Analyses of the european air transport market. Annual report 2007.

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Analyses of the European air transport market
Annual Report 2007
E U R O P E A N COMMISSION
Air Transport and Airport Research
Release: 1.2
2008-06-17
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Annual Report 2007
Annual analyses of the European air transport market
Annual Report 2007
German Aerospace Center
Head: Prof. Dr. Johannes Reichmuth
51147 Köln Germany
web: http://www.dlr.de/fw
in the Helmholtz-Association
Porz-Wahnheide Linder Höhe
Air Transport and Airport Research
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.
German Aerospace Center
June 2008
Annual analyses of the Eur opean air transport market Annual Report 2007
Document Control Information
Responsible project manager: DG Energy and Transport Project task: Annual analyses of th e European air transport market 2007 EC contract number: TREN/05/MD/S07.74176 Release: 1.2 Save date: 2008-06-17 Total pages: 224 Change Log
Release Date Changed Pages or Chapters Comments 1.0 2008-06-06 Final Report (Annual 2007) 1.1 2008-06-09 chapter 2.1.7 PSO data update 1.2 2008-06-16 layout items
Disclaimer and copyright: This report has been carried out for the Direct orate-General for Energy and Transport in the European Commission and expresses the opinion of the organisation undertaking the contract TREN/05/MD/S07.74176. These views have not been adopted or in any way approved by the European Commission and should not be re lied upon as a statement of the European Commission's or the Transport and Energy DG 's views. The European Commission does not guarantee the accuracy of the information given in the report, nor does it accept responsibility for any use made thereof. Copyright in this report is held by the Eur opean Communities. Persons wishing to use the contents of this report (in whole or in part) fo r purposes other than thei r personal use are invited to submit a written request to the following address: European Commission - DG Energy and Transport - Library (DM28, 0/36) - B-1049 Brussels e-mail (http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/energy_ transport/contact/index_en.htm)
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Content
2007 in brief.. ..7 1 Air Traffic .................................................................................................................... ... 15 1.1 Global passenger and freight volume ......................................................................... 15 1.1.1 Global passenger volume.................................................................................. 15 1.1.2  17Passenger traffic flows between the world regions ........................................... 1.1.3  18 .......................................................................................Global freight volume 1.1.4  20 ................................................Freight traffic flows between the world regions 1.1.5 Comparison of the passenger and freight volume of Europe and the other world regions .......................................................................................... 21 1.2 Air traffic in EU27 22 ...................................................................................................... 1.2.1  ............................................................................. 22European passenger volume 1.2.2  .......................................... 22 EU Member States tweenPassenger traffic flows be 1.2.3 EU27 and other world regions .................. 23  thePassenger traffic flows between 1.2.4  24European Air Freight Traffic Volume ................................................................. 1.2.5  EU27 Member States........................................... 25Freight traffic flows betw een 1.2.6  .......................Freight traffic flows between the EU27 and other world regions 26 1.3  ..................................................................................Air traffic in EU Member States 27 1.3.1 Passenger volume ............................................................................................. 27 1.3.2  28Freight volume ................................................................................................. 1.3.3 Flight volumes in the European Countries ......................................................... 30 1.4  32Flight efficiency.......................................................................................................... 1.5  32General aviation ........................................................................................................ 2 Airlines ....................................................................................................................... .... 40 2.1 Passenger Airlines ...................................................................................................... 40 2.1.1  43Supply by airline type........................................................................................ 2.1.2  51Air Transport Demand ...................................................................................... 2.1.3  ................................................................................................. 64Passenger Fleet 2.1.4 Airline Financial Performance ............................................................................ 69 2.1.5 Alliances ........................................................................................................... 76 2.1.6 Competition ..................................................................................................... 84 2.1.7  89Public Service Obligations  PSO ....................................................................... 2.1.8  90Fare Development ............................................................................................ 2.2  ............................................................................................................ 94Cargo Airlines 2.2.1 Cargo Airlines  Supply..................................................................................... 95 2.2.2  100 ................................................................................Cargo Airlines  Demand 2.2.3  105Cargo Airlines - Fleet ...................................................................................... 2.2.4 Cargo Airlines - Financial Performance ............................................................ 107 2.2.5 Cargo Airlines - Alliances ................................................................................ 108 2.2.6  112Cargo Airlines - Competition .......................................................................... 
