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UNEP - Global trends in renewable energy investment 2011. Analysis of trends and issues in the financing of renewable energy. : REN21_2011

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116 pages
Ces rapports jumelés lancés par le PNUE et REN21 fournissent des informations détaillées sur les tendances relatives au secteur de l'énergie verte dans le monde et identifient les sources ayant bénéficié de l'intérêt le plus soutenu, tant de la part des investisseurs que des gouvernements, dans les différentes régions du monde.
Le rapport du PNUE se concentre plus particulièrement sur les tendances mondiales en matière d'investissements dans l'énergie durable, couvrant aussi bien le secteur des énergies renouvelables que celui de l'efficacité énergétique.
Le rapport du REN21 propose un aperçu sur la situation des énergies renouvelables à travers le monde, couvrant la génération d'électricité, la production de chaleur et de froid ainsi que les carburants pour le transport. Il décrit le panorama des politiques et des objectifs introduits partout dans le monde pour promouvoir les énergies renouvelables.
Nairobi, Paris. http://temis.documentation.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/document.xsp?id=Temis-0067908
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RnwblS 2011 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT
Rn21 STRIn G COMMITT
Sultan Ahmed Al Jaber Ministry of Foreign Affairs United Arab Emirates Adnan Z. Amin International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) Corrado Clini Ministry for the Environment and Territory Italy Robert Dixon Climate and Chemicals Team Global Environment Facility Michael Eckhart Citigroup, Inc. United States of America Mohamed El-Ashry United Nations Foundation Saliem Fakir World Wide Fund for Nature South Africa Deepak Gupta Ministry of New and Renewable Energy India Amal Haddouche Ministry of Energy, Mines, Water and Environment Morocco David Hales College of the Atlantic United States of America
Kirsty Hamilton Chatham House United Kingdom St. John Hoskyns Department of Energy & Climate Change United Kingdom Didier Houssin Directorate of Energy Markets and Security International Energy Agency Tetsunari Iida Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies Japan
Øivind Johansen Ministry of Petroleum and Energy Norway
Mahama Kappiah ECOWAS Regional Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Eficiency (ECREEE) Cape Verde Manfred Konukiewitz Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development Germany Hans-Jorgen Koch Danish Energy Agency Ministry of Climate and Energy Denmark
Emani Kumar ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability, South Asia Ofice André Correa do Lago Ministry of External Relations Brazil Junfeng Li National Development and Reform Commission, Energy Research Institute/ Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association China
Bindu Lohani Asian Development Bank Ernesto Macìas Galàn Alliance for Rural Electriication Pradeep Monga Energy and Climate Change Branch United Nations Industrial Development Organization Paul Mubiru Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development Uganda
Nebojsa Nakicenovic International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis Austria
Kadri Nassiep National Energy Research Institute South Africa Rajendra Pachauri The Energy and Resources Institute India
Wolfgang Palz World Council for Renewable Energy Mark Radka Division of Technology, Industry and Economics United Nations Environment Programme
Peter Rae International Renewable Energy Alliance Athena Ronquillo Ballesteros World Resources Institute/ Green Independent Power Producers Network Steve Sawyer Global Wind Energy Council Maria Sicilia Salvadores Iberdrola Spain Grifin Thompson Department of State United States of America Ibrahim Togola Mali Folkecenter/ Citizens United for Renewable Energy and Sustainability Piotr Tulej DG Climate Action European Commission Veerle Vandeweerd Energy and Environment Group United Nations Development Programme Arthouros Zervos European Renewable Energy Council
Disclaimer: the importance of renewable energy and to generateREN21 issue papers and reports are released by REN21 to emphasize discussion of issues central to the promotion of renewable energy. While REN21 papers and reports have beneited from the considerations and input from the REN21 community, they do not necessarily represent a consensus among network participants on any given point. Although the information given in this report is the best available to the authors at the time, REN21 and its participants cannot be held liable for its accuracy and correctness.
