Essay style ; Esė stilius

Essay style ; Esė stilius

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VYTAUTAS MAGNUS UNIVERSITYINSTITUTE OF THE LITHUANIAN LANGUAGEDaiva PAGOJIENESSAY STYLESUMMARY OF DOCTORAL DISSERTATION HUMANITIES, PHILOLOGY (04 H) Kaunas, 2009 ?The dissertation was prepared at Klaip da University in 2001–2009. The right to grant doctor‘s degree was accorded to Vytautas Magnus University and the Institute of the Lithuanian Language on 15 July, 2003 according to the decree No. 926 by the Government of the Republic of Lithuania. Research supervisor:Assoc. Prof. Dr. Albinas Drukteinis Klaip da University, Humanities, Philology – 04 H Research consultant:Prof. Habil. Dr. R ta Marcinkevi ienVytautas Magnus University, Humanities, Philology – 04 H Defence committee:Chair:Prof. Dr. Irena Buckley anities, Philology – 04 H Members:Prof. Dr. Audron BitinienVilnius Pedagogical University, Humanities, Philology – 04 H Prof. Habil. Dr. Aloyzas Gudavi iusŠiauliai University, Humanities, Philology – 04 H Prof. Dr. Danguol Mikul nienVytautas Magnus University, HumProf. Habil. Dr. Kazimieras Župerka Opponents:Prof. Habil. Dr. Regina KoženiauskienVilnius University, Humanities, Philology – 04 H Prof. Dr. Giedr?? epaitienŠiauliai University, Humanities, Philology – 04 H An open meeting of the defence committee will take place on 29 May, 2009at 1 p.m. in M. Gimbutien lecture room at the Faculty of Humanities,Vytautas Magnus University.Address: Donelai io str. 58, LT– 44246, Kaunas, Lithuania.

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VYTAUTAS MAGNUS UNIVERSITY
INSTITUTE OF THE LITHUANIAN LANGUAGE
Daiva PAGOJIEN
ESSAY STYLE
SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL DISSERTATION
HUMANITIES, PHILOLOGY (04 H)
Kaunas, 2009
?The dissertation was prepared at Klaip da University in 2001–2009.
The right to grant doctor‘s degree was accorded to Vytautas Magnus University and the
Institute of the Lithuanian Language on 15 July, 2003 according to the decree No. 926
by the Government of the Republic of Lithuania.
Research supervisor:
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Albinas Drukteinis
Klaip da University, Humanities, Philology – 04 H
Research consultant:
Prof. Habil. Dr. R ta Marcinkevi ien
Vytautas Magnus University, Humanities, Philology – 04 H
Defence committee:
Chair:
Prof. Dr. Irena Buckley anities, Philology – 04 H
Members:
Prof. Dr. Audron Bitinien
Vilnius Pedagogical University, Humanities, Philology – 04 H
Prof. Habil. Dr. Aloyzas Gudavi ius
Šiauliai University, Humanities, Philology – 04 H
Prof. Dr. Danguol Mikul nien
Vytautas Magnus University, Hum
Prof. Habil. Dr. Kazimieras Župerka
Opponents:
Prof. Habil. Dr. Regina Koženiauskien
Vilnius University, Humanities, Philology – 04 H
Prof. Dr. Giedr?? epaitien
Šiauliai University, Humanities, Philology – 04 H
An open meeting of the defence committee will take place on 29 May, 2009
at 1 p.m. in M. Gimbutien lecture room at the Faculty of Humanities,
Vytautas Magnus University.
Address: Donelai io str. 58, LT– 44246, Kaunas, Lithuania.
Phone: + 370 7 323599, fax: +370 7 203858
The summary of the doctoral dissertation was sent out on 20 April, 2005.
Those interested may acquaint themselves with the doctoral dissertation in the
M. Mažvydas National Library of Lithuania in Vilnius, the Library of the Institute of
the Lithuanian Language as well as in Vytautas Magnus University Library in Kaunas.
2
???????????????VYTAUTO DIDŽIOJO UNIVERSITETAS
LIETUVI KALBOS INSTITUTAS
Daiva Pagojien
ES STILIUS
Daktaro disertacijos santrauka
Humanitariniai mokslai, filologija (04 H)
Kaunas, 2009
3
???Disertacija rengta 2001–2009 metais Klaip dos universitete
Disertacija ginama eksternu
Doktorant ros teis suteikta Vytauto Didžiojo universitetui kartu su Lietuvi kalbos
institutu 2003 met liepos 15 d. Lietuvos Respublikos vyriausyb s nutarimu Nr. 926
Mokslinis vadovas
doc. dr. Albinas Drukteinis
Klaip dos universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, filologija – 04 H
Mokslinis konsultantas
prof. habil. dr R ta Marcinkevi ien
Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, filologija – 04 H
Disertacijos gynimo taryba
Pirmininkas
prof. dr. Irena Buckley
Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, filologija – 04 H
Nariai:
prof. habil. dr. Audron Bitinien
Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, filologija – 04 H
prof. habil. dr. Aloyzas Gudavi ius
Šiauli universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, filologija – 04 H
prof. habil. dr. Danguol Mikul nien
Lietuvi kalbos institutas, humanitariniai mokslai, filologija – 04 H
prof. habil. dr. Kazimieras Župerka
Šiauli universitetas, hum
Oponentai:
prof. habil. dr. Regina Koženiauskien
Vilniaus universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, filologija – 04 H
prof. dr. Giedr?? epaitien
Šiauli universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, filologija – 04 H
Disertacija bus ginama viešame Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto ir Lietuvi kalbos
instituto Filologijos mokslo krypties pos dyje 2009 m. geguž s 29 d. 13 val. Vytauto
Didžiojo universiteto Humanitarini moksl fakulteto M. Gimbutiens vardo
auditorijoje.
