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174 pages
Ce livre, qui est une sélection des communications faites au colloque Thomas Hardy organisé à Lyon les 22-23 octobre 2010 par l'Université Lumière-Lyon 2 et l'ENS-LSH, propose des analyses de Far from the Madding Crowd réparties en quatre thèmes principaux. Après une étude sur le silence, le silence énigmatique du non-dit, du secret, de l'inavoué, de ces trous dans le texte qui ouvrent un espace pour l'interprétation, ou le silence de l'indicible, le livre s'intéresse à la dimensionn visuelle, tant dans l'univers diégétique que dans le cadre d'une adaptation télévisuelle.
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Far from the Madding Crowd
Thomas HARDY
CYCNOS Fondée sur les rives de la Méditerranée, la revueCycnosmise sous l’égide d’un s’est antique roi de Ligurie, comptant bien partager le sort du personnage éponyme que le dieu de la poésie plaça parmi les astres du firmament. La revue, fondée par André Viola, est publiée par le CIRCPLES (Centre Interdisciplinaire Récits, Cultures, Psychanalyse clinique, Langues et Sociétés) de l’Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis. Elle accueille les contributions - en anglais et en français - de spécialistes extérieurs au Centre.
DIRECTEUR : Christian GUTLEBEN
COMITE SCIENTIFIQUE
Elza ADAMOWICZ, Queen Mary University of London Michel BANDRY, Université de Montpellier Ann BANFIELD, Université de Californie, Berkeley, U.S.A. Gilbert BONIFAS, Université de Nice Lucie DESBLACHE , University of Roehampton, Londres Maurice COUTURIER, Université de Nice Silvano LEVY, University of Hull Jean-Pierre NAUGRETTE, Université de Paris III Sorbonne Nouvelle. COMITE DE LECTURE Jean-Paul AUBERT, Université de Nice Jean-Jacques CHARDIN, Université de Strasbourg II Genviève CHEVALLIER, Université de Nice Christian GUTLEBEN, Université de Nice Marc MARTI, Université de Nice Martine MONACELLI-FARAUT, Université de Nice Susana ONEGA, Université de Saragosse Michel REMY, Université de Nice Didier REVEST, Université de Nice La correspondance avec la revue doit être adressée à : CIRCPLES RevueCycnos, U.F.R. Lettres, Arts et Sciences Humaines 98, Boulevard Edouard Herriot, B.P. 3209 F 06204 - NICE Cedex 3 - France Tel 04 93 37 53 46 - Fax 04 93 37 53 50 Solen.COZIC@unice.fr
CYCNOS Far from the Madding Crowd
Thomas HARDY
Responsables du numéro Catherine Lanone et Christian Gutleben
Revue publiée par le CIRCPLES Université de Nice – Sophia-Antipolis
Volume 26 N°2 2010
© L’HARMATTAN, 2010 5-7, rue de l’École-Polytechnique ; 75005 Paris http://www.librairieharmattan.com diffusion.harmattan@wanadoo.fr harmattan1@wanadoo.fr ISBN : 978-2-296-13827-8 EAN: 9782296138278
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Catherine Lanone Introduction 7and Annie Ramel Part I: Silence11 Jean-Jacques Lecercle Thomas Hardy’s Silences 13 Annie Ramel The Sound of Silence inTess of the d'Urbervilles andFar from the Madding Crowd29Jean-Charles PerquinFar from the Madding Crowd39: the Rest is Silence Michel Morel Narrative Silences inFar from the Madding  Crowd47 Part II: The Visual Dimension61 Hugh EpsteinFar from the Madding Crowd:the physics of light  and literary description 63 Gildas Lemardelé Silence, Secrecy and Sacredness in Hardy’s Fiction: The example ofFar from the Madding Crowdand Tess of the d’Urbervilles79 Raphaëlle Costa The Sounds and Silences of Time in Thomas Hardy’s de BeauregardFar from the Madding Crowd(1874): novel and  film 87 Part III: Women and Men101 Catherine Lanone “Without throwing a Nymphean tissue over a  milkmaid” (19): from Bathsheba Everdene to Tess of the d'Urbervilles 103Stéphanie BernardFar from the Madding Crowd:The Pathetic Tragedy of the Sexes 111 Gilbert Pham Thanh Hardy, Hardy! Masculine Heroism inFar from the  Madding Crowd123Part IV: Intertextuality135 Emily Eells “The noiseless tenor of their way”: quotations,  inscriptions and the words of others inFar  from the Madding Crowd 137 Isabelle Gadoin Haunted Silences in Hardy’s Works: Voice from beyond the grave 149
Introduction
Catherine Lanone and Annie Ramel
 This volume offers a selection of the papers delivered at the annual FATHOM (French Association of Thomas Hardy Studies) conference organized by Annie Ramel at Université Lumière-Lyon 2/Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, October 22-23, 2010. The subject of the conference was ‘Silence in Thomas Hardy's Work’, but this is a selection of articles dealing withFar from the Madding Crowd, on a variety of subjects ranging from the question of silence to questions on the visual dimension, gender identifications, and intertextuality. Silence  Any work of art is constructed around a core of silence. Silence may be what punctuates a text and causes the emergence of meaning. It may be the enigmatic silence of the unsaid, the secret, the unavowed, those gaps in a text that open space for interpretation, against the flaunted meaning which the narrative voice would have us believe. It may also be the silence of the unspeakable, the point where voice jettisons sense and becomes loaded with affect, turning into a jubilatory, vibratory substance. Hardy knew to the full how to make use of the three forms, which these papers explore. Jean-Jacques Lecercle's paper gives us an overview of the theme of silence in Hardy's work, from poetry to the novels. His article