Renewable eneRgy Policy netwoRk foR the 21stcentuRy  
REN21 convenes international multi-stakeholder leadership to enable a rapid global transition to renewable energy. It promotes appropriate policies that increase the wise use of renewable energies in developing and industrialized economies. Open to a wide variety of dedicated stakeholders, REN21 connects governments, international institutions, nongovernmental organizations, industry associations, and other partnerships and initiatives. REN21 leverages their successes and strengthens their inluence for the rapid expansion of renewable energy worldwide.
www.ren21.net
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Tbl Of COnT nTS Foreword. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Executive Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Selected Indicators and Top Five Countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .  15 01  Global Market Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Power Generation Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Heating and Cooling Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Transport Fuel Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 02 Investment Flows. . . . . . . . . . . 34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 Industry Trends. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 04 Policy Landscape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Policy Targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Power Generation Policies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Green Energy Purchasing and Labeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Heating and Cooling Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Transport Policies .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
City and Local Government Policies .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 05 Rural Renewable Energy. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  64
Reference Tables .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Note on Accounting and Reporting of Installed Capacities .. . . . . . . . 93
Note on Further Information and Sources of Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Endnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
List of Abbreviations / Impressum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Report Citation REN21. 2011.Renewables 2011 Global Status Report (Paris: REN21 Secretariat).
 
T b l  S
Table 1 of Renewable Energy Technologies: Status  Characteristics and Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Table 2 Energy Support Renewable  Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Table 3 Transition to Renewable Energy in Rural  (Off-Grid) Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
 
f I G u R  S
Figure 1Renewable Energy Share of Global Final  Energy Consumption, 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Figure 2 Average Annual Growth Rates of  Renewable Energy Capacity and Biofuels  Production, 2005–2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Figure 3 Renewable Energy Share of Global  Electricity Production, 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Figure 4 Power Capacities, Renewable  Developing World, EU, and Top Five  Countries, 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Figure 5 Wind Power, Existing World Capacity,  1996–2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Figure 6 Power Capacity, Wind  Top 10 Countries, 2010 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Figure 7 Solar PV, Existing World Capacity,  1995–2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Figure 8 Solar PV Capacity, Top 10 Countries,  2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Figure 9 Solar Heating Added Capacity,  Top 12 Countries, 2009 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Figure 10 Solar Heating Existing Capacity,  Top 12 Countries, 2009 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Figure 11 Ethanol and Biodiesel Production,  2000–2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Figure 12 Global New Investment in Renewable  Energy, 2004–2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Figure 13 Market Shares of Top 10 Wind Turbine  Manufacturers, 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Figure 14 Market Shares of Top 15 Solar PV  Manufacturers, 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Figure 15 EU Renewable Shares of Final Energy,  2005 and 2009, with Targets for 2020 . . . . 50
 S I D  b  R S Sidebar 1 Ocean Energy Technology and  Commercialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Sidebar 2 Trends in Early 2011 .. . . . . . . 37 Investment Sidebar 3 Spotlight: Rare-Earth Sustainability  Minerals and PV Recycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Sidebar 4 Jobs in Renewable Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Sidebar 5 Special Report on Renewable IPCC  Energy Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Sidebar 6 Is a Feed-in Tariff What. . . . . . . 56 . . . . . . . .  ? . Sidebar 7 Grid Integration and Complementary  Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Sidebar 8 Africa: Lessons in Market Lighting  and Technology Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
 
R  f  R  n C  T b l  S
Table R1 Renewable Energy Added and Existing  Capacities, 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Table R2 and Existing Wind Power, Added  Top 10 Countries, 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Table R3 PV Additions and Existing Solar  Capacity, 2006–2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Table R4 Renewable Electric Power Capacity,  Existing as of 2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Table R5 Hot Water Installed Capacity, Solar  Top 12 Countries/EU and World Total,  2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Table R6 Biofuels Production, Top 15 Countries  and EU Total, 2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Table R7 Share of Primary and Final Energy  from Renewables, Existing in  2008/2009 and Targets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Table R8 of Electricity from Renewables, Share  Existing in 2009, and Targets . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Table R9 Renewable Energy  OtherTargets. . . . . . . . 81 Table R10 Cumulative Number of Countries/  States/Provinces Enacting Feed-in  Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Table R11 Number of Countries/ Cumulative  States/Provinces Enacting RPS/  Quota Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Table R12 Biofuels Blending Mandates .. . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Table R13 and Local Renewable Energy City  Policies: Selected Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
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Th Rn21 RnwblS GlO bl STTu S RPORT nD R nwblS InTR CTIV MP
REN21 was established in 2005 to convene international leadership and a variety of stakeholders to enable a rapid global transition to renewable energy. REN21’s Renewables Global Status Report (GSR)was irst released later that year; it grew out of an effort to comprehensively capture, for the irst time, the full status of renewable energy worldwide. The report also aimed to align perceptions with the reality that renewables were playing a growing role in mainstream energy markets and in economic development.
