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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Canada, by J. G. BourinotThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.netTitle: CanadaAuthor: J. G. BourinotRelease Date: September 10, 2007 [EBook #22557]Language: English*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK CANADA ***Produced by Al HainesTHE HON. W. L. MACKENZIE KING, PRIME MINISTER OF CANADATHE HON. W. L. MACKENZIE KING,PRIME MINISTER OF CANADACANADABy SIR J. G. BOURINOTK.C.M.G., LL.D., LIT.D.SOMETIME CLERK OF THE CANADIAN HOUSE OF COMMONS;HONORARY SECRETARY OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA;DOCTEUR-ÈS-LETTRES OF LAVAL UNIVERSITY;HONORARY MEMBER OF THE AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETYNEW AND REVISED EDITION, WITH ADDITIONAL CHAPTERBY WILLIAM H. INGRAM, B.A.T. FISHER UNWIN LTDLONDON: ADELPHI TERRACEFirst Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1897Second Impression . . . . . . . . . . . 1901Second Edition (Third Impression) . . . 1908Third Edition (Fourth Impression) . . . 1922Copyright by T. Fisher Unwin, 1897(for Great Britain)Copyright by G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1897(For the United States of America).[Transcriber's note: Page numbers in this book are indicated by numbers enclosed in curly braces, e.g. {99}. They have been located where page breaks occurred in theoriginal book, in accordance with Project Gutenberg's ...
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Canada, by J. G. Bourinot This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: Canada Author: J. G. Bourinot Release Date: September 10, 2007 [EBook #22557] Language: English *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK CANADA *** Produced by Al Haines THE HON. W. L. MACKENZIE KING, PRIME MINISTER OF CANADA THE HON. W. L. MACKENZIE KING, PRIME MINISTER OF CANADA CANADA By SIR J. G. BOURINOT K.C.M.G., LL.D., LIT.D. SOMETIME CLERK OF THE CANADIAN HOUSE OF COMMONS; HONORARY SECRETARY OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA; DOCTEUR-ÈS-LETTRES OF LAVAL UNIVERSITY; HONORARY MEMBER OF THE AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY NEW AND REVISED EDITION, WITH ADDITIONAL CHAPTER BY WILLIAM H. INGRAM, B.A. T. FISHER UNWIN LTD LONDON: ADELPHI TERRACE First Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1897 Second Impression . . . . . . . . . . . 1901 Second Edition (Third Impression) . . . 1908 Third Edition (Fourth Impression) . . . 1922 Copyright by T. Fisher Unwin, 1897 (for Great Britain) Copyright by G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1897 (For the United States of America). [Transcriber's note: Page numbers in this book are indicated by numbers enclosed in curly braces, e.g. {99}. They have been located where page breaks occurred in the original book, in accordance with Project Gutenberg's FAQ-V-99. For its Index, a page number has been placed only at the start of that section. In the HTML version of this book, page numbers are placed in the left margin.] I DEDICATE THIS STORY OF CANADA BY PERMISSION TO HER EXCELLENCY THE COUNTESS OF ABERDEEN WHO HAS WON THE ESTEEM AND AFFECTION OF ALL CLASSES OF THE CANADIAN PEOPLE BY THE EARNESTNESS WITH WHICH SHE HAS IDENTIFIED HERSELF WITH EVERY MOVEMENT AFFECTING THE SOCIAL AND INTELLECTUAL PROGRESS OF THE NEW DOMINION PREFATORY NOTE In writing this story of Canada I have not been able to do more, within the limited space at my command, than briefly review those events which have exercised the most influence on the national development of the