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Decoupling natural resource use and environmental impacts from economic growth.

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174 pages
Ce rapport préconise que le taux de croissance économique ne soit pas proportionnel au taux de consommation des ressources naturelles qui pourrait atteindre 140 milliards de tonnes d'ici à 2050, soit trois fois le niveau de ressources naturelles utilisées par an à travers le monde. Il souligne que les gisements de plusieurs ressources, comme le pétrole, le cuivre et l'or, commencent déjà à s'épuiser, avec pour conséquence une hausse des volumes de combustibles et d'eau douce nécessaires à leur extraction. D'où la plaidoirie du rapport pour une dissociation - ou découplage -, c'est-à-dire apprendre à produire plus de richesses en utilisant moins de ressources. Le rapport cite les progrès de quatre pays ayant adopté des politiques dissociant l'utilisation des ressources et leur impact sur l'environnement de la croissance économique : le Japon, l'Allemagne, l'Afrique du Sud et la Chine. Il propose trois scénarios de consommation des ressources d'ici 2050.
Nairobi. http://temis.documentation.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/document.xsp?id=Temis-0079033
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Decouplingnatural reosruecuse anD elanvonirntmeimpacts fromeconomicgrowth
Acknowledgements
Editor: International Resource Panel
Working Group on Decoupling
Lead authors: Marina Fischer-Kowalski Institute o ocial Ecolog ienna lpen-dria niersit ustria with the support o the Leensinisteriu ustria and Mark willing ustainailit Institute chool o Pulic Leadership niersit o tellenosch outh rica ontriuting authors: Ernst lrich on Weisäcker hairperson o the Decoupling Working Group ong Ren uichi Moriguchi Wend rane Fridolin Krausann ina Eisenenger tean Gilu Peter ennicke Rene Kep Pat Roero Lankao nna ella irian Manalang eastian ewerin
e Mceel proided editorial support or the ull report and suar rochure he report went through seeral rounds o peer-reiew coordinated in an eficient and constructie wa  e Mceel together with the International Resource Panel ecretariat aluale coents were receied ro seeral anonous reiewers in this process he preparation o this report also enefited ro discussions with an colleagues at arious eetings pecial thanks go to Ernst lrich on Weisäcker and shok Khosla as o-hairs o the International Resource Panel the eers o the International Resource Panel and its teering oittee or their dedication and coitent anet ale EP proided aluale input and coents the International Resource Panel’s ecretariat coordinated the preparation o this report aap an Woerden and tean chwarer o EPDEWGRID–Genea proided scientific data support in deeloping the figures he ain responsiilit or errors reains with the authors
I: ---- o uer: DIP he ull report should e reerenced as ollows: EP  Decoupling natural resource use and enironental ipacts ro econoic growth  Report o the Working Group on Decoupling to the International Resource Panel Fischer-Kowalski M willing M on Weisäcker E Ren  Moriguchi  rane W Krausann F Eisenenger  Gilu  ennicke P Roero Lankao P irian Manalang  ewerin 
opright © nited ations Enironent Prograe  his pulication a e reproduced in whole or in part and in an or or educational or nonprofit purposes without special perission ro the copright holder proided acknowledgeent o the source is ade
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oer photos ©: leg RoanciukDreastie and Don aondDesign Picsoris Disclaimer he designations eploed and the presentation o the aterial in this pulication do not ipl the epression o an opinion whatsoeer on the part o the nited ations Enironent Prograe concerning the legal statu an countr territor cit or area or o its authorities or concernin deliitation o its rontiers or oundaries Moreoer the iews epressed do not necessaril represent the decision or the statedro polic o the nited ations Enironent Prograe nor does motesUNEP p citing o trade naes or coercial processes constituteenvironmentally sound practices endorseentglobally and in its own activities This . EP prootes enironentall sound practices gloallted on FSC-c and in its own actiities his pulication is printed on F-tion  distribri-fdlenngsico e.secruO rp prin,r apepe dreit si noitacilbup certified paper using eco-riendl practices ur distriutionu polic ais to reduce EP’s caron ootprint picroelaiy  tmsPEsc raudec  NUyitcautoof nob.tniro p
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ecoupling natural resource use and environmental impacts from economic growt
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Contents