Over the years, the GSR has expanded in scope and depth, in parallel with tre-mendous advances in renewable energy markets and industries. The report has become a major production that involves the amalgamation of thousands of data points, hundreds of reports and other documents, and personal communications with experts from around the world. Initially researched and written in its entire-ty by Eric Martinot, with input from many international contributors, the report has become a true collaborative effort among several authors, REN21 Secretariat staff and Steering Committee members, regional research partners, and more than 100 individual contributors and reviewers.
The increasing need to optimize the process of GSR data collection led to the launch in 2010 of REN21’sRenewables Interactive Map. Today, it is a stream-lined tool for gathering and sharing information online about developments related to renewable energy. With interactive features that allow access to regularly updated policy and market overviews by country, region, technology, and sector, the map makes relevant information more accessible and dynamic. It also offers GSR researchers and readers the possibility to contribute on an ongoing basis while connecting with the broader renewable energy community. The Renewables Interactive Map can be found atwww.map.ren21.net.
FOREWORD
Since the lastRenewables Global Status Reportwas released one year ago, the world has seen many signii-cant developments that have had an impact – both direct and indirect – on renewable energy. The global economic recession entered a new phase in 2010, marked by massive public inance crises – felt most acutely in Europe – that led several governments to announce incentive cuts for solar energy. Natural gas prices remained low due to advances in technology for extracting gas from shale rock, temporarily reducing the competitiveness of renewable energy. At the same time, worldwide developments have highlighted the security, economic, and human costs of relying so heavily on fossil and nuclear energy. The three-month long BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico caused extensive damage and continues to affect the economy and welfare of people in the region. The “Arab Spring” of popular unrest has triggered oil-price volatility and added instability to energy markets, while at the same time the global demand for oil is outpacing the capacity for production. And Japan’s Fukushima nuclear catastro-phe has led many countries to rethink the role of nuclear energy in providing low-carbon electricity. Average global surface temperatures in 2010 tied those in 2005 as the warmest on record. Despite the economic recession, greenhouse gas emissions increased more than ever before during 2010, making the international goal to limit the rise in global temperatures to 2 C above preindustrial levels even harder to reach. A positive constant amid this turbulence has been the global performance of renewable energy. Renewable sources have grown to supply an estimated 16% of global inal energy consumption in 2010. By year’s end, renew-ables comprised one-quarter of global power capacity from all sources and delivered close to one-ifth of the world’s power supply. Most technologies held their own, despite the challenges faced, while solar PV surged with more than twice the capacity installed as the year before. No technology has beneited more than solar from the dramatic drop in costs.
Despite the recession, total global investment in renew-able energy broke a new record in 2010. Investment in renewable power and fuels reached $ 211 billion, up 32% from $ 160 billion the previous year. As shown in the recently released UNEP reportGlobal Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2011, the GSR’s companion publication, developing country investments in renew-able energy companies and utility-scale generation and biofuel projects exceeded those of developed countries, with China attracting more than a third of the global total.
Beyond China and the other big economies of India and Brazil, major developments were seen elsewhere in the developing world in terms of policies, investments, mar-ket trends, and manufacturing. Of the 118 countries that now have renewable energy policy targets or support policies, at least half of them are in the developing world. The increased activity in developing countries is a highlight of this year’s report. It is an encouraging trend, since most of the future growth in energy demand is expected to occur in developing countries. Further, the spread of renewables to more regions and countries helps more of the world' s people gain access to energy services not only to meet their basic needs, but also to enable them to develop economically. Today, more people than ever before derive energy from renewables as capacity continues to grow, prices continue to fall, and shares of global energy from renewable energy continue to increase. This year’s Renewables Global Status Reportagain has brought all the data together to provide a clear picture of the global momentum. On behalf of the REN21 Steering Committee, I would like to thank all those who have contributed to the successful production of theRenewables 2011 Global Status Report. These include lead author/research director Janet L. Sawin, author and expert advisor Eric Martinot, project manager Rana Adib and the team at the REN21 Secretariat headed by Virginia Sonntag-O’Brien, as well as the growing network of authors, researchers, contrib-utors, and reviewers who participate in the GSR process. Special thanks go to the German and Indian governments for their inancial support, and to the Deutsche Gesell-schaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit and the United Nations Environment Programme, hosts of the REN21 Secretariat, for their administrative support. We hope you will ind this year’s report more compre-hensive and inspiring than ever, and we look forward to receiving your feedback.