Adresas: Donelai io g. 58, LT – 44246, Kaunas, Lietuva.
Tel. + 370 7 323599, faksas: + 370 7 203858
Disertacijos santrauka išsi sta 2009 m. balandžio 20 d.
Disertacij galima perži r ti Nacionalin je M. Mažvydo, Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto,
Lietuvi kalbos instituto bibliotekose.
4
??????????????????????????????????INTRODUCTION
Object of the research. The dissertation makes a study of styles of essays
created in 1990–2004. The choice of the period is not coincidental: the essay style was
not popular in Lithuania up to 1990, but after the restoration of independence it
eventually flourished. The prosperity of this variety of texts frequently named as a
separate genre is evidenced by the Ieva Simonaityt Prize received by R. Rastauskas in
2006 as well as the Award introduced by the Institute of Lithuanian Literature and
Folklore for the best book of the year 2005 “Kitas pasaulis”, which is comprised of
essay texts.
Purpose and tasks of the research. The purpose of the paper is to analyse the
peculiarities of use of the essay as a type of texts in the Lithuanian language, i. e. to
determine the functional stylistic features of this variety of texts. To achieve this
purpose the following tasks have been raised:
1. To analyse the functional stylistic segmentation of essay texts as well as
connections with other functional styles, sub-styles and their genres.
2. To do a functional-stylistic research of Lithuanian assays written in 1990–2004
and to determine the stylistic factors that have the greatest influence on essay texts.
3. To describe the usage of linguistic expression of essay texts composed in
different fields, i. e. macro-composition and micro-composition.
Review of the research. Methodical principles. This variety of texts is
differently qualified in the works of foreign linguists, where the functional-stylistic
interdependence of essays is evaluated. Some researchers believe that the essay is an
independent functional style. The founder of this opinion is the Czech linguist
B. Havránek (Gavranek 1967); currently this approach has been supported by the
majority of the Slovak language stylists (see Slan ová 1983; Mistrík 1985, 490), the
Czech stylist M. Jelínek (M. Jelínek 2000, 725); meanwhile, other researchers ascribe
the essay to a scientific style genre. The connection between the essay and the scientific
style was revealed by the Slovak linguist and stylist Fr. Miko (Miko, see A. Jedli ka
1973, 170). By its nature, i.e. by means of objective reality reflection, this genre is
related to the scientific style and thus is believed to represent the genre of this style in
the Czech language (A. Jedli ka 1973; echová, et. al. 1997, 162). Still other linguists
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?????attribute the essay to a publicistic style genre. The attribution of the essayism (or
journalistic essays) to the publicistic style belongs to the English stylist I. Galperin
(Galperin, see Jedli ka 1973, 168). This position is based on the tradition of this genre
developed in the English language; therefore, it was still continued in the stylistics of
the English and German languages up to the end of the XX century (Galperin 1971,
302; Brandes 1990, 157).
In Lithuania a more exhaustive study of essay texts was presented in the doctoral
thesis by B. Janulevi i t (1993) “Lietuvi eseistikos raidos bruožai (1904–1940)”. In
fact, this research belongs to the field of journalism rather than linguistics; therefore, the
branch of the genre, which contains more of literary composition rather than publicistic
traits, is left aside. Among the Lithuanian linguists, A. Bitinien (2007, 93–95) analysed
the essay as one of the monologue genres of the analytical sub-style of the publicistic
style, and R. Marcinkevi ien (2007, 116–117; 2008, 155–157) took the view of the
essay as one of the creative entertainment press genres.
The dissertation “Essay Style” focuses on 29 essay collections. The methods of
synchronic linguistic analysis of style have been employed. The most important among
them is the analytical-descriptive method; the typological method was used to classify
the essay texts, stylistic peculiarities and their expressive means; the comparative
method was applied to compare the peculiarities of the essay style and their expression
in Lithuanian and other languages. Episodically the interview method with the writers
was used. From the experimental methods the substitutional and transformative methods
were applied. And finally, the results received by applying the aforementioned methods
have been synthesized. The statistical method has been disposed as the style
actualization cannot be analysed using computerized statistics. This method is not
reliable enough.
