Psychosocial adjustment for students of middle school age and its strengthening during lessons of physical education ; Viduriniojo mokyklinio amžiaus moksleivių psichosocialinė adaptacija ir jos stiprinimas per kūno kultūros pamokas

De
LITHUANIAN ACADEMY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Šar ūnas Klizas PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT FOR STUDENTS OF MIDDLE SCHOOL AGE AND ITS STRENGTHENING DURING LESSONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Social Sciences, Educational Science (07S) Physical Training, Motorial Learning, Sport (S273) Kaunas, 2009 Doctoral dissertation was prepared in 2007—2009 at Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education. The research was supported in 2008—2009 by Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation Scientific supervisors of research: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Audron ė DUM ČIEN Ė (since 2009.02.18) Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education (Social Sciences, Education — 07S) Prof. Dr. Romualdas MALINAUSKAS (till 2009.02.18) Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education ces, Education — 07S) Doctoral Dissertation will be defended at the Council of Education of the Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education: Chairman Prof. Dr. Habil.K ęstutis KARDELIS Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education (Social Sciences, Education — 07S) Members Prof. Dr. Habil.Algirdas ČEPUL ĖNAS Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education (Social Sciences, Education — 07S) Prof. Dr. Irena LELI ŪGIEN Ė Kaunas University of Technology (Social Sciences, Education — 07S) Prof. Dr. Sigitas DAUKILAS Lithuanian University of Agriculture (Social Sciences, Education — 07S) Assoc. Prof. Dr.
Publié le : vendredi 1 janvier 2010
Lecture(s) : 42
Tags :
Source : VDDB.LABA.LT/FEDORA/GET/LT-ELABA-0001:E.02~2009~D_20100212_094227-73696/DS.005.1.01.ETD
Nombre de pages : 32
Voir plus Voir moins
        
    
LITHUANIAN ACADEMY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
arūnas Klizas   PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT FOR STUDENTS OF MIDDLE SCHOOL AGE AND ITS STRENGTHENING DURING LESSONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Summary of Doctoral Dissertation
Social Sciences, Educational Science (07S) Physical Training, Motorial Learning, Sport (S273)          Kaunas, 2009
Doctoral dissertation was prepared in 20072009 at Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education. The research was supported in 20082009 by Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation  Scientific supervisors of research: Assoc. Prof. Dr. AudronėDUMČIENĖ(since 2009.02.18) Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education(Social Sciences, Education  07S) Prof. Dr. Romualdas MALINAUSKAS (till 2009.02.18) Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education(Social Sciences, Education  07S)  Doctoral Dissertation will be defended at the Council of Education of the Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education:  Chairman Prof. Dr. Habil.Kęstutis KARDELIS Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education(Social Sciences, Education  07S)  Members Prof. Dr. Habil.AlgirdasČEPULĖNAS Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education(Social Sciences, Education  07S) Prof. Dr. Irena LELIŪGIENĖ Kaunas University of Technology(Social Sciences, Education  07S) Prof. Dr. Sigitas DAUKILAS Lithuanian University of Agriculture(Social Sciences, Education  07S) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Saulius UKYS Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education(Social Sciences, Education  07S)  Opponents Prof. Dr. Audronius VILKAS Vilnius Pedagogical University(Social Sciences, Education  07S) Assoc. Prof. Dr. LaimutėBOBROVA iauliai University(Social Sciences, Education  07S)  The doctoral dissertation will be defended in the open session of the Council of Education Sciences of the Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education. The defence will take place on December 4th2009 at 12 a. m. in auditorium named after Prof. V. Stakionienė. Address: Sporto 6, LT-44221 Kaunas, Lithuania  The summary of the doctoral dissertation was sent out on November 4th2009. The doctoral dissertation is available at the library of the Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education. Address: Sporto 6, LT-44221 Kaunas,Lithuania
 
2
             
LIETUVOS KŪNO KULTŪROS AKADEMIJA         arūnas Klizas   VIDURINIOJO MOKYKLINIO AMIAUS MOKSLEIVIŲ PSICHOSOCIALINĖADAPTACIJA IR JOS STIPRINIMAS PER KŪNO KULTŪROS PAMOKAS    Daktaro disertacija  Socialiniai mokslai, edukologija (07S) Fizinis lavinimas, judesiųmokymas, sportas (S273)
3
Kaunas, 2009