begins with a philosophical analysis of the concept of silence, offering a subtle taxonomy of the various types of silences one may find in literary texts; the analysis ofFar from the Madding Crowdis then given as a case in point, a pivotal point in Lecercle's complete analysis of Hardy's textual strategy. Drawing upon Lacan's concept of object-voice,Annie Ramelhow shows the blind spot of silence tropes the way in which articulate language is replaced by the language of dominant culture, drawing a significant parallelism between Tess and Bathsheba, whose voice might be choked by Boldwood, while recurrent sounds draw attention to the materiality of language.Jean-Charles Perquinargues that Hardy turns Gabriel Oak from the start into a silent observer, doomed to silence even before he is rebuked by Bathsheba; Perquin moves from Boldwood's ludicrous madness to Troy's loud and fruitless agitation to Gabriel Oak's speechless, eloquent activity, his emphatic renunciation and silent devotion, linking his humble attachment to the way peasants are silenced by a society on the verge of Cycnos, vol. 26, n° 2, 2010
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Catherine Lanone and Annie Ramel
mutation.Michel Morel offers a thorough study of stylistic silences, from aposiopesis to ellipsis. He probes into sudden suspensions of speech, creating suspense, ironic understatements, eloquent undertones or dialogic impulses. The visual dimension Hugh Epsteinwith the themes of gazing, independence and deals sexuality by focusing on the force of light and on Hardy's fascination with visibility. Epstein returns, for instance, to the spectacular effect of Troy's scintillating bladework (turning Bathsheba into a sexually alive woman, but at the cost of independence) and to peculiar visual impressions, such as the unforgettable sunrise on snow corresponding to the fateful letter sent by Bathsheba to Boldwood.Gildas Lemardeléstudies two intensely also visual scenes in Hardy's fiction, the baptism of Sorrow inTess of the d'Urbervillesthe scene in which Bathsheba opens Fanny's coffin, two and episodes that revolve around a baby's death and that have an intense iconoclastic, as well as iconographic tension, hinting at Hardy's growth as a writer from melodrama to more tragic undertones inTess.As Lemardelé points out, Hardy is an agnostic who can never quite give up the sacred, appropriating mystical images and patterns in his fiction.Raphaëlle Costa de Beauregardfocuses on the intensely visual aspect of Hardy's prose and its transposition in the television adaptation ofFar from the Madding Crowd.In this film version, the systematic pictorial references that pepper the novel are not transferred but transposed by equivalent visual echoes that recall Ver Meer and Dutch painting as much as the pre-Raphaelites, creating a subtle web of hints that match the novel's emphasis on detail and atmosphere. Women and men  Catherine Lanone shows howFar from the Madding Crowd foreshadows the later masterpiece,Tess of the d'Urbervilles. Unlike Tess, who is reduced by Angel to a visionary essence of a woman, Bathsheba is no ethereal creature but a flesh-and-blood woman at ease in her body. The narrative voice inFar from the Madding Crowd refuses to “throw a Nymphean tissue over a milkmaid”, the nymphean tissue Angel so happily casts over Tess. Yet Bathsheba does not totally escape the process of sublimation. Tess will blend the figures of Fanny and Bathsheba into an “oxymoronic fusion”.Stéphanie Bernardfor “some cathartic, looks Aristotelian qualities” inFar from the Madding Crowd, and finds that neither Gabriel, nor Troy are tragic. Catharsis is at best a mock-catharsis, because Troy is a villain who does not arouse pity, and Boldwood is denied our sympathy as well as the relief and grandeur of death. The only tragedy is that of femininity, because the novel stages the slow encroachment of patriarchal order into a sphere that had seemed to allow for feminine
Introduction
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freedom.Gilbert Pham Thanhstarts with three male characters, Troy, Boldwood and Gabriel Oak, each standing for a historical form of masculine heroism. But he shows that each posture is untenable. Hardy blurs the limit between genders by creating a masculine heroine and feminized men, in defiance of traditional representations. If this reversal of roles, which makes of Bathsheba an embodiment of masculine heroism, is felt as emancipatory, it is however entangled in ideological patterns which ensure that, in the end, it is men who once more lord it. Intertextuality  Emily Eellspays attention to the process of inscribing and deleting inscriptions in the novel. She unravels the wide scope of quotations used by Hardy in the novel, quotations which the narrator rarely identifies, from Gray or Keats, Greek and the Bible; she points to the inadequacy of language, as quotes are often at odds with the text they are embedded in. Isabelle Gadoin offers a subtle reading of Hardy's use of Gray's ‘Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard’, showing how Hardy recycles the clichés of regret and plays on meaningful or ironic echoes, from the poems toFar from the Madding Crowd, paying particular attention to the epitaph on Fanny's tomb which contrasts with the way in which she has been erased and annihilated by Troy and society.