Chairman of REN21
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This report was commissioned by REN21 and produced in collaboration with a global network of research partners. Financing was provided by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Protection and Nuclear Safety (BMU), the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, and the Asian Development Bank. A large share of the research for this report was conducted on a voluntary basis.
Researc Drecr a lea r Janet L. Sawin (Sunna Research and Worldwatch Institute)
Researc Drecrlea r ers Eric Martinot (Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies and Worldwatch Institute)
Sec rs Douglas Barnes Eric Martinot Angus McCrone (Bloomberg New Energy Finance) Jodie Roussell Janet L. Sawin Ralph Sims (Massey University) Virginia Sonntag-O‘Brien (REN21 Secretariat)
Rn21 Prec Maaee Rana Adib (REN21 Secretariat)
Rn21 Researc Sr a Seear rs Jonathan Skeen, Evan Musolino, Rana Adib, Lily Riahi (REN21 Secretariat)  
 Des a la Lisa Mastny, editor (Worldwatch Institute) weeks.de Werbeagentur GmbH, design
Prc REN21 Secretariat and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH
nlea Cr a Rea Researcers Africa, Sub-Saharan:Mark Hankins (African Solar Designs); Saiatou Alzouma Nouhou (IRENA) Africa, West:Bah Saho and Martin Lugmayr (ECOWAS Regional Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Eficiency); Ibrahim Sani (Ministry of Mines and Energy, Niger); K. A. Otu-Danquah (Energy Commission, Ghana) Australia:Mark Diesendorf (University of New South Wales) Brazil:Renata Grisoli and Suani T. Coelho (Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass, CENBIO) Canada:José Etcheverry (York University) China:Junfeng Li and Ma Lingjuan (Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association) Egypt:Maged Mahmoud (Regional Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Eficiency – RCREEE, Egypt) Europe, Eastern:Kerstin Schilcher and Eva Lacher (Austrian Energy Agency, enerCEE); Lili Ilieva Europe, Western:Lukas Hermwille, Jan Burck, Tatjana Regh, and Hanna Schmole (Germanwatch); Thomas Nieder (ZSW) Italy:Francesco Francisci and Daniele Guidi (Ecosoluzioni) Indonesia:Chayun Budiono (Chazaro Gerbang International); Martha Maulidia India:Tobias Engelmeier, Ali Adil, and Ashok Thanikonda (Bridge to India) Korea:Kwanghee Yeom (Friends of the Earth Korea and Freie Universität Berlin); Sanghoon Lee (Energyvision) Latin America and Caribbean:Gonzalo Bravo (Bariloche Foundation, Argentina) Mexico:Odón de Buen Rodriguez (Energía, Tecnología y Educación) MENA region:Ashraf Kraidy (RCREEE, Egypt); Mustapha Taoumi (IRENA) Palestine:Basel Yaseen (Palestinian Energy and Environment Research Center) Philippines:Rafael Senga (WWF); Amalie Obusan (Greenpeace Philippines) Portugal:Luísa Silvério and Lara Ferreira (DGEG/DSACIA) Russia:Lili Ilieva South Africa:Amanda Luxande (REEEP) South Asia:Govind Pokharel (SNV Netherlands Development Organization); Benjamin Sovacool Spain:Miquel Muñoz (Boston University); Josep Puig (ECOSERVEIS); Hugo Lucas (IRENA) Thailand:Chris Greacen (Palang Thai) Tunisia:Ulrich Laumanns (GIZ) Turkey:Yasemin Biro (World Bank) United Kingdom:Miguel Mendonca United States:Janet L. Sawin; Matthias Kimmel and Will Bierbower (Worldwatch Institute)
nLead Topical Researchers Bioenergy:Rana Adib (REN21 Secretariat); Dunja Hoffmann (GIZ); Rita Ramanauskaite (European Biogas Association) Cities:Eric Martinot (Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies); Monika Zimmermann (ICLEI World Secretariat); Maryke Van Staden (ICLEI Europe) Concentrating solar thermal power:Frederick Morse (Morse Associates); Kurt Klunder (Klunder Consulting) Feed-in tariffs:Miguel Mendonca; Davis Jacobs (IFOK) Geothermal energy:John Lund (Oregon Institute of Technology); Ruggero Bertani (ENEL Green Power) Grid integration:Carlos Gasco (IEA); Eric Martinot Green energy pricing:Lori Bird (NREL) Hydropower:Lau Saili (International Hydropower Association); Munof von Rudloff (Canadian Hydropower Association) Industry:Jodie Roussell Investment lows:Virginia Sonntag-O’Brien (REN21 Secretariat); Angus McCrone (Bloomberg New Energy Finance) Jobs:Sven Teske (Greenpeace International) Policy:Ada Marmion (IEA) Policy targets:Janet L. Sawin; Jonathan Skeen and Evan Musolino (REN21 Secretariat)