Dominion of Canada from the memorable days bold French adventurers made their first attempts at settlement on the banks of the beautiful basin of the Annapolis, and on the picturesque heights of Quebec, down to the establishment of a Confederation which extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. Whilst the narrative of the French régime, with its many dramatic episodes, necessarily occupies a large part of this story, I have not allowed myself to forget the importance that must be attached to the development of institutions of government and their effect on the social, intellectual, and material conditions of the people since the beginning of the English régime. Though this story, strictly speaking, ends with the successful accomplishment of the federal union of all the provinces in 1873, when Prince Edward Island became one of its members, I have deemed it necessary to refer briefly to those events which have happened since that time—the second half-breed rebellion of 1885, for instance—and have had much effect on the national spirit of the people. I endeavour to interest my reader in the public acts of those eminent men whose names stand out most prominently on the pages of history, and have made the deepest impress on the fortunes and institutions of the Dominion. In the performance of this task I have always consulted original authorities, but have not attempted to go into any historical details except those which are absolutely necessary to the intelligent understanding of the great events and men of Canadian annals. I have not entered into the intrigues and conflicts which have been so bitter and frequent during the operation of parliamentary government in a country where politicians are so numerous, and statesmanship is so often hampered and government injuriously affected by the selfish interests of party, but have simply given the conspicuous and dominant results of political action since the concession of representative institutions to the provinces of British North America. A chapter is devoted, at the close of the historical narrative, to a very brief review of the intellectual and material development of the country, and of the nature of its institutions of government. A survey is also given of the customs and conditions of the French Canadian people, so that the reader outside of the Dominion may have some conception of their institutions and of their influence on the political, social, and intellectual life of a Dominion, of whose population they form so important and influential an element. The illustrations are numerous, and have been carefully selected from various sources, not accessible to the majority of students, with the object, not simply of pleasing the general reader, but rather of elucidating the historical narrative. A bibliographical note has also been added of those authorities which the author has consulted in writing this story, and to which the reader, who wishes to pursue the subject further, may most advantageously refer. HOUSE OF COMMONS, OTTAWA, Dominion Day, 1896. PUBLISHER'S NOTE. Owing to the passing of Sir John Bourinot, the revisions necessary to bring this work up to date had to be entrusted to another hand. Accordingly, Mr. William H. Ingram has kindly undertaken the task, and has contributed the very judiciously selected information now embodied in Chapter XXX. on the recent development of Canada. Chapter XXVIII. by Mr. Edward Porritt, author of Sixty Years of Protection in Canada, has also been included, as being indicative of the history of the time he describes. Mr. Ingram has also made other revisions of considerable value. 