“The Renaissance Begins the Modern World”

“The Renaissance Begins the Modern World”

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  • expression écrite - matière potentielle : from greece
  • expression écrite
“The Renaissance Begins the Modern World” Section 1: The Renaissance in Italy Why did the Renaissance start in Italy? • The period started from about 1400 and ended around 1600 • Renaissance means rebirth • The ideas and the new way of life was spread through Europe different ways and during different time periods • It came to Italy first during the 15th Century • It came to Italy for many reasons o The location of Italy in relation to the Mediterranean Sea o The wealthy cities of trade (Naples, Genoa, and Venice) o Trade brought new ideas and Italy was a trading machine What were the Italian City-States?
  • hard life from the middle ages
  • famous painting
  • source of enormous wealth for the countries ù
  • worthy ù king phillip
  • low countries
  • england
  • life
  • king

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Writing FCode 3.x Programs
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RecycleContents
Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii
1. SBus Cards and FCode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
FCode PROM Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Interpreting FCode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Device Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Creating and Executing FCode Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Elements of FCode Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Colon Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Stack Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Programming Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Commenting Code. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Coding Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Definition Length. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Stack Comments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
A Minimal FCode Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
ivFCode Classes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Primitive FCode Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
System FCode Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Interface FCode Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Local FCode Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3. Testing FCode Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
FCode Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Tokenizing FCode Source 18
FCode Binary Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Testing FCode Programs on the Target Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Configuring the Target Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Setting Appropriate Configuration Parameters. . . . . . . . . . 21
Modifying the Expansion Bus Probe Sequence . . . . . . . . . . 21
Getting to the Forth Monitor 22
Using the Command Line Editor of the Forth Monitor . . . . . . 22
Using the Forth Monitor to Test FCode Programs. . . . . . . . . . . 23
Usingdload to Load from Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Usingdlbin to Load From Serial Port A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Usingbootom Hard Disk, Diskette, or Ethernet 25
Usingdl to Load Forth Over Serial Port A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Using the Forth Monitor to Interpret an FCode Program. . . . . 26
Using the Forth Monitor to Browse a Device Node. . . . . . . . . . 29
Using the Forth Monitor to Test a Device Driver. . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Device Node Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
v Writing FCode 3.x Programs—May 1996Usingselect-dev . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Usingbegin-select-dev . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Usingexecute-device-method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Usingapply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Testing FCode Programs in Source Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Producing an FCode PROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Exercising an Installed FCode PROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4. Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Package Instances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Package Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Static and Instance-specific Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Execution Tokens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Intra-package Calling Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Accessing Other Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Inter-package Calling Methods 46
execute-device-method andapply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Plug-in Device Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Common Package Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Basic Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Recommended Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Package Data Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Instance Arguments and Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Package Addresses 56
Package Mappings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Contents vinvramrc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Modifying Package Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Standard Support Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Sun Disk-Label Support Package. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
TFTP Booting Support Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Deblocker Support Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
5. Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Standard FCode Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Standard Property Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Display Device Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Network Device Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Memory Device Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
General Properties For Parent Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Detailed Descriptions of Standard Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Manipulating Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Property Creation and Modification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Property Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Property Encoding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Property Retrieval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Property Decoding 80
Property-Specific FCodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
6. Block and Byte Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Block Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Byte Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
vii Writing FCode 3.x Programs—May 1996Required Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Required Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Device Driver Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Simple Block Device Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Extended Block Device Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Complete Block and Byte Device Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
7. Display Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Required Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Required Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Device Driver Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Simple Display Device Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Extended Display Device Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Complete Display Device Drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
8. Memory-Mapped Buses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Required Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
SBus Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
SBus Required Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Device Driver Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Basic Hierarchical Device Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Extended Hierar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Complete Hierar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
9. Network Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Required Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Required Device Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Contents viiiOptional Device Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Device Driver Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Simple Network Device Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Sample Driver With Test and Debugging Methods. . . . . . . 161
Bootable Network Device Driver Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
10. Serial Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Required Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Required Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Device Driver Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Simple Serial FCode Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Extended Serial FCode Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Complete Serial FCode Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
11. FCode Dictionary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
A. FCode Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
FCode Primitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
FCodes by Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
FCodes by Byte Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
FCodes by Name 399
B. FCode Memory Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
C. Coding Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
Typographic Conventions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
Use of Spaces 417
if…then…else . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
do…loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
ix Writing FCode 3.x Programs—May 1996begin…while…repeat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
begin…until…again. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Block Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Stack Comments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Return Stack Comments 421
Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
D. Differences Between FCode 2.x
and 3.x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Contents x