Disertacija rengta 20072009 metais Lietuvos kūno kultūros akademijoje. Darbą20082009 metais rėmėLietuvos valstybinis mokslo ir studijųfondas.  Moksliniai vadovai Doc. dr. AUDRONĖDUMČIENĖ(nuo 2009.02.18) Lietuvos kūno kultūros akademija(socialiniai mokslai, edukologija  07S) Prof. dr. Romualdas MALINAUSKAS (iki 2009.02.18) Lietuvos kūno kultūros akademija(socialiniai mokslai, edukologija  07S)  Disertacija ginama Lietuvos kūno kultūros akademijos Edukologijos mokslo krypties taryboje  Pirmininkas Prof. habil. dr. Kęstutis KARDELIS Lietuvos kūno kultūros akademija(Socialiniai mokslai, edukologija  07S)  Nariai Prof. habil. dr. AlgirdasČEPULĖNAS Lietuvos kūno kultūros akademija(Socialiniai mokslai, edukologija  07S) Prof. dr. Irena LELIŪGIENĖ Kauno technologijos universitetas(Socialiniai mokslai, edukologija  07S) Prof. dr. Sigitas DAUKILAS Lietuvos emėsūkio universitetas(Socialiniai mokslai, edukologija  07S) Doc. dr. Saulius UKYS Lietuvos kūno kultūros akademija(Socialiniai mokslai, edukologija  07S)  Oponentai Prof. dr. Audronius VILKAS Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas(Socialiniai mokslai, edukologija  07S) Doc. dr. LaimutėBOBROVA iauliųassrevtetiinu (Socialiniai mokslai, edukologija  07S)  Disertacijabus ginama vieame Edukologijos mokslo krypties tarybos posėdyje 2009 m. gruodio 04 d. 12 val. Lietuvos kūno kultūros akademijos centriniųrūmų prof. V. Stakionienės auditorijoje. Adresas: Sporto g. 6, LT-44221 Kaunas, Lietuva.  Disertacijos santrauka isiųsta 2009 m. lapkričio 04 d.  Disertacijągalima periūrėti Lietuvos kūno kultūros akademijos bibliotekoje. Adresas: Sporto g. 6, LT-44221Kaunas, Lietuva.  
 
4
CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................6 1. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THE PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF THE STUDENTS OF MIDDLE SCHOOLING AGE AND ITS STRENGTHENING........................................................................................................ 14 1.1. Psychosocial description of students of middle schooling age........................ 14 1.2. Strengthening of psychosocial education during lessons of physical education                     ........................................................................................................................................15 2. RESEARCH METHOD AND THE TESTED INDIVIDUALS ........................ 16 2.1. Methodology of declarative exploration.......................................................... 16 2.2. Methodology of the education experiment...................................................... 17 2.2.1. Peculiarities of the structuring of the education experiment program .........  ...17 2.2.2. Education experiment and its management ............................................. 18 3. RESULTS OF THE DECLARATIVE RESEARCH ......................................... 18 3.1. Psychosocial adjustment of the students of middle schooling age................. 18 3.1.1. The levels of the psychosocial adjustment of the students of middle schooling age .......................................................................................................... 18 3.1.2. Self-esteem of students of middle schooling age..................................... 19 3.1.3. Levels of self-confidence of students of middle schooling age ............... 19 3.1.4. Levels of anxiety of students of middle schooling age............................ 19 3.1.5. Levels of satisfaction with ones life of students of middle schooling age  ...................................................................................................................20 3.1.6. Levels of communication of students of middle schooling age ............... 20 4. RESULTS OF THE EDUCATIONAL EXPERIMENT OF STUDENTS OF MIDDLE SCHOOLING AGE........................................................................................ 20 4.1. Psychosocial adjustment of the students of middle schooling age after the educational experiment.............................................................................................. 20 4.1.1. The levels of the psychosocial adjustment of the students of middle schooling age after the educational experiment ...................................................... 20 4.1.2. Levels of self-esteem of students of middle schooling age after the educational experiment ........................................................................................... 21 4.1.3. Levels of self-confidence of students of middle schooling age after the educational experiment ........................................................................................... 22 4.1.4. Levels of anxiety of students of middle schooling age after the educational experiment .............................................................................................................. 22 4.1.5. Levels of satisfaction with ones life in students of middle schooling age after the experiment ................................................................................................ 