Rural renewable energy:Douglas Barnes; Simon Rolland (Alliance for Rural Electriication) Solar heating:Werner Weiss (AEE INTEC - Arbeits gemeinschaft Erneuerbare Energie)
Solar PV:Denis Lenardic (pvresources.com); Gaëtan Masson (European PV Industry Association) Wind power:Birger Madsen (BTM Consult/Navigant); Shi Pengfei (Chinese Wind Energy Association); Andrew Kruse (Southwest Windpower)
nOther Contributors, Researchers, and  Reviewers Rafee Alhallak (National Energy Research Centre, Syria); Fabiani Appavou (REN21 Secretariat); Marlon Arraes (Brazilian Ministry of Mines and Energy); Ana Bachurova (GIZ); Richard Bain (NREL); Sabin Basnyat (International Finance Corporation); Morgan Bazilian (UNIDO); Amel Bida (RCREEE); Georg Bonsiepe (Büro Hans-Josef Fell MdB); Cao Boqian (CWEA); Milena Breisinger (Inter-American Development Bank); Uli Brunner (KfW); Kanika Chawla (REN21 Secretariat); Helena Chum (NREL); Ester del Monte (OLELA); Nikhil Desai; Bärbel Epp (Solrico); Karin Ericsson (Lund University); Matthias Fawer (Sarasin Bank); Lisa Feldmann (GIZ); Solomone Fiita (Secretariat of the Paciic Regional Environment Programme); Árni Finnsson (Icelandic Nature Conservation Association); Lisa Frantzis (Navigant); Rachel Gelman (NREL); Stefan Gsänger (World Wind Energy Association); Vashti Guyadeen (Ministry of Energy, Trinidad and Tobago); Andreas Häberle (PSE AG); Robert Heine (GIZ); Amy Heinemann (North Carolina Solar Center); Issao Hirata (Brazilian Ministry of Mines and Energy); St. John Hoskyns (UK Department of Energy and Climate Change); Lian Jiang (Himin Solar); Oivind Johansen (Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, Norway); Thomas B. Johansson (Lund University); Mahama Kappiah (ECREEE); Claus Keller (F.O. Licht); Doug Koplow (Earth Track); Diana Kraft (GIZ); Amit Kumar (TERI); Arun Kumar (Indian Institute of Technology); Ole Langniss (Fichtner); Philippe Lempp (GIZ and German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development); Diane Lescot (Observ’ER); Christine Lins (EREC); Carlos Alberto Fernandez Lopez (IDAE); Ludger Lorych (RCREEE); Abraham Louw (Bloomberg New Energy Finance); Fred Marree (SNV Netherlands Development Organization); Hironao Matsubara (ISEP); Jasmin Metzler (UNEP); Lars J. Nilsson (Lund University); Matt Nocella (National Hydropower Association); Alexander Ochs (Worldwatch Institute); Mika Ohbayashi (IRENA); Martina Otto (UNEP); Alexandra Parvulescu (REN21 Secretariat); Vishal Persad (Ministry of Energy, Trinidad and Tobago); Magdolna Prantner (Wuppertal Institute); Tim Raabe (GIZ); Árni Ragnarsson (ISOR); Bernhard Raninger (GIZ); Robert Rapier (CTO, Merica International); Peter Rechberger (AEBIOM); Kilian Reiche (iiDevelopment GmbH); Wilson Rickerson (Meister Consultants Group); Denish Samanta (Waterhealth International); Steve Sawyer (Global Wind Energy Council); Tormod Schei (Statkraft AS); Martin Schöpe (BMU); Maria Sicilia (Iberdrola); Djaheezah Subratty (UNEP); Paul Suding (GIZ/IADB); Vicky C.L. Tan (Asian Development Bank); Jun Tian (Asian Development Bank); Frederic Tuille (Observ’ER); Björn Verse (REN21 Secretariat); Salvatore Vinci (IRENA); Arthur Wellinger (EBA); Christine Wörlen (Arepo Consult); Dimitrios Zevgolis (Global Environment Facility); Aiming Zhou (ADB), and others not listed who shared speciic available data.
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