1, ADELPHI TERRACE. March, 1922. CONTENTS PAGE BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE xix I. 1 INTRODUCTION--THE CANADIAN DOMINION FROM OCEAN TO OCEAN II. 19 THE DAWN OF DISCOVERY IN CANADA (1497-1525) III. 29 A BRETON SAILOR DISCOVERS CANADA AND ITS GREAT RIVER (1534-1536) IV. 44 FROM CARTIER TO DE MONTS (1540-1603) V. 51 THE FRENCH OCCUPATION OF ACADIA AND THE FOUNDATION OF PORT ROYAL (1604-1614) VI. 67 SAMUEL CHAMPLAIN IN THE VALLEY OF THE ST. LAWRENCE (1608-1635) VII. 92 GENTLEMEN-ADVENTURERS IN ACADIA (1614-1677) VIII. 110 THE CANADIAN INDIANS AND THE IROQUOIS: THEIR ORGANISATION, CHARACTER, AND CUSTOMS IX. 129 CONVENTS AND HOSPITALS--VILLE-MARIE--MARTYRED MISSIONARIES--VICTORIOUS IROQUOIS-- HAPLESS HURONS (1635-1652) X. 146 YEARS OF GLOOM--THE KING COMES TO THE RESCUE OF CANADA--THE IROQUOIS HUMBLED (1652-1667) XI. 156 CANADA AS A ROYAL PROVINCE--CHURCH AND STATE (1663-1759) XII. 168 THE PERIOD OF EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERYH--PRIESTS, FUR-TRADERS, AND Coureurs de Bois IN THE WEST (1634-1687) XIII. 177 THE PERIOD OF EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY--FRANCE IN THE VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI (1672-1687) XIV. 192 CANADA AND ACADIA--FROM FRONTENAC TO THE TREATY OF UTRECHT (1672-1713) XV. 210 ACADIA AND ÎLE ROYALE--FROM THE TREATY OF UTRECHT TO THE TREATY OF AIX-LA-CHAPELLE (1713- 1748) XVI. 221 THE STRUGGLE FOR DOMINION IN THE GREAT VALLEYS OF NORTH AMERICA--PRELUDE (1748-1756) XVII. 237 THE STRUGGLE FOR DOMINION IN THE GREAT VALLEYS OF NORTH AMERICA--ENGLISH REVERSES AND FRENCH VICTORIES--FALL OF LOUISBOURG AND FORT DUQUESNE (1756-1758) XVIII. 247 THE STRUGGLE FOR DOMINION IN THE VALLEY OF THE ST. LAWRENCE--CANADA IS WON BY WOLFE ON THE PLAINS OF ABRAHAM (1759-1763) XIX. 267 A PERIOD OF TRANSITION--PONTIAC'S WAR--THE QUEBEC ACT (1760-1774) XX. 280 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION--INVASION OF CANADA--DEATH OF MONTGOMERY--PEACE (1774-1783) XXI. 291 COMING OF THE LOYALISTS (1783-1791) XXII. 302 FOUNDATION OF NEW PROVINCES--ESTABLISHMENT OF REPRESENTATIVE INSTITUTIONS (1792-1812) XXIII. 316 THE WAR OF 1812-1815--PATRIOTISM OF THE CANADIANS XXIV. 338 POLITICAL STRIFE AND REBELLION (1815-1840) XXV. 361 RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT AND ITS RESULTS--FEDERAL UNION--RELATIONS BETWEEN CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES (1839-1867) XXVI. 380 END OF THE RULE OF FUR TRADERS--ACQUISITION OF THE NORTHWEST--FORMATION OF MANITOBA-- RIEL'S REBELLIONS--THE INDIANS (1670-1885) XXVII. 404 BRITISH COLUMBIA AND PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND ENTER THE UNION--NATIONAL EVENTS SINCE 1867-- MAKERS OF THE DOMINION (1867-1891) XXVIII. 414 CANADA AS A NATION--MATERIAL AND INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT--POLITICAL RIGHTS XXIX. 434 FRENCH CANADA XXX. 457 RECENT DEVELOPMENT OF CANADA 484 INDEX LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS [Transcriber's note: The page numbers below are those in the original book. However, in this e-book, to avoid the splitting of paragraphs, the illustrations may have been moved to preceding or following pages.] PAGE THE HON. W. L. MACKENZIE KING Frontispiece Courtesy "Canada." VIEW OF CAPE TRINITY ON THE LAURENTIAN RANGE 9 From a photograph by Topley, Ottawa. ROCKY MOUNTAINS AT DONALD, BRITISH COLUMBIA 13 From Sir W. Van Horne's Collection of B. C. photographs. UPPER END OF FRASER CAÑON, BRITISH COLUMBIA 15 Ibid. SKETCH OF JUAN DE LA COSA'S MAP, A.D. 1500 25 From