23 4.1.6. Levels of communication in students of middle schooling age after the experiment .............................................................................................................. 23 5. DISCUSSION OF THE RESEARCH RESULTS .............................................. 23 CONCLUSIONS.............................................................................................................. 26 APPROBATION OF RESULTS OF THE DOCTORAL DISSERTATION.............. 26 ABOUT THE AUTHOR.................................................................................................27 REZIUMĖ..........................................................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.  5
INTRODUCTION  Socioeducational topicality of the issue of the research. The contemporary economic and social alterations of the European Union and the whole world have also had significant impact on the educational system of our country, on the increase of the present social issues and on the appearance of new ones. Dealing with the new hardships consumes additional time of the adult members of the family, which might in fact be devoted to the family and children. While it is not within our powers to assist the adult citizens to the altering conditions of life, contribution to the strengthening of the psychosocial adjustment is a duty of both this research and the whole of the education system of our country. The issue of the psychosocial adjustment of the students of any age is one of the most urgent problems which is being attempted to solve by the contemporary science of educology. The topicality of this issue is imposed by the attitudes of contemporary paradigms aimed at the trainee and the psychosocial adjustment as well as successful socialization of his/her personality in the society. The psychosocial adjustment of a personality while being a special phenomenon of an individual in social interrelations covers multiple aspects in itself, some of which are related with the standards of the society while others are connected with the behavioral norms of the personality. All of them are equally important for the peculiarities of the personality values and its needs (Juodaitytė, 2002; Malinauskas, 2006). During the whole life of an individual, value orientation and development of needs acquire particular traits which at some moments of human life contribute to efficient adaptation while during others they complicate the situation by involving specific peculiarities. The group of the middle schooling age of secondary school students (the age of adolescence) is unique since it shows the flash of the development of the social, psychological and physiological activeness of the personality (Barkauskaitė, 2000). Psychosocial adjustment may be determined as a mutual process taking part between an individual and his/her environment, and the active adaptation of an individual to the altering environment and to the altering conditions of living (Juodraitis, 2004). Psychosocial adjustment during the middle schooling age, i.e. during the adolescence, may be interpreted as the strife of adolescents to discover their place, to alter in order to adapt, and to alter the place in order to adapt it to themselves. It is essential to explore namely the middle schooling age during which the flash of motoric needs takes place together with the active sexual maturation as well as rapid growth and development of all the organs and systems of the body. On the basis of the exploration of publications and researches of the recent time, one may claim that the issue of psychosocial adjustment of the students of
 
6
middle schooling age raises increasing worries of pedagogues and the general society (Malinauskas et al., 2008). These students whose adaptation at school and among peers is not fluent and those who experience hard situations in their family and/or home environment, later on transfer their problems to the world of adults (Juodraitis, 2004). It has also been proven that for the proper social adaptation, one needs the support not only of the family, but also of friends (Morano, Cisler, 1993). Those students who due to various reasons face difficulties in communicating with peers experience seclusion, isolation from the environment while frequent failures in the everyday activity decrease their trust in their own powers (Ellickson, McGuigan, 2000). The middle schooling age is the period of adolescence, and adolescence is one of the critical stages of the development of a personality. Due to rapid physiological alterations in the body and because of still underdeveloped psychological and social maturity, students of middle schooling age are less resistant to the impact of the stressors of the environment, and their psychosocial adjustment is disturbed more rapidly concerning the