The comprehensive alcohol expectancy questionnaire: confirmatory factor analysis, measurement invariance, and concurrent validity [Elektronische Ressource] : psychometric studies based on a representative community sample, two college student samples, and a clinical sample of alcohol dependent inpatients / vorgelegt von Jennifer Nicolai

Westf alische Wilhelms-Universiatt MunsterFachbereich Psychologie und SportwissenschaftPsychologisches Institut IThe Comprehensive Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire:Con rmatory Factor Analysis, Measurement Invariance,and Concurrent Validity.Psychometric Studies Based on a Representative Community Sample, Two CollegeStudent Samples, and a Clinical Sample of Alcohol-Dependent InpatientsInaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Philosophischen Fakult at derWestf alischen Wilhelms-Universit at zu Munstervorgelegt vonJennifer Nicolaiaus UnnaDezember 2007Tag der mundlic hen Hauptfachprufung: 11.02.2008Tag der m hen Nebenfachpr 02.04.2008Dekan: Prof. Dr. Dr. Wichard WoykeReferent: PD Dr. Ralf DemmelKorreferent: Prof. Dr. Fred RistTakkMange fortjener takk for at arbeidet lot seg realisere. F rst og fremst vil jeg takkemin veileder i dette prosjektet PD Dr. Ralf Demmel: En stor takk for oppmuntring ogst tte gjennom mange ar. Gjennom sin veilederstil, faglige tyngde og varme har hanbidratt til fokusert jobbing, arbeidslyst og kt faglig selvtillit. Spesielt i den vanskeligesiste fasen har hans motiverende veiledning v rt avgj rende for at jeg har kommet i malmed arbeidet. Sa vil jeg takke for all den kunnskap og erfaring om alkoholforskning ogmotivational interviewing som han har delt med meg, og for a ha involvert meg i sittinnovative arbeid.Jeg vil videre takke biveileder Professor Dr.
Publié le : lundi 1 janvier 2007
Lecture(s) : 33
Source : D-NB.INFO/990053423/34
Nombre de pages : 313
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Westf alische Wilhelms-Universiatt Munster
Fachbereich Psychologie und Sportwissenschaft
Psychologisches Institut I
The Comprehensive Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire:
Con rmatory Factor Analysis, Measurement Invariance,
and Concurrent Validity.
Psychometric Studies Based on a Representative Community Sample, Two College
Student Samples, and a Clinical Sample of Alcohol-Dependent Inpatients
Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Philosophischen Fakult at der
Westf alischen Wilhelms-Universit at zu Munster
vorgelegt von
Jennifer Nicolai
aus Unna
Dezember 2007Tag der mundlic hen Hauptfachprufung: 11.02.2008
Tag der m hen Nebenfachpr 02.04.2008
Dekan: Prof. Dr. Dr. Wichard Woyke
Referent: PD Dr. Ralf Demmel
Korreferent: Prof. Dr. Fred RistTakk
Mange fortjener takk for at arbeidet lot seg realisere. F rst og fremst vil jeg takke
min veileder i dette prosjektet PD Dr. Ralf Demmel: En stor takk for oppmuntring og
st tte gjennom mange ar. Gjennom sin veilederstil, faglige tyngde og varme har han
bidratt til fokusert jobbing, arbeidslyst og kt faglig selvtillit. Spesielt i den vanskelige
siste fasen har hans motiverende veiledning v rt avgj rende for at jeg har kommet i mal
med arbeidet. Sa vil jeg takke for all den kunnskap og erfaring om alkoholforskning og
motivational interviewing som han har delt med meg, og for a ha involvert meg i sitt
innovative arbeid.
Jeg vil videre takke biveileder Professor Dr. Fred Rist som har s rget for e ektive og
trivelige arbeidsforhold i Munster. Det var sv rt l rerik og positiv a kunne diskutere
ideer i en dialog med han. Jeg vil takke for et godt milj a v re i, og for samtaler og
oppmuntringer fra mer erfarne folk, dette gjelder spesielt den siste delen av prosessen.
Helt konkret vil jeg ogsa takke Dr. Angelika Gl ockner-Rist for a ha hjulpet meg med
alle mulige dataproblemer.
En spesiell takk til PD Dr. Ludwig Kraus ved Institut fur Psychotherapieforschung
(IFT) i Munc hen for a stille data til radighet for denne doktoravhandlingen.
Jeg vil takke Gunnar for gener se og innsiktsfulle kommentarer i en viktig fase av
arbeidet. Takk til Ole for e ektiv og st dig korrekturhjelp. En stor takk til informantene
som har bidratt til a gj re prosjektet mulig. Takk ogsa til venninne og kollega Angela
Buchholz for en hyggelig tid i kontorfellesskap. Hun har v rt en n diskusjonspartner og
det var utrolig godt a ha Angela i ryggen pa oppl pssiden. Tusen takk! Takk gar ogsa til
de mange som ikke er nevnt ved navn, men som har gitt meg rad, hjelp og inspirasjon.
Og til slutt, en takk til kj resten min Morten for all god st tte under arbeidet med
denne avhandlingen og ogsa for a ha minnet meg pa at det nnes viktigere ting i livet
enn arbeid og doktorgradsavhandlinger { og for at han er den han er. Du er den beste!
