VEGETABLES IN BURKINA FASO: GROWING, MARKETS AND FUTURE

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BURKINA FASO UNIT-PROGRESS-JUSTICE -------------------------------------------- MINISTRY OF THE SECONDARY AND SUPERIOR EDUCATION --------------------------- POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF BOBO-DIOULASSO --------------------------- RURAL DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE THEME OF THE EXPOSE: VEGETABLES IN BURKINA FASO: GROWING, MARKETS AND FUTURE Presented by: MILLOGO Alphonse Maré David ZONGO Nongawendé Ella OUEDRAOGO Zangtinda Marcel SOME Arnaud Christian Sagdé SANOGO Djakalia Teacher: Miss SEDOGO Claude Anny 1 WORK PLAN v INTRODUCTION I. GROWING • Technical itinerary of the onion • Tal itinerary of the string bean • Technical itinerary of the cabbage II. CONSUMPTION AND CONSERVATION III. MARKET • National market • International market IV. THE DIFFICULTIES OF THE VEGETABLE FIELD IN BURKINA V. PERSPECTIVES v CONCLUSION 2 INTRODUCTION Burkina Faso is an agricultural country because more than 80% of its population lives of agriculture. However, it is evident from the studies that food self-sufficiency is not a reality in Burkina. That s why the government judged good to encourage the off-season cultures by integrating the market gardening in a set of program in the 2003-2004 in order to allow the peasants to satisfy the food needs of the population.
Publié le : lundi 6 janvier 2014
Lecture(s) : 190
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BURKINA FASO
UNIT-PROGRESS-JUSTICE
--------------------------------------------
MINISTRY OF THE SECONDARY AND SUPERIOR
EDUCATION
---------------------------
POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF BOBO-DIOULASSO
---------------------------
RURAL DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE


THEME OF THE EXPOSE:

VEGETABLES IN BURKINA
FASO: GROWING, MARKETS

AND FUTURE


Presented by:
MILLOGO Alphonse Maré David
ZONGO Nongawendé Ella
OUEDRAOGO Zangtinda Marcel
SOME Arnaud Christian Sagdé
SANOGO Djakalia


Teacher: Miss SEDOGO Claude Anny

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WORK PLAN

v INTRODUCTION

I. GROWING


• Technical itinerary of the onion
• Tal itinerary of the string bean
• Technical itinerary of the cabbage

II. CONSUMPTION AND CONSERVATION

III. MARKET

• National market
• International market


IV. THE DIFFICULTIES OF THE VEGETABLE FIELD IN BURKINA


V. PERSPECTIVES


v CONCLUSION



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INTRODUCTION
Burkina Faso is an agricultural country because more than 80% of its population
lives of agriculture. However, it is evident from the studies that food self-sufficiency is not a
reality in Burkina. That s why the government judged good to encourage the off-season
cultures by integrating the market gardening in a set of program in the 2003-2004 in order
to allow the peasants to satisfy the food needs of the population.
The term vegetable is attested in French since 1531 according to the historic Robert
Dictionary, and comes from the Latin Legumen = plant to pod. Feminine to its origin, it first
designated formerly the seeds of legumes and cereals, the basis of the plant food. In the
current language, the word vegetable designates the edible part of an herbaceous plant. In
botany, it designates the fruit of the legumes that means the pod. Vegetables can be
classified in function of their edible parts:
§ Bulb vegetables: onion, garlic.
§ Fruit vegetables: avocados, cucumbers, eggplants, okra, pepper, tomatoes.
§ Inflorescent vegetables: Sorrel, cauliflower.
§ Leaf vegetables: cabbage, lettuce, spinach.
§ Root vegetables: carrots, beets, radishes.
§ Stalk vegetables: celery, bamboo.
§ Tuber vegetables: Cassava, potato, sweet potato, taro, yam.
In Burkina Faso the vegetables play a very important role on the nutritional, commercial
plan. The most current speculations are: cabbage, onion, string bean, tomato, potato,
lettuce, cucumber, eggplant.
Leaving from the diversity of the vegetables met in Burkina, we will take some of them all
along our exposition as a basis.
Thus, we will first study the production of these different speculations of vegetables, then
we will treat their situation on the markets and finally we will end up the assessment of
their perspectives.