adolescents ability to adapt to the requirements which are set at school, to the norms regulated by the society and to relate adequately with the environment under the conditions which are present in the current social system (Williamson et al., 1995; Markevičiūtėir kt., 2007; Way et al., 2007). When exploring the factors imposing on the psycho-social health of children and adolescents, more and more frequently, aggression, somatic disorders, depression, anxiety and insufficient self-esteem are emphasized (Markevičiūtėir kt., 2007; Way et al., 2007), i.e., the psycho-social de-aptitude is highlighted. Due to the schooling de-adaptation, emotional disorders are developed or even established; they negatively impact the development, motivation and behaviour of a personality and thus still additionally complicate the course of the further adaptation of a child (Malinauskas et al., 2008). De-adapted student are manifested by their inferior self-esteem, poorer academic achievements and inferior social skills (Gendron et al., 2004); they possess more issues of emotional and general psychosocial adjustment (Markevičiūtė2007). One should emphasize that health disorders and al.,  et psycho-somatic complaints among adolescents are increasing: students are complaining because of various aches and sleep disorders. Social explorations of the students behaviour, lifestyle and health over the last decade have demonstrated that the psychical health of the schooling age children has shown a trend of deterioration (Petrauskienė, Matulevičiūtė, 2007). Due to de-adaptability, the adolescents being unable to adapt to the altering environment, among young people, the frequency of abuse of alcoholic beverages and drugs has been increasing, which has been evolving into a more and more frequent health and social issue (Petronytėet al., 2007). Abuse of alcoholic beverages and drugs leads to adolescent crime and suicides while the decreasing age of delinquent minors and the ever-worsening type of the committed crimes as well as the statistics witnessing that the rates of youth suicides of Lithuania are the highest in Europe are a real worry(Petronytėet al., 2007; Ribakovienėet al., 2008); the entirety of 7
the present situation makes one consider the psychosocial adjustment of adolescents and the opportunities of its strengthening in the process of education. Good psychical health of students is one of the key presumptions of their regular development and successful studies. An essential factor of the psychical health is the individual qualities of a personality depending on the gender, age and inheritance; however, the activity of strengthening psychical health is inevitably related with the social and environmental factors (Obelenis et al., 2006). Both Lithuanian and foreign scholarly explorations have discovered the positive impact of physical activeness on the physical and psychical health of adolescents. Those students of middle schooling age who are more active physically are of superior self-esteem, possess more advantageous data of social integration (Batutis, Kardelis, 2002), their health-related behaviour and diet are more advantageous, they do not possess harmful habits (Webber et al., 2008), they show superior rates of the components of psychosocial adjustment, such as the treatment of others, emotional comfort and integrity (Malinauskas, Klizas, 2009). However, currently, programs of education reflecting aspects of psychosocial adjustment which could be applied during lessons of physical education are insufficient (Wang, Biddle, 2001; Vyniauskytė-Rimkienė, 2004). Besides, it has not been proven by research yet that lessons of physical education are the most accessible and favourable method of strengthening students psychosocial adjustment (Indraienė, 2004, Malinauskas, 2006; Malinauskas et al., 2008). As the lesson of physical education is training and development of the healthy lifestyle and physical activeness of students (Sporto terminų odynas /Dictionary of sporting terms/point of view, it is necessary to, 2002), from our reveal the peculiarities of psychosocial adjustment during lessons of physical education because physical education by its virtue involves opportunities for the satisfaction of multiple needs of a personality (Butvilas, 2008). When exploring publications and researches of recent years, it is possible to claim that the issue of psychosocial adjustment of students of middle schooling age causes the ever-increasing anxiety of pedagogues and the society (Malinauskas et al., 2008; Klizas et al., 2009). While in earlier works, methodologies of exploration were employed only for the methodology of exploration of self-esteem (self-respect) or self-confidence, however, there is still lack of data on psychosocial adjustment during lessons of physical education. In our research concerning the strengthening of psychosocial adjustment of students of middle schooling age during lessons of physical education, we employed more various and extensive methodologies for the exploration of psychosocial adjustment so that they would most precisely contribute to the discovery of social and psychological peculiarities of the students of this age group. The issues of the subject of physical education have been extensively explored in works of Lithuanian scholars (Stakionienė, 1988;Čepulėnas, 1985, 2001; Vilkas, 1985, 2006); nevertheless, major attention was paid to the development of physical qualities rather than to the peculiarities of psychosocial  8