List of figures and tables 
Abbreviations and acronyms  
Units 
Preface 
Foreword 
Executive summary 
Objective and scope 
  ntroduction 1.1 Why decoupling? 1.2 Defining decoupling 1.2.1 Roots of the decoupling concept
 lobal longterm trends in te use of natural resources and in undesirable environmental impacts Note on methodology 2.1 2.2 The glol dynmics of mteil esouce use 2.2.1 onclusion 2. ssessing the dynmics of glol envionmentl impcts 2..1 ttegies to educe impcts 2..2 The nvionmentl unets uve 2.. mpiicl studies of impcts 2..4 onclusion 2.4 cenios fo futue glol mteils use 2.4.1 cenio 1 usiness s usul 2.4.2 cenio 2 odete contction nd convegence  2.4. cenio  Tough contction nd convegence  ecoupling and te need for system innovations .1 Rethining goth .2 nnovtion nd decoupling . ities s spces fo innovtion nd decoupling .4 xpeiences nd lessons fom the county cse studies .4.1 Recogniing esouce depletion nd negtive impcts .4.2 olicy esponses .4. Decoupling
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7 7 1 17 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2
   42 4 4 4 
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 ecoupling trade and development dynamics  4.1 Tde nd the distiution of esouces nd envionmentl udens 4.1.1 The dynmics of glol tde in economic monety nd physicl tems 4.1.2 The economic stuctue of glol tde 4.1. The physicl stuctue of glol tde 4.1.4 ndiect esouce flos emodied in tde 4.1. Tde decoupling nd development 4.2 Decoupling development nd ineulity 4.2.1 fic s  specil cse? 4. Decoupling nd the eound effect 4.4 ices nd esouce poductivity
 onclusions and major policy callenges .1 onclusions .2 o policy chllenges ountry case studies 
 ermany .1 Recogniing limits .2 Ntionl ttegy fo ustinle Development .  fesile vision? The ‘2 Wttcp society’ .4 The ey to sustinle enegy efficiency incese y  cto x . ntegting mteil nd enegy efficiency sttegies . Decoupling – empiicl evidence nd sttegic ctions .7 mpulse pogmme fo mteil efficiency 2–2 . Resech on integted sttegies cologicl ndustil olicy . nstitutionl context fo decoupling selected polems .1 onclusion nd outloo  out Africa 7.1 Recogniing limits 7.2 limte chnge 7. il esouces 7.4 negy 7. Wte nd snittion 7. olid ste 7.7 oils 7. iodivesity 7. olicy esponses 7..1 coeconomic policy vesus ection 24 of the onstitution 7..2 Ntionl meo fo ustinle Development 7.. oing influence of sustinility thining 7.1 Decoupling – oppotunities fo ction 7.1.1 Decoupling oppotunities 7.11 onclusion
      2 4  7 
71 71 74
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77 77 7 7  1 2  4  
7  2  4     1 1 1 11 12 12 1
ecoupling natural resource use and environmental impacts from economic growt
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 ina .1 Recogniing limits .2 olicy esponses . Tods n ‘ecologicl civilition’ .4 The cicul economy . nvionmentl economic instuments . Decoupling – evidence nd sttegic ctions .7 Decoupling tends in hin . ctions tods decoupling . ne old one dem – the een lympics .1 onclusion
 apan .1 Recogniing limits .1.1 imits of esouces – lessons lened fom oil cises .1.2 imits t the endofpipe .2 olicy esponses .2.1 Tods  sound mteil cycle society .2.2 The undmentl  nd ln . ontiution to intentionl inititives .4 pn’s sttegy fo  sustinle society . Decoupling – evidence nd innovtion ..1 olunty ctions y industies ..2 ctions y locl uthoities  ..  pnese ppoch to decoupling the Top Runne ogmme . essons fom the use of esouce poductivity indicto .7 onclusion
eferences 
About te nternational esource Panel 
oring roup on ecoupling 
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List of figures and tables
Figure To spects of ‘decoupling’ Figure lol mteil extction in illion tons 1–2 Figure tylied epesenttion of esouce decoupling nd impct decoupling Figure lol mteil extction in illion tons 1–2 Figure lol metolic tes 1–2 nd income Figure oss Domestic oduction nd Domestic teil onsumption in D counties 1–2 Figure omposite esouce pice index t constnt pices 1–2 Figure ommodity pice indices Figure The glol inteeltion eteen esouce use nd income 17 counties in the ye 2 Figure vege metolic tes esouce use in tonscpit y development sttus nd popultion density Figure nvionmentl is tnsition fmeo Figure lol goth of ceels poduction nd fetilie consumption Figure Wold conventionl oil discoveies nd poduction Figure of industil minels nd oes 1 nd 2lol extction y type of county Figure e gdes of mines in ustli 14–2 Figure e gdes of gold mines 1–21 Figure e gdes of nicel nd coppe mines 1–21 Figure Resouce use ccoding to thee diffeent scenios up to 2 Figure The diffeent guises of development Figure Resouce poductivity lou poductivity nd enegy poductivity in 1  Figure ice