Dr. S. E. Dawson's "Cabot Voyages," in Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., 1894. * To explain these dates it is necessary to note that Champlain lived for years in one of the buildings of the Fort of Saint Louis which he first erected, and the name château is often applied to that structure; but the château, properly so-called, was not commenced until 1647, and it as well as its successors was within the limits of the fort. It was demolished in 1694 by Governor Frontenac, who rebuilt it on the original foundations, and it was this castle which, in a remodelled and enlarged form, under the English régime, lasted until 1834. PORTRAIT OF JACQUES CARTIER 31 From B. Sulte's "Histoire des Canadiens-Français" (Montreal, 1882-'84). ANCIENT HOCHELAGA 39 From Ramusio's "Navigationi e Viaggi" (Venice, 1565). THE "DAUPHIN MAP" OF CANADA, circa 1543, SHOWING CARTIER'S DISCOVERIES 44 From collection of maps in Parliamentary Library at Ottawa. PLAN OF PORT ROYAL IN ACADIA IN 1605 57 From Champlain's works, rare Paris ed. of 1613. CHAMPLAIN'S PORTRAIT 69 From B. Sulte's "Histoire des Canadiens-Français." HABITATION DE QUEBEC 71 From Champlain's works, rare Paris ed. of 1613. CHAMPLAIN'S LOST ASTROLABE 79 From sketch by A. J. Russell, of Ottawa, 1879. ONONDAGA FORT IN THE IROQUOIS COUNTRY 83 From Champlain's works, rare Paris ed. of 1613. INDIAN COSTUMES 111 From Lafitau's "Moeurs des Sauvages" (Paris, 1724). IROQUOIS LONG HOUSE 119 From Morgan's "Houses and Home Life of the Aborigines" (Washington, 1881). PORTRAIT OF MARIE GUYARD (MÈRE MARIE DE L'INCARNATION) 131 From S. Sulte's "Histoire des Canadiens-Français." PORTRAIT OF MAISONNEUVE 135 Ibid. PORTRAIT OF LAVAL, FIRST CANADIAN BISHOP 159 Ibid. CARD ISSUE (PAPER MONEY) OF 1729, FOR 12 LIVRES 162 From Breton's "Illustrated History of Coins and Tokens Relating to Canada" (Montreal, 1892). CANADIAN FIFTEEN SOL PIECE 163 Ibid. CANADIAN TRAPPER 173 From La Pothérie's "Histoire de l'Amérique Septentrionale" (Paris, 1753). PORTRAIT AND AUTOGRAPH OF CAVELIER DE LA SALLE 185 B. Sulte's "Histoire des Canadiens-Francais." FRONTENAC, FROM HÉBERT'S STATUE AT QUEBEC 193 From Dr. Stewart's collection of Quebec photographs. CAPTURE OF FORT NELSON IN HUDSON BAY, BY THE FRENCH 205 From La Pothérie's "Histoire de l'Amérique Septentrionale." PORTRAIT OF CHEVALIER D'IBERVILLE 209 From a portrait in Margry's "Découvertes et établissements des François dans le Sud de l'Amérique Septentrionale" (Paris, 1876-'83). VIEW OF LOUISBOURG IN 1731 210 From a sketch in the Paris Archives. MAP OF FRENCH FORTS IN AMERICA, 1750-60 221 From Bourinot's "Cape Breton and its Memorials of the French Régime" (Montreal, 1891). PORTRAIT OF MONTCALM 239 From B. Sulte's "Histoire des Canadiens-Français." LOUISBOURG MEDALS OF 1758 244 From Bourinot's "Cape Breton," etc. PORTRAIT OF WOLFE 249 From print in "A Complete History of the Late War," etc. (London and Dublin, 1774), by Wright. PLAN OF OPERATIONS AT SIEGE OF QUEBEC 251 Made from a more extended plan in "The Universal Magazine" (London, Dec., 1859). MONTCALM AND WOLFE MONUMENT AT QUEBEC 261 From Dr. Stewart's collection of Quebec photographs. VIEW OF QUEBEC IN 1760 263 From "The Universal Magazine" (London, 1760). VIEW OF MONTREAL IN 1760 265 Ibid. PORTRAIT AND AUTOGRAPH OF JOSEPH BRANT (THAYENDANEGEA) 299 From Stone's "Life of Joseph Brant," original ed. (New York, 1838). PRESCOTT GATE AND BISHOP'S PALACE IN 1800 307 From a sketch by A. J. Russell in Hawkins's "Pictures of Quebec." PORTRAIT OF LIEUT.-GENERAL SIMCOE 311 From Dr. Scadding's "Toronto of Old" (Toronto, 1873). PORTRAIT OF MAJ.