adjustment. As physical education involves possibilities of the fulfillment of personality needs (Butvilas, 2008), education of physical culture may evolve into a device supporting the individuality by fostering social cooperation, undertaking personal responsibility and developing cultural understanding as well as belief in humane values (Kardelienė, Kardelis, 2006); that is why in our work we strive to reveal the peculiarities the lessons of physical education as a device to strengthen psychosocial adjustment. Even though practitioners and researchers are interested in the levels of psychosocial adjustment of adolescents and opportunities of its strengthening during intense physical activity, the key issue is still to be tackled:what are the opportunities, devices and methods to strengthen the psychosocial adjustment of students ofmiddle age during the lessons of physical education? schooling The solution of this issue and the search for the answer constitutethe fundamentals of the academic topicality of the present research. The formulation of the problem issue allows to work outthe hypothesis of this research: Multidirectional educational impact on students of middle schooling age during the lessons of physical education makes positive influence on their psychosocial adjustment. Development of the hypothesis leads to the definition ofthe object of the research, which is the psychosocial adjustment of students of middle schooling age (1415 years old). When dealing with the object of the research, the following construct under exploration was selected as thedependent variable: psychosocial adjustment of the students of middle schooling age. The following components of the researched construct may be singled out asthe independent variable is likely to have impact on the dependent which construct of the object of the research: program of educational impact for the strengthening of psychosocial adjustment of students of middle schooling age during lessons of physical education. In order to verify the hypothesis of the research,the goal of the research was set: to reveal the opportunities of psychosocial adjustment and its strengthening in students of middle schooling age (aged 14 to 15) during lessons of physical education. In order to reach the goal, the followingobjectives of researchwere set: 1. To define the theoretical presuppositions of the psychosocial adjustment and its strengthening in students of middle schooling age (aged 14 to 15) during the lessons of physical education. 2. To identify the criteria of the psychosocial adjustment of students of middle schooling age and to assess their levels. 3. To develop a theoretically grounded program of the strengthening of psychosocial adjustment of students of middle schooling age during the lessons of physical education. 9
4. By an educational experiment, to assess the efficiency of the educational program aimed at the strengthening of psychosocial adjustment of students of middle schooling age (aged 14 to 15) during the lessons of physical education.  This research is based on the following theoretical attitudes: 1.Social learning theory(Bandura, 1986, 2000). This is one of the theories proclaiming that among other factors influencing the quality of human life and efficiency of existence, the ability of the individual to influence the factors and the fact that behaviour is apprehensible and it is mostly affected by imitation, modeling and reinforcement. Thesocial learning theorypays special attention to the social causes of behaviour and the importance of cognitive reasoning in all the aspects of human functioning, namely, in motivation, emotions and activity. It is on the basis of this theory that the strengthening of the psychosocial adjustment of the trainees was implemented: three internal features of the apprehension of ones behaviour regulation were modeled, namely the observation of ones action, the evaluation of the actions one has performed and the planning of ones actions (Bandura, 1986, 2000) in addition to the reception of feedback not for the sake of external strengthening but rather for ones social skills, the quality of interpersonal relations and the ability to achieve the objectives of life (Lekavičienė, 2001). Thesocial cognition theoretical attitude et al., 1986) states that (Dodge children primarily decode, conceive and individually interpret social examples (i.e. stimuli), and only afterwards generate the reactions of their behaviour onto the examples, which they evaluate by themselves and select the optimum reaction as well as implement the selected behaviour and observe its consequences. When developing a program of educational impact of the educational experiment, the grounds were laid on the foundations of this theoretical attitude because it permits to efficiently employ the potential of a group towards the strengthening of the psychosocial adjustment of an individual trainee and to avoid its weakening. 