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I. GROWING
The domestic production of vegetables in the vegetable gardens is traditionally important
in the farming regions but it lost a lot of importance with the progression of the
urbanization.
The professional production or shopkeeper s production is generally however the fact of
specialized producers, the market gardeners. Some vegetables give place to an important
production of full field in the setting of the classic agriculture.
A long time, the market gardening developed itself close by immediate of the cities and
their markets, exploiting the humid funds of valley close to the agglomerations.
In Burkina Faso, the major part of the vegetables has a technical itinerary of active
production, from the nursery to the harvest while passing by the plantation and the
treatments. The major part of the vegetables has a cycle of active development of 60 to 90
days.

• Technical itinerary of the onion
The onions require, to grow, a rich and humid soil, but are little sensitive to the
temperature. One cultivates them from seeds, and others from little bulb, that is often dried
before being marketed.

The culture of the onion passes by a nursery that lasts to a minimum 30 days. The
onion develops itself well during the cool period (November-February). Before the planting-
out, an organic manure contribution in abundance and decomposed well (35 to 40 tons /
hectare) and of mineral manure (250Kg/hectare of NPK and 250Kg/hectare of urea) is
necessary for one poor soil. The application of the mineral manure after planting-out
includes a lot of risks. Some don't apply the urea because it has effect on the bulbs. The
urea is used at the beginning of the formation of the bulbs (25th to 30th days after
planting-out). The clayed-sandy soils are the best for the
culture of the onion. The seedling is made in continuous
lines separated of 10 centimeters and non-staggered that
causes problems for the treatment.
It is recommended to make irrigation by watering in
order to eliminate the devastating of onions (thrips).
In the culture of onion, the aimed objective can be

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to get the bunion-leaves or bunion-bulbs. The bunion-leaves are gotten from little bulb and
the bunion-bulbs from seeds.
The cycle of development of onion is from 110 to 120 days. In Burkina Faso, onion is
produced in the zone of Faramana, Bam, Sanguié and Boulgou.
Output: 45 tons / hectare


• Technical itinerary of the string bean
The string bean has a cycle of development of 45 days (short cycle). Its culture is made in
direct seedling on lines separated of about 60 centimeters, in seed-whole with one spacing
of 40 centimeters, and for every seed-whole a maximum of two seeds is required. It is not
recommended to bring the organic manure. However it is possible to bring the NPK during
the preparation of soil (150 Kg to the hectare, 15 days after the seedling). Also one can
bring the urea during the formation of pods (about 40 days after seedling). A bad
application of urea can destroy the plant however.
For a good harvest it is recommended a spacing of two days between the
seedlings. The production of string bean can be done during all year round with however
the risks of attack by the white flies during the rainy season.
The string bean doesn't have a lot of pathologies, except some caterpillars during the
formation of the pods that can be destroyed by the D6.
The string bean develops well on the sandy-clayed soils. The string bean is
cultivated abundantly in the Houet, Bam, Sanmatenga, Sourou.
Output: 8-12 tons/ hectare

• Technical itinerary of the cabbage
The production of cabbage passes by a nursery (21 days). This phase is recommended
during the period October-November. The culture is made on lines of 60 centimeters, in
seed-wholes with a spacing of 40 centimeters. The cabbage requires a contribution in

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organic manure in quantity (25 to 40 tons by hectare). The NPK must
be brought during the preparation of soil. As for the urea, its
contribution takes place in two phases:
- A first fraction of 50Kg/ hectare is brought at the time of the formation
of the apple.
- The second fraction two weeks after the first contribution, 50Kg/ hectare
Cabbage is attacked by several parasites, and then the treatment is recommended
since the nursery.
The cabbage is produced in quantity in the Houet (Kuinima, Dogona, Sakabi, Kiri),
Ganzourgou and Boulgou.
Output: 30 tons / hectare


II. CONSUMPTION AND CONSERVATION
Wild vegetable constitute between 35% and 59% of the total vegetable
consumption.
The studies put in evidence a demand of the consumers for the improvement of the
traditional products. This improvement of the quality concerns hygiene, the preparation
and the availability.
The consumption of the vegetables in urban environment is varied. Besides the
products of big consumption one can mention the eggplants, the string beans, the
cabbages, etc. The consumption is rather the fact of an urban population of middle
category to comfortable. During the periods of abundance, the prices of these vegetables
lower, allowing the urban and farming popular layers to consume some in a least measure.
According to the incomes of the consumers, the interest for the dried products
varies. A clientele exists for a large range of vegetables dried, clientele to the more
elevated spending power, probably more demanding, that wishes to maintain a certain
diversity in its improvement and that searches for a speed of preparation.







