IIT -JEE 2011 Chemistry Paper-I - Prerna Tower, Road No - 2 ...

IIT -JEE 2011 Chemistry Paper-I - Prerna Tower, Road No - 2 ...

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Cπ IIT-JEE - 2011 (10-Apr-11) Question & Solutions Paper-I - 1 - www. prernaclasses.com 12345678901234567890123456789012123 12345678901234567890123456789012123 12345678901234567890123456789012123 12345678901234567890123456789012123 12345678901234567890123456789012123 12345678901234567890123456789012123 Chemistry Paper-IIIT-JEE 201 R Prerna Tower, Road No - 2, Contractors Area, Bistupur, Jamshedpur - 831001, Tel - (0657)2221892, PART I - CHEMISTRY SECTION - I (Total Marks : 21) (Single Correct Choice Type) This Section contains 7 multiple choice questions.
  • carbon reduction of an oxide ore
  • agcl agcl
  • sodium bromate with evolution of co2 gas
  • precipitate o. addition
  • solution with a density
  • solution of density
  • solution density
  • aqueous solution
  • h3c
  • ch3
  • 3ch3

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R. Morrow, Dept. of Sociology, University of Alberta
Theories of Social Change
• Two Dimensions of Society
Static (synchronic) perspective–
view of society as a snap-shot of essential •
structure
explains how a society reproduces itself as •
essentially the same
examples: feudal society, market society•
Dynamic (diachronic) perspective–
view of changing forms of society over time•
resulting in theories of periodization (e.g. as •
epoches, stages of evolution)
historical vs. evolutionary models •
(deterministic)
example: classic Marxist versus functionalist •
models of evolution
• Classical Models of Social Change
Enlightenment: progress of scientific reason–
Marx: conflict and revolution–
Durkheim: integration and differentiation–
Weber: rationalization and domination–
1Contemporary Models of Change
• Introduction
Build on and revise classical theories of change–
Shift from Europe to Third World(s)•
Focus on overcoming inequalities and •
“backwardness” of “traditional” societies
Dilemmas: dangers of Eurocentrism and •
orientalism
• Development Studies (1950s-70s)
modernization theory–
economic•
sociological (functionalist)•
critics of modernization theories–
classical Marxist•
dependency theory•
world-system theory•
• Globalization theories (1980s-)
Neoliberal globalization theory: economic variant of –
modernization theory
Alternative and critical globalization theories (world-–
system theory, critical social theory)
2Classical Models I: The 18th Century
Enlightenment
• Introduction: pre-modern theories of change
No conception of change as progress–
Change as cyclical–
• 18th century Enlightenment: Science of
Man
Application of scientific reason to history: problematic –
model of Newton (positivism)
Rejection of religious and feudal accounts of social life –
- “dark ages” vs. “modernity”
Discovery of “society” –
previous focus on political regimes•
new analysis of the division of labour•
social processes as explanation of possible •
political regimes
Theory of progress as a philosophy of history–
Based on the development of reason (and science •
and technology)
Creates basis for the “perfectibility of man” •
Limited understanding of social change as a •
process
Eurocentric tendencies: Europe vs. “noble •
savage” and “uncivilized”, “primitive peoples
3Classical Models II: Marx on
Commodification and Revolution
• Introduction
Karl Marx (1818-1883)–
German origins, ended up in London•
Collaborated with Friedrich Engels•
Early vs. late Marx•
Contextualizing his work–
Marxism as revolutionary ideology vs. •
(academic) theories of social change as
historical materialism
Extended the Enlightenment science of man to •
emergence of capitalist industrialism
Marx as a variant of utopian socialism based on •
the evolution of modes of production
• Capitalist development as contradictory
Capitalism as a new mode of production based on a –
market system (= commodification)
Capital-labour as class contradiction–
Theory of crisis and revolution–
• Marx’s Theory of Imperialism
necessity of imperial expansion on a global scale–
colonial exploitation makes industrialization –
impossible without revolution
4Classical Models III: Durkheim on
Differentiation as Evolution
• Classic functionalism
Key founder: Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)–
Founder of French sociology; anticipates modern –
welfare state - informs social liberal ideologies
Theory of change: distinction between traditional and –
modern society as a division of labour
traditional society: mechanical solidarity•
modern: organic solidarity•
Social change: evolution as differentiation–
• Modern functionalism
Key founder: Talcott Parsons (1902-1979)–
American sociologist; studied in Germany•
Studied Durkheim and Weber, but model based on •