Na er jeg endelig ferdig!
Mannheim, Dezember 2007-12-15
Jennifer NicolaiContents
List of Figures VII
List of Tables IX
Zusammenfassung XIII
Abstract XVII
1. Introduction 1
2. Theory 5
2.1. Etiology of Alcohol Dependence { Risk factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2. Alcohol Expectancies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2.1. The Concept and Importance of Alcohol Expectancies . . . . . . . 9
2.2.2. Experimental Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.2.3. Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.2.3.1. Initial Alcohol Consumption and Harmful Use . . . . . . 14
2.2.3.2. Alcohol Expectancies as Predictors of Treatment Out-
come in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.3. Prevention Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.3.1. The Alcohol Skills Training Program / Brief Alcohol Screening
and Intervention for College Students . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.3.2. The Risk Skills Training Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.3.3. Expectancy Challenge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.4. Assessment of Alcohol Expectancies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.5. Group Di erences in Alcohol Expectancies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.5.1. Gender Di erences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.5.2. Age Di erences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
IIIContents
2.5.3. Di erences in Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.6. The Problem of Non-Equivalent Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.7. Evaluation of Alcohol’s E ects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.8. Rationale for the Present Study and Speci c Aims . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3. Methods 43
3.1. Study Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.2. Participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.2.1. Student Sample I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.2.2. Student Sample II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
3.2.3. Clinical Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.2.4. Community Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
3.3. Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
3.3.1. Student Sample I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
3.3.2. Student Sample II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
3.3.3. Clinical Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3.3.4. Community Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
3.4. Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.4.1. Alcohol Expectancies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.4.2. Demographic Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.4.3. Assessment of Alcohol Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.4.3.1. Quantity and Frequency of Alcohol Consumption . . . . 59
3.4.3.2. Binge Drinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.5. Data Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3.5.1. Statistical Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3.5.1.1. Missing Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3.5.1.2. Sample Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3.5.1.3. Multivariate Normality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
3.5.2. Con rmatory Factor Models and Structural Equation Models . . 62
3.5.2.1. Continuous versus Categorical Analysis of Likert Data . 62
3.5.2.2. Parameter Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.5.2.3. Model Speci cation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
3.5.2.4. Identi cation of the Factor Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
3.5.2.5. Assessment of Model Fit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
IVContents
3.5.2.6. Assessment of Measurement Invariance . . . . . . . . . . 67
3.5.3. Multiple Regression Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
3.5.3.1. Modelling Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
3.5.3.2. Analysis of Frequency of Drinking . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
4. Results 75
4.1. Construct Validity: Con rmatory Factor Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
4.1.1. Competing Models of the CAEQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
4.1.2. Speci cation Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
4.1.3. Cross Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
4.2. Con rmatory Factor Analysis of the CAEQ-B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
4.3. Correlations between Subscales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
4.4. Psychometric Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
4.5. Testing Measurement Invariance of Alcohol Expectancies Across Groups 93
4.5.1. Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
4.5.2. Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
4.5.3. Binge Drinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
4.5.4. Gender x Binge Drinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
4.5.5. Levels of Alcohol Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
4.5.6. Students versus Alcohol-Dependent Inpatients . . . . . . . . . . . 123
4.6. Concurrent Validity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
4.6.1. Using Outcome Expectancies as Predictors of Quantity and Fre-
quency of Alcohol Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
4.6.1.1. Quantity of Alcohol Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
4.6.1.2. Frequency of Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.6.2. Predicting Quantity and Frequency of Alcohol Consumption by
Outcome Expectancies, Outcome Valuations, and Expectancy x
Value Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
4.6.2.1. Con rmatory Factor Analysis of Outcome Valuations . . 141
4.6.2.2. Quantity of Alcohol Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
4.6.2.3. Frequency of Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
4.6.3. Distinguishing between Students and Inpatients by Outcome Ex-
pectancies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
VContents
5. Discussion 157
5.1. Factorial Validity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
5.1.1. Competing Models of the Factorial Structure of the CAEQ . . . . 157
5.1.2. Model Modi cations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
5.1.3. Cross-Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
5.1.4. CAEQ-B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
5.1.5. Internal Consistency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
5.2. Measurement Invariance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
5.2.1. Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
5.2.2. Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
5.2.3. Drinking Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
5.2.3.1. Binge Drinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
5.2.3.2. Gender x Binge Drinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
5.2.3.3. Levels of Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
5.2.3.4. Students versus Alcohol-Dependent Inpatients . . . . . . 169
5.3. Discriminative Validity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
5.4. Concurrent Validity: Relationship of the CAEQ to Quantity and Fre-
quency of Alcohol Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
5.5. Evaluations of Alcohol’s E ects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
5.6. Continuous versus Categorical Analysis of Likert-Data . . . . . . . . . . 180
5.7. Limitations and Future Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
5.8. Summary and Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
References 187
Appendices 229
A. Tables 229
B. Assessment Instruments 233
B.1. Student Sample I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
B.2. Clinical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
C. CD-ROM 289
VIList of Figures
1. Etiology of Alcohol Dependence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2. Learning Analysis of Three Expectancies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3. Cognitive Model of Alcohol Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
VII

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