66i:+i8 ./ -63i6/ 59/ l/32i/9 l’+:+i8
39,lié,8+28 7/7 :œ9x 8+6.+i/28 E 7/ 6é+li7/6M+i7,7+03i l/
6+44/l+i8 839j3967 E l’36.6/Il+:+i8 8398 8/28é 4396 7368i6 ./
-/88/ 3i7i:/8é,/2 :+i2L/7 59/l59/7 -3967 59’il .i74/27+i8 4+6--i,
4+6-lE 2/ l9i 6+44368+i/28 4+7 16+2.--h37/,m+i7 il é8+i8 3,li1é ./
7’y+--63-h/6,/2+88/2.+28 ./ 8639:/6 92/ m/ill/96/ i779/
L+./62iF6/ 03i7 59/+39.+7’é8+i8+:/2896é E 4+6-396i6 l+
:ill/ E l+59G8/ .’92 4+9:6/ /m4l3i 59i l’3--94/6+i8 59/l59/
8/m47,il l’+:+i8 ,i/2 6/16/88é/88/ 03li/ l9i+:+i8 :+l9 .ix j3967
./ 0iF:6/,./7 29i87+1i8é/7 432-89é/7 ./ 8398/7 7368/7 ./
-+9-h/m+67/49i7,l’/2:i/ ./ 6/-3mm/2-/6 2/ l9i é8+i8 4l97
4+77é/ E l’/746i8Il+:+i8 46é0é6é 7/ -l3K86/6 E l+m+i732 /8 7/
-328/28/6 ./ .i74/27/6 7/7 -3967
/6.9 .+27 7/7 6G:+77/6i/7,-3mm/ 8397 -/7 j/92/7+213i77é7
./ 7+1é2é6+8i32,il 7/ 437+i8 mill/ /8 92/ 59/78i327 .328 l/7
6é4327/7 7/m,l+i/28 l/ 09i6
3mm/ il+96+i8+imé+:3i6 92 ,32 ,39l38 59i l9i
4/6m/886+i8 ./ 6é+li7/6 8397 -/7 6G:/7 59i 4/94l+i/28 7/7 29i87%
’é8+i8 732 92i59/ 46é3--94+8i32 /8 il 2/ 7+:+i8 :6+im/28 4+7
-3mm/28 7’y 46/2.6/Il+:+i8 8398 /77+yé,m+i7 6i/2
/2.+28 59’il é8+i8 4/6.9 .+27 92 463032. 6/-9/ill/m/28,92
,69i8+236m+l :i28 ,6i7/6 732 él+2é7+443i28é,il l/:+l+8G8/ /8
:i8 92 l394i38 7/- -3mm/ 92 é-h+l+7 59i j39+i8+:/- l/ l359/8 ./
l+4368/
«’/78 83i,#/y.396.i8-il /2 6/74i6+28 463032.ém/28!9/
:/9x-896
–’/78 4+4+59i m’/2:3i/,6é432.i8-il .’92+i6+21éli59/J/
-63i7 59’il :/98 8/ 4+6l/6
–M/ 4+6l/6%
–9i»,0i8-il /2 7/ 7+9:+28,il 8’+88/2. .+27 7+-h+m,6/
L/7 i.é/7 ./+39.+7/ ,639illF6/28 .9 -394Il 7/ ./m+2.+
l+,G8i7/ 59’il+:+i8 ,i/2 49 -3mm/886/ 4396 G86/ -32:359é,E
-/88/ h/96/ ./ l+j3962é/,4+6 732 32-l/Il 2’y -3m46/2+i8 6i/2

T

/8,43968+28,il é8+i8 4/679+.é ./ 2’+:3i6 6i/2 0+i8 ./ 16+:/Il
6/-39698 E 7/7 4/27é/7,il 2/ 8639:+:6+im/28+9-92/ 6+i732 59i
./:+i8 43977/6 732 -h/6 32-l/ E l/ -32:359/6 .+27 7+-h+m,6/
/ ./:+i8 .32- G86/ 86F7 7é6i/9x,4/27+-8-il
Il 2’é8+i8 4+7 .322é E 59i-3259/ .’/286/6 .+27 l+-h+m,6/ .9
:i/9xM+;.3 /8 -/ 46i:ilF1/ /m,+66+77+i8 8634+39.+
L36759’il y 4é2é86+,il 098 l3i2 .’G86/ E l’+i7/Àl+:9/ .9 :i/il
h3mm/ é8/2.9 796 l/ li8 /8 16+:/m/28 4/6.9 .+27 92 l+,y6i28h/
./ 4/27é/7,732+003l/m/28 7’+--698 /8 732 -œ96 7/ mi8 E ,+886/
E 92 6y8hm/ i20/62+lÀ92 m3m/28,il :39l98 7/ 7+9:/6 /8
6/:/2i6 92 4/9 4l97 8+6.,m+i7 59/l59/ -h37/ .’é86+21/
4+6+ly7+i8 7/7 j+m,/7 /8 l’/m4G-h+i8 ./ ,391/6
«32j396,m32 32-l/,,6/.39ill+-8-il
–h%+39.+,89 /7 lE,6é432.i8 l/ :i/9x+:/- 92 l+61/
7396i6/ 59i é8+i8 l3i2 ./ l/ 6+7796/6,+77i/.7-83i .32-»
$/l 92 élF:/ 59i+:+i8 -3mmi7 92/ ,é:9/,+39.+7’/xé-98+
7+1/m/28,+88/2.+28 7+492i8i32Il é8+i8 /286/ ./9x 0/9x /8
M+;.3,839j3967 /mm96é .+27 92 463032. m98i7m/,l/
4l321/+i8 .+27 92/ -32097i32 838+l/
«M32 -h/6 2/:/9,lâ-h+-8-ilJ/ 8’+i+44/lé+9j396.’h9i 4396
8/ 4+6l/6 .’92/ -h37/ 59i m/ 8i/28 E -œ96J/ 79i7 :i/9x /8
j’i1236/ 59+2. l/32i/9 m/ 6+44/ll/6+32-,4396+:3i6 l+
-327-i/2-/+9 6/437,j’+i .é-i.é ./ 8/ 0+i6/ 4+68 ./ m+./62iF6/
:3l328é»
Il 7’+--36.+92/ 4+97/,73900l+,49i7 3,7/6:+l3219/m/28
+39.+
«J/ 7+i7 59//2.+8’+im/ ,/+9-394 /8 59/ :397 :397
/28/2./z E m/6:/ill/»
+39.+é-+659ill+l/7 y/9x
«h 39i%439679i:i8 732 32-l/,j/ 79i7 :i/9x,m+i7 j/ 79i7+9
-396+28 ./ 8398 -/ 59i 7/ 4+77/ i-i /8,/2 4l97,l+:ill/ /78 8634
4/8i8/ /8 l/7 1/27 2/ 7+:/28 4+7 8/2i6 l/96 l+219/
–&397+:/z 6+i732,6é432.i8 l/ j/92/ h3mm/
-3m4lF8/m/28 .é4+77é