dynmics of ges mteils nd electicity Figure onceptul model of innovtions Figure ystem innovtion Figure The eltion eteen unition level  nd oss Ntionl ncome N Figure omposition of expots in monety units y old egions 2 Figure R mteil extction nd tde y county type Figure hysicl nd monety tde lnces of thee county types 12 to 2 Figure hysicl tde lnces ye 2 Figure itul te tde lnces nd flos of gicultul poducts 17–21 Figure teil intensity of the old economy Domestic extction of mteils pe unit of D y old egion Figure cofiendly spending totl mount nd pecentge of totl fiscl stimulus pcge Figure 2emissions fom fossil fuel consumption Figure Resouce poductivity nd D goth Figure tuctue of the poect Ress Figure Rel D goth 1–24
xiii xiv 11 12 12 1 1
14
17 1 21 22 2 2 24 24  4 7 7  4
4 7    1 4  7 2  
ecoupling natural resource use and environmental impacts from economic growt
vi
Figure nd employment chnge 1–24 nongicultul sectosD   Figure  inl consumption expenditue y households Figure ecentge of household sving nd det 17–2  Figure Domestic extction 1 Figure teil efficiency 1–2 1 Figure imy mteil expots 1–2 2 Figure  7olid ste disposl in millions of tons in pe Ton 22–227 Figure  1The pocess of economic development in hin since 17 Figure cenios fo economic goth nd its pessues on envionment nd esouces 111 Figure Thee stges of economic goth nd pessues on envionment nd esouces 112 Figure Tends of enegy D nd popultion nd the decoupling index of pimy enegy consumption to D goth 11 Figure Tends of fesh te consumption D nd popultion  nd the decoupling index of fesh te consumption to D goth 11 FigureTends of industil ste te nd solid ste dischge nd D  nd the decoupling index of industil ste te nd solid ste dischge to D 114 Figure Tends of D dischge 2emission nd D nd the decoupling index of 2emission nd D dischge to D 114 Figure cheme of  sound mteil cycle society  122 Figure Tends of mteil flo indictos 12 Figure  124egisltive fmeo fo sound mteil cycle policy Figure meo of pn’s sttegy fo  sustinle society 12 Figure  12Wste mngement effots in hiushi ity
able etolic scles nd tes ovevie of scenio nlysis able omptive con emissions 24 able st nd poected consumption of tnspottion fuels million litesye able negy intensities able te consumption 1 nd poected te demnd 2istoicl y secto able ey thets to outh fic’s ecosystems able Top Runne ogmme chievements
1 
4    127
vii
Abbreviations and acronyms
 A AA AU  U ap E   P  OO E EEA      ELA EFA EA  EU
EU
F   P P  LE  EP P  P LA  LE L EP  FA LP    F  PF  
Reduce euse nd ecycle nnum cceleted nd hed oth nititive fo outh fic usiness s usul emn inisty fo the nvionment Ntue onsevtion nd Nucle fety pit hin ouncil fo ntentionl oopetion on nvionment nd Development on cptue nd stoge omined et oe on Dioxide hemicl xygen Demnd Domestic xtction Deutsche teileffiiengentu emn teil fficiency gency Decoupling ndex Domestic teil onsumption Diect teil nput N conomic ommission fo tin meic nd the ien ffiiengentu fficiency gency of Noth RhineWestfli nvionmentl mpct ssessment usti elgium Denm inlnd nce emny eece elnd tly uxemoug the Nethelnds otugl pin eden nd the nited ingdom usti elgium ulgi ypus ech Repulic Denm stoni inlnd nce emny eece ungy elnd tly tvi ithuni uxemoug lt Nethelnds olnd otugl Romni lovi loveni pin eden nd the nited ingdom luegs desulphuition oup of ight oss Domestic oduct enuine ogess ndicto ntentionl ouncil fo ocl nvionmentl nititives ntegted negy nd limte ogmme ntegovenmentl nel on limte hnge ntentionl Resouce nel ife cycle ssessment ocl conomic Development ong Tem itigtion cenio inimum fficiency efomnce tndds teil flo ccounting ultilevel pespective unicipl solid ste onety tde lnce Ntionl meo fo ustinle Development Nely ndustilied ounties ndustil olicy meo Ntionl
ecoupling natural resource use and environmental impacts from economic growt
viii
O x  OE P E  EPA  E  O O  O x E E PE PE  U U UE  UEP UF U O r
ononitogen oxides N nd N2 Ntionl ttegy fo ustinle Development gnistion fo conomic oopetion nd Development hysicl tde lnce emn ouncil fo ustinle Development tte nvionmentl otection dministtion no the inisty fo nvionmentl otection ound teil ycle ociety mll to medium sied entepise ulfu dioxide ustinility iented nnovtion ystem ulfu oxides pecil Repot on missions cenios Ton of col euivlent Totl imy negy Reuiement Totl imy negy upply nited ingdoms ustinle Development ommission nited Ntions nited Ntions onfeence on nvionment nd Development nited Ntions nvionment ogmme nited Ntions meo onvention on limte hnge nited ttes Wold Tde gnition e
Units
g g g g  t t       m
gms ilogms 1gms meggms 1gms tegms 1gms ton 1gms megton 1tons gigton 1tons oules tts s gigoules 1oules megtt 1tts cuic mete 1lites gig cuic metes 1cuic metes