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The impact of biotechnology on living and working conditions

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128 pages
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Working conditions
Medical and biological research
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The European Foundation
for the Improvement of
Living and Working Conditions
The Impact of Biotechnology
on Living and Working Conditions
Loughlinstown House
Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland p—J European Foundation
π for the Improvement of
Living and Working Conditions
The Impact of Biotechnology _._
on Living and Working Conditions
Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland.
Tel: (01) 826888 Telex: 30726 EURF EI Fax: 826456 Studies carried out in the following countries:
Denmark The impact of biotechnology on the environment
published only in EN
ISBN 92-825-7529-2 Cat No. SY-49-87-422-EN-C
Italy The impact of biotechnology on working conditions
published only in IT (available in EN on request)
ISBN 92-825-7528-4 Cat No. SY-49-87-414-IT-C
Netherlands The international dimension of biotechnology in
agriculture
published only in NL (available in EN on request)
ISBN 92-825-7531-4 Cat No. SY-49-87-446-NL-C
United Kingdom The social impact of biotechnology
published only in EN
ISBN 92-825-7530-6 Cat No. SY-49-87-430-EN-C
The impact of biotechnology on living and working conditions
Consolidated Report
Available in the following languages:
EN - ISBN 92-825-7532-2 Cat No. SY-49-87-406-EN-C
FR -N 92-825-7533-0t No. SY-49-87-406-FR-C
DE - ISBN 92-825-7534-9t No. SY-49-87-406-DE-C
IT - ISBN 92-825-7535-7 Cat No. SY-49-87-406-IT-C
DA -N 92-825-7536-5t No. SY-49-87-406-DA-C
Cat No. SY-49-87-406-ES-C
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication.
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of
the European Communities iss7
ISBN: 92-825-7532-2
Catalogue number: SY-49-87-406-EN-C
Printed by the European Foundation
© Copyright: THE EUROPEAN FOUNDATION FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF LIVING AND WORKING CONDITIONS, 1987 For rights of translation or
reproduction, application should be made to the Director. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill,
County Dublin, Ireland. INTRODUCTION
In the context of its work programme for 1985, the European
Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
undertook a study of the impact of biotechnology on living and
working conditions.
This study set out to analyse the state of research in this sector, to
identify the main trends and possible developments of biotechnology in
a medium-term perspective, and to provide factual and evaluative
resources which could assist further detailed studies.
What was involved, therefore, was a preliminary and investigative type
of analysis which was carried out by means of the survey of existing
literature on the subject.
With a view to accommodating the multiple and interdependent nature
of the various aspects of the problem in question, an "integrated"
approach was adopted, and implemented through a study of four key
areas by four research teams or individuals, who worked in close
co-operation and harmony.
The following were involved:
Giuseppe Lanzavecchia and Danielle Mazzonis - ENEA, Rome,
Italy: The impact of biotechnology on working conditions
Morten Kvistgaard and Asger Meulengracht Olsen - Project
Pegasus, Institute of Social Sciences, Technical University of
Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark: The impact of biotechnology on
the environment
Edward Yoxen - Department of Sciences and Technology Policy,
University of Manchester, United Kingdom: The impact of
biotechnology on society Gert Junne, Jos Bijman and Kees van den Doel - Vakgroep
Internationale Betrekkingen en Volkenrecht, Universiteit van
Amsterdam, Netherlands: The international dimension of
biotechnology in agriculture
A summary report, drawn up by Dr Yoxen, completes these studies.
Documentary support and research were provided by the British
Library's EBIP (European Biotechnology Information Project), United
Kingdom.
The findings of the research were examined and approved at an
evaluation meeting held in Brussels on 27 February 1987.
It should be emphasised that the authors of the reports are solely
responsible for the analyses and opinions contained in this document.
Vittorio Di Martino
Research Manager
4 March 1987 DEPT OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY POLICY
UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER
THE IMPACT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
ON LIVING AND WORKING CONDITIONS
by
Edward Yoxen
Manchester
November 1986
Contract No: 85-1.3.5-3030-13
(Original : English) -i-
CONTENTS
Chapter 1 The impact of biotechnology on living and working
conditions: summary of research programme
Chapter 2 The phenomenon of biotechnology
2.1 Why biotechnology commands our attention now 9
2.2 The politics of innovation 15
2.3 Freedom of manoeuvre 19
2.4 Attitudes to biotechnology 23
2.5 Selectivity defended 28
Chapter 3 Biotechnology and health care 31
3.1 General considerations 31
3.2 The specific implications of selected developments 36
Chapter 4 Impact of biotechnology on agriculture 5
4.1 The focus on substitution and its employment
effects 51
4.2 Substitution processes in the dairy sector 53
4.3ns in the sugarr9
4.4 Changes in the sources of carbohydrates 64
4.5 Substitution of agricultural exports from the
third world 66
4.6 Overall conclusions from the agricultural study 69
Chapter 5 The impact of biotechnology on work and employment 71
5.1 Employment scenarios in biotechnology 71
5.2 Human resources and training 75 5.3 Biotechnology in the work environment 79
5.4y and its significance for trade unions 83
Biotechnology and the environment 87 Chapter 6
6.1 The impact of the accidental or deliberate
release of genetically engineered organisms
from production plants 87
6.2 Impact of deliberate release of genetically
engineered organisms into the environment 89
6.3 Applications of biotechnology in pollution control 92
6.4 Environmental impact of substitution by
fermentation processes: the case of ethanol 93
6.5 Conclusions 95
Chapter 7 Overall conclusions and suggestions for
further research 97
97 7.1 The phenomenon of biotechnology
99 7.2 Biotechnology and healthcare
7.3 Substitution processes in agriculture 100
100 7.4 Work
7.5 Biotechnology and the environment 101
7.6 Participation in technological planning 102
103 References
List of tables
1.7 Table 1: Policy areas involved in biotechnology
Table 2: Background uncertainties, foreground choices
22 in biotechnology
Table 3: Impacts of biotechnology 98