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III. MARKET
After harvest, the vegetables are stocked, sorted out and routed toward the different retail
outlets. These retail outlets can be in the small markets, in the markets of fruits, etc. where
they will be resold to the final consumers. It is important to signal the places of
conservation of the cool vegetables resold then in detail to the households also. In this
specific case, the circuit taken by the vegetables is a relatively long circuit, because
requiring mediators (producers => wholesalers => retail => households).

• National market
The field of vegetables in Burkina Faso occupies about 64 000 people, it represents 12%
of the total agricultural production, 5% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and its
yearly returns reach 5 billion of CFA francs.
On the national plan, the out-flow of vegetables can be done by the mean of the
local markets (markets of the districts, supermarkets, market gardeners). We won't fail to
notify the organization of the days of vegetables inside the country (feast of the onion, of
the potato, of the yam...). The harvested vegetables are also routed in structures as the
civil and military jails, the universities, the hospitals, the hotels, the restaurants... In the
same way, the vegetables find takers by the industries and/or associations of
transformation of vegetables.
Inside of the country, the producers organize themselves in associations, unions
and cooperatives in the goal to manage the field of fruits and vegetables better. Some
examples of structures:
- Burkinabe Society of the Fruits and Vegetables (SOBFEL).
- Ranch of Koba next to the airport of Bobo
- National Union of the Producers of Fruits and Vegetables of Burkina (UNFL-B)
- APROMAB
- The Fruit producers and Market Union of Burkina (UFMB)

• International market
Varied vegetables produced in Burkina are a lot valued by many countries. Indeed,
Burkina Faso exports its vegetables with numerous of these adjacent countries to know:
- Ivory Coast: cabbage, onion, bell pepper...
- Ghana: Tomato, onion, pepper...
- Togo: Tomato, onion, pepper,

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- Mali: Onion.
Besides its neighbors, Burkina Faso exports its products toward the western countries:
Example of string bean, of potato, that are exported in France.
In spite of the increasing export of the vegetables of Burkina, the satisfaction of the
local consumption remained a challenge.


IV. THE DIFFICULTIES OF VEGETABLE FIELD IN BURKINA

Vegetable field knows a lot of difficulties that constitute a hindrance to its working
order. Among these we can distinguish:
-the difficulty of obtaining exploitable lands (due to the urbanization, the occupation of the
lands by the culture of cereals...),
- Insufficiency of organization of the actors, from where the necessity of creation of
associations and unions,
- Lack of technicality of the producers (low level of mastery of the cultural methods ),
- Slump of the fruits and vegetables
-Lack of infrastructures of conservation of the vegetables which are very perishable
commodities
- Lack of units of transformation, of infrastructures and means of transportation (roads,
trucks,...)
- Lack and elevated costs of the seeds of vegetables













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V. PERSPECTIVES
Seen the wealth nourishing of the vegetables and the contribution of the vegetable field to
the GDP of Burkina, this one proves to be promising. The government developed some
initiatives in integrated dialogue with the authors of the aforesaid field to assure its
blossoming. In the height of these initiatives we have some of the already achieved actions
that are among others:
- The rehabilitation of cold rooms, the acquirement of refrigerated trucks,
- Organization of exhibition-sale of vegetables to the scale of the country and beyond
(transform the days of fruits and vegetables in weeks of fruits and vegetables)
- Subsidies of seeds
- Construction of roads and markets of fruits and vegetables
- Formation of the actors of the vegetables field (especially the peasants)
- Don of adequate materials of production

Conscious of the necessity to bring a more for the promotion and the perfection of this
field, it is possible:
- to integrate vegetable field in the distribution of the lands
- to encourage the biological production
- to insist on the valorization of the products (especially for the export)


CONCLUSION
The fruits and vegetables field is so important for a country as Burkina Faso that it
would not be necessary to forget to plan a place for her in the development of the nation;
Indeed, in spite of the fact that it knows multiple difficulties, such as the bad state of the
roads of the markets, the lack of technicality (qualification), the weak rate of market on the
international plan, it allowed the population to survive and to take advantage of weak
market resources. A way to remedy it would be necessary therefore as early as possible to
these problems to assure a radiant future of it.

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