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3  115Airports ....................................................................................................................... . 3.1  115Passengers ............................................................................................................... 3.2  117Aircraft movements ................................................................................................. 3.3 Freight ..................................................................................................................... 121 3.4 Ground Handling 123 ..................................................................................................... 4  ................................................................................................. 127Air Transport Forecasts 4.1  127Global Forecasts ...................................................................................................... 4.2  129 ..................................................................................................European Forecasts 4.2.1  130 ..........................................Eurocontrol Short-Term Forecast September 2007 4.2.2  131Eurocontrol Medium-Term Forecast 2007-2013 .............................................. 4.2.3  132Eurocontrol Long-Term Forecast 2006-2025 ................................................... 5  133Regulatory developments ............................................................................................. 5.1  ............................................................................................... 133International aviation 5.1.1  134Horizontal agreements ................................................................................... 5.1.2  .......................................................................................Bilateral agreements 135 5.1.3 Common Aviation Area with the EUs neighbours .......................................... 135 5.1.4 Global agreements ......................................................................................... 137 5.1.5  ..............................................International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) 140 5.2 Internal market ........................................................................................................ 141 5.3 Competition ............................................................................................................ 141 5.3.1 State aid......................................................................................................... 141 5.3.2  142Infringements ................................................................................................. 5.3.3 Merger ........................................................................................................... 143 5.4 Distribution networks (CRS) ..................................................................................... 143 5.5  145 ...............................................................................................Consumer protection 5.5.1  145Passenger rights in the European Union .......................................................... 5.5.2  145Persons with reduced mobility ........................................................................ 5.5.3  146 ....................................................................Misleading airline ticket websites 5.6 Air traffic management............................................................................................ 146 5.6.1  ...............................................................................Single European Sky (SES) 147 5.6.2  ....................................................................Functional airspace blocks (FABs) 148 5.6.3  148SESAR ............................................................................................................ 5.7 Airports ................................................................................................................... 150 5.7.1  150 ..........................................................................................Airport Package 5.7.2  153Slots ............................................................................................................... 5.8 Safety ...................................................................................................................... 154 5.9 Investigation of civil aviation accident incidents and occurrence reporting s, 154 .............. 5.10 Insurance ................................................................................................................. 155 6  156 .........................................................................................Environmental development 6.1  156The year in brief....................................................................................................... 
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6.2 Emissions Trading Scheme for Aviation .................................................................... 158 6.3  .......................................................................................................... 160Aviation noise 7 Consumer Issues .......................................................................................................... 163 7.1 Punctuality............................................................................................................... 163 7.1.1 Actual Punctuality........................................................................................... 163 7.1.2  168ATFM Delays .................................................................................................. 7.2  170Delayed Baggage ..................................................................................................... 7.3 AEA Flight Regularity ............................................................................................... 171 7.4 Air Passenger Rights in the European Union ............................................................. 173 7.4.1  175 ..........................................................Implementation of Air Passenger Rights 7.4.2 European Consumer Centre Network ............................................................. 178 7.5  180Hidden Charges ....................................................................................................... 7.6  180Refund of taxes, fees and charges............................................................................ 7.7  ...................................... 181Persons with reduced mobility: Regulation (EC) 1107/2006 7.8  181 ..........................................................................................................Cabin Seating 8  183 ...............................................................................Aircraft and Engine Manufacturers 8.1 Highlights of 2007 ................................................................................................... 183 8.2 Aircraft Market Overview 184 ......................................................................................... 8.2.1  184Aircraft Orders Overview ................................................................................ 8.2.2  manufacturers and types ........................ 186 ents,Aircraft orders by market segm 8.2.3  manufacturers and types ....................Aircraft deliveries by market segm ents, 192 8.3  ..........................................................................................Engine Market Overview 198 9 Employment in European Air Transport......................................................................... 201 9.1 Basic concepts and definitions of the EU Labour Force Survey .................................. 201 9.2  201of Air Transport in the Scope of National Accounts ..................................Definition  9.3  202Employment Trends in European Air Transport......................................................... 9.4  ploymentCoherence with other em estimates .......................................................... 204 10  206Safety......................................................................................................................... .. 10.1 Air Transport Safety ................................................................................................. 206 10.2  206Notable Events......................................................................................................... 10.3 Safety Performance.................................................................................................. 207 10.4  211List of airlines banned within the EU ........................................................................ 10.5  ........................................................................................... 212EU-OPS (EU Operations) 10.6  213The European Community SAFA Programme ........................................................... 10.7  213The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA)........................................................... 11 Annex .......................................................................................................................... 216 11.1  216Abbreviations .......................................................................................................... 11.2 Geographical coverage information ......................................................................... 218 11.3 List of figures ........................................................................................................... 219 11.4  222List of tables ............................................................................................................ 
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2007 in brief
Traffic In 2007 the worldwide passenger volume grew according to data of the ICAO from approximately 2,128 million to more than 2,256 million. This corresponds to a growth of approximately 6.0%. During the same time the nu mber of passenger kilometres grew slightly more than the passenger volume from 3,914 b illion passenger kilometr es to approximately 4,201 billion passenger kilometres. This corresponds to a growth of 6.6%. In 2007, ICAO estimated worldwide freight tr affic to be 41 million tonnes, based on the available data. This represents an increase in freight traffic vo lume of 2.5%. The global tonne-kilometres rose the same time from 149.6 to 157.8 billions, which corresponds to an increase of 5.5%.