2. Theparadigm of liberal education from the perspective of the which strengthening of psycho-social education of students maintains the strongest relationship with the ideas of theconcept of pragmatic education. On the basis of this paradigm of education, in the practice of education, major attention is paid to these specified objectives of education which are formulated at the interpersonal level after considering the general objectives, specific social and pedagogical environment (Bitinas, 2000). The concept of pragmatic education foregrounds the activeness and agility of the trainee, his/her ability to deal with real life situations and issues (personal, practical and social ones) (Bitinas, 2000; Jovaia, 2001a). According to Bitinas (2000) and Jovaia (2001a), the background of pragmatism in education is the interaction of the trainee with the real social environment surrounding the trainee, the training to discover the optimum forms of behaviour when interacting with the environment. Besides, theparadigm of liberal educationis grounded on theconcept of humanist educationwhich manifests its  10
attitude to a personality as to a free, self-sufficient, well-rounded and conscious individual. In it, the key function of the educator is to provide freedom to the individuality and to help actualize the powers and abilities of every trainee, to promote the activeness of every child and the responsibility for the consequences of their activities, i.e. the equality in the relationships of a child and an adult trainee is acknowledged (Rogers, 1983, 2002; Maslow, 2006). Both pragmatic and humanist concepts of education were taken as the foundation when formulating the goal of the program of the strengthening the psychosocial adjustment during the lessons of physical education and of the improvement of the relationships of the educator and the disciples. 3. When dealing with the educational discourse of a lesson of physical education, thetheory of cognitivismis of importance (Piaget, 1983, 2002), which claims that the reality of the lesson of physical education cannot exist separately from the perceptual or cognitive world of adolescents as it is not the facts but rather constructs that constitute the foundation of knowledge about the external world. Thus one may claim that an adolescent as well as any other individual acts in the cognitive contexts of interpretation and is an individual who cognitively interprets the social reality. The reality of a lesson of physical education is a social reality construed in the process of social genesis, when the interpretative activeness of a student of middle schooling age as an individual unites with the sociodynamics and the historically developed constructs of cultural experiences of the child. According to Piaget (Piaget, 1983, 2002), the cognitive theory describes the peculiarities of the intellectual development of an adolescent which evolves in four stages. The third of these (concrete reasoning) and the fourth (figurative reasoning) namely correspond to the group of middle schooling age. This theory is important here as intellectual development especially advances during games, i.e. in active processes, which is an exceptional feature of the lesson of physical education in comparison with other subjects.  Methods of research: 1.Analysis of scientific literatureon the thematic area of the thesis: study of psychological, sociological and pedagogical literature in the area of psychosocial adjustment and the strengthening of its components by means of physical activeness. 2.Questionnaire methods. In order to reveal the variables of the construct of psychosocial adjustment in students of middle schooling age, a written questionnaire was applied. For the identification of the level of psychosocial adjustment of students of middle schooling age, a modified questionnaire by Rogers and Dymond was applied (аРийксдорогй, 2000; Malinauskas, Klizas, 2009). The model of psychosocial adjustment developed by the authors of the methodology (Rogers, Dymond, 1954) apart from the generalized fundamental marker defining the sociological adaptation also contains other subscales (self-
11
Soyez le premier à déposer un commentaire !

17/1000 caractères maximum.