-GENERAL BROCK 323 From a picture in possession of J. A. Macdonell, Esq., of Alexandria, Ontario. PORTRAIT OF COLONEL DE SALABERRY 329 From Fennings Taylor's "Portraits of British Americans" (W. Notman, Montreal, 1865-'67). MONUMENT AT LUNDY'S LANE 333 From a photograph through courtesy of Rev. Canon Bull, Niagara South, Ont. PORTRAIT OF LOUIS J. PAPINEAU 341 From Fennings Taylor's "Portraits of British Americans." PORTRAIT OF BISHOP STRACHAN 347 Ibid. PORTRAIT OF W. LYON MACKENZIE 349 From C. Lindsey's "Life and Times of W. L. Mackenzie" (Toronto, 1863). PORTRAIT OF JUDGE HALIBURTON, AUTHOR OF "THE CLOCK-MAKER" 359 From a portrait given to author by Mr. F. Blake Crofton of Legislative Library, Halifax, N. S. PORTRAIT OF JOSEPH HOWE 363 From Fennings Taylor's "Portraits of British Americans." PORTRAIT OF ROBERT BALDWIN 365 Ibid. PORTRAIT OF L. H. LAFONTAINE 369 Ibid. PORTRAIT OF L. A. WILMOT 371 From Lathern's "Biographical Sketch of Judge Wilmot" (Toronto, 1881). FORT GARRY AND A RED RIVER STEAMER IN 1870 389 From A. J. Russell's "Red River Country" (Montreal, 1870). PORTRAIT OF LIEUT.-COLONEL WILLIAMS 399 From a photograph by Topley, Ottawa. INDIAN CARVED POSTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 401 From photograph by Dr. Dawson, C.M.G., Director of Geological Survey of Canada. PORTRAIT OF SIR JOHN MACDONALD 405 From L. J. Taché's "Canadian Portrait Gallery" (Montreal, 1890-'93). PORTRAIT OF HON. GEORGE BROWN 409 From photograph. PORTRAIT OF SIR GEORGE E. CARTIER 411 From B. Sulte's "Histoire des Canadiens-français." SIR WILFRID LAURIER 415 From a photograph by Ernest H. Mills. OLD PARLIAMENT BUILDING AT OTTAWA 427 From a photograph by Topley, Ottawa. QUEBEC IN 1896 435 From Dr. Stewart's collection of Quebec photographs. STREET SCENE IN A FRENCH CANADIAN VILLAGE NEAR QUEBEC 437 Ibid. OLD CHURCH AT BONNE STE. ANNE, WHERE MIRACLES WERE PERFORMED 441 Ibid. A CANADIAN CALECHE OF OLD TIMES 445 From Weld's "Travels in North America" (London, 1799). PORTRAIT OF LOUIS FRECHETTE, THE FRENCH CANADIAN POET 449 From L. J. Taché's "Canadian Portrait Gallery." A CHARACTERISTIC SNAPSHOT OF SIR ROBERT BORDEN 456 Courtesy "Central News." SILVER MINES AT COBALT, ONTARIO 459 Courtesy C.P.R. NEW PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS, OTTAWA 471 Courtesy C.P.R. MAP OF CANADA at end [Transcriber's note: missing from book.] BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE Jacques Cartier's Voyages, in English, by Joseph Pope (Ottawa, 1889), and H. B. Stephens (Montreal, 1891); in French, by N. E. Dionne (Quebec, 1891); Toilon de Longrais (Rennes, France), H. Michelant and E. Ramé (Paris, 1867). L'Escarbot's New France, in French, Tross's ed. (Paris, 1866), which contains an account also of Cartier's first voyage. Sagard's History of Canada, in French, Tross's ed. (Paris, 1866). Champlain's works, in French, Laverdiere's ed. (Quebec, 1870); Prince Society's English ed. (Boston, 1878- 80). Lafitau's Customs of the Savages, in French (Paris, 1724). Charlevoix's History of New France, in French (Paris, 1744); Shea's English version (New York, 1866). Jesuit Relations, in French (Quebec ed., 1858). Ferland's Course of Canadian History, in French (Quebec, 1861-1865). Garneau's History of Canada, in French (Montreal, 1882). Sulte's French Canadians, in French (Montreal, 1882-84). F. Parkman's series of histories of French Régime, viz.; Pioneers of France in the New World; The Jesuits in North America; The old Régime; Frontenac; The Discovery of the Great West; A Half Century of Conflict; Montcalm and Wolfe; Conspiracy of