Departures, arrivals, internals and overflights 9,682,139 9,211,495
2006
2007
Air traffic in Europe showed an increase of good 5% in 2007 Source: Eurocontrol According to EUROSTAT, a to tal of 359 million passengers were transported by means of air transport in the former 25 EU member states (EU-25) in the first half of 2007. Compared to the first six months in 2006, this corresponds to a growth of approx. 5.2%. There was differing growth on flight stages within the EU area. For intercontinental traffic, the relation between the EU and North America was by far the most important one with approximately 27.2 million passeng ers in the first half of 2007.
Within the EU-25, a total of approx. 5.9 million tonnes of freight and ma il were handled in the first half of 2007. Compared to the big intercont inental freight flows, the quantity of freight carried between the individual EU member states is rather low. The main linkage with regard to air freight/mail transport is seen between Europe and North America. In the first half of 2007 more than 635,000 tonnes were carried towards the West (-5.3% growth), and 608,000 tonnes towards the East (+1.2% growth). With regard to the development of passenger traffic in the i ndividual EU member states, an increase in passenger traffic is re vealed in all countries in the ti me frame of first half of 2006 to first half of 2007. The growth in the new member states was above the average of EU growth in general.
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Approximately 9.2 million flights were recorded in the so-called Eurocontrol Area 1999 in 2007, with approximately 1 million resp ective arrivals and departures which crossed the border of the Eurocontrol district, 7.6 million domestic flights within the Eurocontrol district and about 0.1 million flights which crossed the Eurocontrol dis trict. Compared to 2006, flight movement traffic increased by about 5.1%. Airlines European air services play an important role in worldwide air transportation. Taking one week in July 2007 as a reference for the summer peri od, 19% of the 582,000 movements originate in one of the 27 EU member states; taking all 46 Eu ropean countries into co nsideration, 22.5% of all movements are effected. Eur ope has about 146,000 intraregional f lights in this time, whereas 9 thousand are on the North Atlantic, and 9 thou sand to Asia, both being the most important interregional services worldwide. The most importa nt route by far is Madrid  Barcelona with a frequency of 486 flights per week per direction. The top international service is Amsterdam  London Heathrow with 173 weekly take-offs per di rection. The busiest intercontinental air route is London  New York with 130 one way services per week. However, th e average number of seats on this route is, with 292 seats, far highe r than on Barcelona  Madrid with 157 seats. Lufthansa German Airlines was the biggest carri er according the number of flights, but now overtaken by far by Air France  KLM after the take-over. But these two airlines still operate independently on the market. Averag e seat capacity of the top 25 airlines is 127 per flight. The average seat capacity of the LCC is, with 149, seats somewhat higher. Concentrating on the top 25 carriers per business model, th e market share of the LCC increases to roughly one third. Within the LCC there is a somewhat higher c oncentration effect on the top 2 carriers Ryanair and EasyJet. Also, for regional airlines, the 2 bi ggest carriers Wideroes and Binter Canarias are outstanding. The average seat capacity for these ai rlines is only 59 seats per flight caused by the high share of short haul regional aircraft. The co ncentration effect of the holiday carriers on the top level is not as obvious as fo r the other business models; their average seat capacity is, with 190 seats, higher than all the other models. Worldwide there are more than 600 alliances but only the 3 global allia nces Star Alliance, Skyteam and Oneworld play a major role. With th eir networks, they try to cover the whole world  at least the most important tra ffic flows. The number of member s of these alliances is still -increasing though there are also airlines leaving an alliance. The member airlines are mainly part of the FSNC1business model. Some FSNCs, especiallythe Middle East are not (yet) members in of these alliances. In some case s however, they offer some code-share flights with members of the alliances.
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Of the 50 biggest FSNCs world-wide, 17 are based in Europe, 9 are US-American and 20 airlines are from the Asia-Pacific region according to th e numbers of passengers. The North American airlines have a market share in term of carried passengers of 34%, compared to 27% of the European airlines. But this number shows the concentration and the size of the American carriers compared to their European counterparts . The average length in North America is 2300 km, 100 km less than in the rest of the world. The average trip length in Europe is, with 2270 km, even shorter than in North America. Airports The top 20 airports worldwide account for 24% of the passengers worldwide handled. The two busiest airports are Hartsfield-Jackson in Atlant a and OHare International in Chicago, both in the USA. The top 20 airports comprise mainly of US airports and a few European and Asian airports. The biggest European airport is London He athrow in third place while the biggest Asian airport is Tokyo International in fourth place. The top 20 European airports account for 14% of the passengers handled worldwide, whereas 46% of the passengers in Europe choose one of the top 20 airports in Europe. The top three places are occupied by London Heathrow, Paris Charles de Gaulle and Frankfurt/Main, which also represent major hub airports in Europe with a high share of intercontinental travel.
The 20 biggest airports in term s of commercial air passengers wo rldwide (Preliminary 2007 annual numbers) Source: ACI 2008
Number of Passengers
100,000,000
90,000,000
80,000,000
70,000,000
60,000,000
50,000,000
40,000,000
30,000,000
20,000,000
10,000,000
0
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