Durkheim’s theory of differentiation
Static model: the social system as 4 functional •
prequisites of society (AGIL model)
Dynamic: evolution as differentiation•
Applications in comparative politics and sociology: –
functionalist modernization theory
“new societies” required modernization of political, •
social and cultural institutions for economic growth
Critique of Marxism: “liberal” alternative to •
5revolutionary socialismClassical Models IV: Weber I on Domination
and Rationalization
• Introduction
Max Weber (1864-1920) as German classical –
sociological theorist
Rejection of functionalism; revision of Marx–
• Critique of Marx
no inevitable evolutionary stages–
rejection of economic reductionism–
emphasis on importance of subjective, cultural and –
contingent historical (contextual) factors
economic factors must be viewed in context–
• Domination: theory of political power
Used in a technical sense - does not refer primarily to –
physical control or oppression
Refers to rulership - the variety of forms of relations –
between rulers and ruled throughout history
Domination based on two factors:–
coercion (physical and material)•
legitimation (authority, ideas)•
Typology of three forms of domination (authority)–
traditional•
charismatic•
rational-legal•
6Weber II: The Theory of Rationalization
• Rationalization
along with commodification, one of the two key –
processes of modernity for Weber
different than psychological rationalization (Freud)–
refers to instrumental rationality (or technical –
rationality)
thinking and action based scientific-technical •
calculation of best means to realize pre-given ends
opposed to the substantive rationality of ends•
rationalization = cumulative effects of science, –
technology and bureaucracy with no necessary relation
to human purposes (substantive rationality, e.g. USSR,
Nazism)
• Modern bureaucracy as rationalization
traditional bureaucracy–
Ancient Egypt, China, etc.•
Experts: no autonomy; no necessary scientific basis•
modern bureaucracy: based on expertise & efficiency–
autonomy of civil servants makes technical •
rationality possible (modern university & science)
politics determines end; bureaucracy responsible •
for means
contemporary term = complex organization •
7Weber III: Patrimonial Domination and
Modernization
• Patrimonialism
Patrimonial domination variant of traditional –
domination
Generally refers to forms of bureaucracy based on a –
royal household (or other elites)
Control based directly on will of ruler(s):–
areas of arbitrary use of power•
other areas limited by tradition•
unstable and subject to continuous resistance by •
those dominated
Weber viewed as an obstacle to modernization •
and rational-legal domination (the modern state)
• Updating Weber: Patrimonial
Modernization
Contexts where patrimonial domination mixed with –
modernization and technical rationality
Latin American case: origins in Spanish and –
Portuguese Empires
“Revolutions” of independency introduced formal –
institutions of modernization (legal-rational
authority, democracy) but power still controlled by
traditional patrimonial elites (Mexico = the “political
class”) 8Development Studies I: Modernization
Theory
• Context of origins: post World War II
• Modernization theories
Based on unilinear model of evolution as –
convergence; focus on internal (endogenous) causes
of change
economic: inevitable stages of economic –
development (Rostow)
economic reductionism•
neglects sociocultural contexts•
sociological: (origins in functionalism)–
evolutionary theory based on process of •
differentiation: low to high (complex)
economic development has sociocultural •
prequisties
politics: democracy–
culture: education, communications–
social structure: class mobility, emergence –
of a middle class
criticisms: •
based on problematic model of USA–
failure to occur in most cases–
not suitable for the classic Latin American –
9contextDevelopment Studies II: Alternative Views
• Introduction
New focus on external (exogenous) causes of change–
Internal causes/obstacles of change linked to class –
conflicts
• Classical Marxist Ideology: revolutionary
models
Castroism: Marxism-Leninism–
Guevarism and Maosim–
• Dependency theories: reformist models
Originates among Latin American economists–
Often described as a form of political economy–
Focus on unequal terms of trade in the 1950s-–
Possibility of internal colonization: dual economy–
Policy alternative: protectionist models–
• World-System theory: pioneering
globalization theory
Draws upon Marx and dependency theory, but not –
policy oriented
Attempts to adapt Marx to new historical realities of –
a global economy (16th century onward)
Key founder: Immanuel Wallerstein (1930-)–
Analytical focus: centre-periphery relations– 10