Pontiac (Boston, 1865-1884). Justin Winsor's From Cartier to Frontenac (Boston, 1894). Hannay's Acadia (St. John, N. B., 1870). W. Kingsford's History of Canada, 8 vols. so far (Toronto and London, 1887-1896), the eighth volume on the war of 1812 being especially valuable. Bourinot's "Cape Breton and its Memorials of the French Régime," Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., vol. ix, and separate ed. (Montreal, 1891). Casgrain's Montcalm and Lévis, in French (Quebec, 1891). Haliburton's Nova Scotia (Halifax, 1829). Murdoch's Nova Scotia (Halifax, 1865-67). Campbell's Nova Scotia (Halifax, 1873). Campbell's Prince Edward Island (Charlottetown, 1875). Lord Durham's Report, 1839. Christie's History of Lower Canada (Quebec, 1848-1855). Dent's Story of the Upper Canadian Rebellion (Toronto, 1855). Lindsey's W. Lyon Mackenzie (Toronto, 1873). Dent's Canada Since the Union of 1841 (Toronto, 1880-81). Turcotte's Canada under the Union, in French (Quebec, 1871). Bourinot's Manual of Constitutional History (Montreal, 1888), "Federal Government in Canada" (Johns Hopkins University Studies, Baltimore, 1889), and How Canada is Governed (Toronto, 1895). Withrow's Popular History of Canada (Toronto, 1888). MacMullen's History of Canada (Brockville, 1892). Begg's History of the Northwest (Toronto, 1804). Canniff's History of Ontario (Toronto, 1872). Egerton Ryerson's Loyalists of America (Toronto, 1880). Mrs. Edgar's Ten Years of Upper Canada in Peace and War (Toronto, 1890). Porritt's Sixty Years of Protection in Canada (London, 1907). H. E. Egerton and W. L. Grant's Canadian Constitutional Development (London, 1907). G. R. Parkin's Sir John A. Macdonald (London, 1909). B. Home's Canada (London, 1911). W. Maxwell's Canada of To-Day (London, 1911). C. L. Thomson's Short History of Canada (London, 1911). W. L. Griffith's The Dominion of Canada (London, 1911). A. G. Bradley's Canada (London, 1912). Arthur G. Doughty's History of Canada (Year Book) (Ottawa, 1913). J. A. T. Lloyd's The Real Canadian (London, 1913). E. L. Marsh's The Story of Canada (London, 1913). J. Munro's Canada 1535 to Present Day (London, 1913). A. Shortland and A. G. Doughty's Canada and its Provinces (Toronto, 1913). W. L. Grant's High School History of Canada (Toronto, 1914). G. Bryce's Short History of the Canadian People (London, 1914). D. W. Oates's Canada To-day and Yesterday (London, 1914). F. Fairfield's Canada (London, 1914). Sir C. Tupper's Political Reminiscences (London, 1914). Morang's Makers of Canada (Toronto, 1917). Sir Thomas White's The Story of Canada's War Finance (Montreal, 1921). Prof. Skelton's Life of Sir Wilfrid Laurier (Toronto, 1922). And Review of Historical Publications Relating to Canada by the University of Toronto. For a full bibliography of archives, maps, essays, and books relating to the periods covered by the Story of Canada, and used by the writer, see appendix to his "Cape Breton and its Memorials," in which all authorities bearing on the Norse, Cabot, and other early voyages are cited. Also, appendix to same author's "Parliamentary Government in Canada" (Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., vol. xi., and American Hist. Ass. Report, Washington, 1891). Also his "Canada's Intellectual Strength and Weakness" ( Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., vol. xi, and separate volume, Montreal, 1891). Also, Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America (Boston, 1886-89). THE STORY OF CANADA. I. INTRODUCTION. THE CANADIAN DOMINION FROM OCEAN TO OCEAN.
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