–396 6/:/2i6 E 237 m398327,m+8398/ ./62iF6/ :3l328é /78
./ 8/ :3i6 é4397/6 m+0ill/+.36é/$9 m’/7 86F7 .é:39é /8 j’+i
,/+9-394 .’/78im/ 4396 83i»
Il 3,7/6:+92/ 239:/ll/ 4+97/,-327i.é6+92 m3m/28 732
2/:/9,49i7,796 92 832 4l97 .39x,439679i:i8
«J/ 79i7 4396 8+6/l+8i32+:/-/2.+,7/9l/m/28,l/7
m+9:+i7/7 l+219/7 -3mm/2-/28 E 7/ .éli/6 /8 -’/78 ./ m+9:+i7
+9196/’+ill/967,-/68+i27 m/ 6/463-h/28 .’G86/ 8634 2é1li1/28
’92 -ô8é,il7 2’328 4+7 8368,-+6 -/88/ li+i732 /78 illé1i8im/,m+i7
/ll/ /78+977i .+21/6/97/ 7i 32 46/2. /2 -3m48/ l/7
-327é59/2-/7 59’/ll/ 43966+i8 /21/2.6/6 7i j+m+i7 l/ .i+,l/
/286+i8 .+27 l+.+27/&3i7-89,m32 -h/6 2/:/9,59+2.#+8+2
:/ill/,il /78 im4377i,l/ ./ m+K86i7/6 7+4+77i3278--/ 59/ 89
:3i7 3ù j/ :/9x /2 :/2i66
–9i,m32 32-l/
–$6F7 ,i/2M+i28/2+28,j/ :39.6+i7 59/ 89 m/ .i7/7
06+2-h/m/28 7i 89+im/7/2.+ +9 43i28 ./ l’é4397/6»
À-/88/ 59/78i32,+39.+2/ 798 59/ .i6/’é8+i8 :6+im/28
+9-./lE ./ 7/7+88/28/7J+m+i7,mGm/ .+27 7/7 6G:/7 l/7 4l97
0397,il 2’+:+i8 im+1i2é 59/ 732 32-l/ l/ 0/6+i8+44/l/6 92 j396
.+27 7+-h+m,6/ /8 l9i 8i/2.6+i8 92 4+6/il .i7-3967Il é8+i8 7i
/x8+7ié 59’il 0+illi8 7+98/6 E 732 -39 /8 l/ -39:6i6 ./ ,+i7/67 4396
l/ 6/m/6-i/6 ./ l9i+:3i6 39:/68 l+:3i/
«J/ 2’+im/ 59//2.+,m32 32-l/,6é432.i8-il l/ -œ96 .il+8é
.’+llé16/77/J/ 79i7 46G8 E 7+-6i0i/6 m+:i/ 4396 /ll/ /8 j/ 7/6+i
0368 -h+16i2é 7i j+m+i7 32 /77+y+i8 ./ m/ 46i:/6 .’/ll/
–’/78 .32- -3mm/ j/ m/ l’é8+i7 im+1i2é#+-h/ 59’E 4+68i6
.’+9j396.’h9i,89+7 m32 -327/28/m/28 838+lJ/ 2/ 8/ ./m+2./
4+7 .’+61/28$398 -/ 59/ j/ :/9x,-’/78 59/ 89+ill/7 E+k+6
4+6l/6+:/- 832 32-l/M+27396J/ l’+44/ll/6+i7 /8 l9i /x4li59/6+i7
839846F7 -/l+,2397 -h3i7i6327 92/ .+8/ 4396 7-/ll/6
lé1+l/m/28 -/88/ 92i32»
+39.+0+illi8 032.6/ /2 l+6m/7,m+i7 il 7/ 1+6.+,i/2 ./
4l/96/6 ./:+28 732 32-l/#32 :œ9 l/ 4l97 -h/6 é8+i8 796 l/ 43i28