Statements to defend:
1. Based on the field of application, content and prevailing functions, the essays
composed in Lithuania in 1990–2004 may be classified into publicistic, literary and
scientific style essays.
2. The micro- and macro-composition of an essay even in the scientific field is
considerably influenced by the subjective factor, i.e. the author, who determines the
individuality of the expressive means composition and selection.
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????????3. The micro- and macro-composition of essays of all functional styles has only
technical correspondence – these types of texts are distinguished by the functions of text
composition and the usage of linguistic means.
4. Essay texts are considered to represent the genre of the open structure capable of
modifying under the influence of different functional styles and forming compounds of
synthetic nature with other genres.
Structure of the dissertation. The dissertation consists of the introduction, two
parts and conclusions, the list of primary sources, the list of secondary sources, and 6
appendices. The introduction reveals the problem of the research, identifies the purpose
and tasks of the research, emphasizes the relevance and innovation of the research,
provides with the defended statements, methodical principles, the provisions of the
research material selection. The first part reviews the researches of literary and
linguistic essay styles, the principles of functional stylistic text analysis, and the
researches on essays carried out to this end by foreign linguists. The second part is
devoted for the functional stylistic analysis of Lithuanian essay texts. Different chapters
of this part review the problems of functional styles’ classification, discuss the essential
factors influencing the style of an essay, analyse the macro- and micro-composition of
this type of texts, the interrelation between this variation and other functional styles,
sub-styles and their genres. All the statements are based on the examples from essay
texts. The appendices include the stylistic analysis of essays of all types – publicistic,
literary and scientific – which best reveal the determined features of the essay text.
7FUNCTIONAL STYLISTIC FEATURES
OF LITHUANIAN ESSAY TEXTS
An approach to a text as the product of a verbal communication act, the
influence of linguistic and non-linguistic factors selecting and composing lexical units
of all stages is the object of the functional stylistic research. Carrying out the functional
analysis of texts, the existence of general text models as well as the textual structure and
modifications of these models are explained. Here style is understood as the means of
language usage, the individuality of speaking manifesting itself through selection and
organization of language means. This research is also based on the principle that the
research of peculiarities of the genre style considers important not only the analysis of
the usage of words, sentences or grammatical structures but also the analysis of text
composition. The composition of a text (the type of rendering and the interrelated
structure of a text) is called a macro-composition, and the usage of lexical, grammatical
and syntactical devices (i.e. the usage of lexical and grammatical synonyms, stylistic
devices, actualization of spelling and punctuation) is called a micro-composition.
Based on such essential factors determining the functional style as the field and
content of the usage of texts, and sometimes – the functions of the speaking act, the
essays created in Lithuania in 1990–2004 may be classified into the texts of publicistic
(hereinafter – PE), literary (hereinafter – ME) and scientific (hereinafter – MoE) styles.
Undoubtedly, the times of genre synthesis do not allow drawing a clear demarcation
line distinguishing between, for example, the expressive sub-style of a publicistic style
text and the literary style, where both are considerably influenced by the subjective
factor. Due to the post-modernistic synthesis of genres and styles this demarcation line
is frequently the object of agreement.
PUBLICISTIC STYLE ESSAY
First of all, the essay is similar to the publicistic style in terms of the content: the
cultures relevant to the society are analysed, i.e. the themes of science, art, education
(G. Beresnevi ius Vilk saulut , V. Kubilius Literat ra istorijos l žyje, D. Sauka Noriu
suprasti,), morality (D. Kajokas Dykin jimai), politics (V. Daunys Šeštoji diena).
However, there are a lot of such essays, which scrutinize the themes that are of no
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??????interest for the mass addressee but provide with the author’s ideas originating from
his / her observations of the reality and narrative of impressions; there is a tendency to
evaluate the relevant issues in the context of intercultural experience, to have
philosophical insights (e. g., such essays are included in the collections of
G. Beresnevi ius Vilk saulut , G. Grajauskas Iš klausos, D. Kajokas Dykin jimai,
Komentarai, R. Rastauskas Kitas pasaulis,).
The authors of such essays are the representatives of the field of arts (poets,
writers, art critics) or persons with liberal education (journalists, philosophers,
historians); therefore, the style of many texts (and thus the micro- and macro-
composition) has been significantly influenced by the subjective factor determining the
individuality of texts, and frequently the tendency towards the literary style. Such
essays frequently surpass the texts of literary style by means of actualization of
expression (i. e. R. Rastauskas Kitas pasaulis). On the other hand, to apply such texts to
the literary style would not be absolutely fair as they include descriptions of actual
events, real people – writers, artists, philosophers; discuss actually existing dailies and
their articles, television programmes, held exhibitions; present the impressions of
travels, biographical facts, etc. Therefore, the demarcation line of fiction, which
distinguishes a publicistic text from a literary one, is not yet crossed. Nevertheless, the
features of literary content may be traced in some texts – a typical additional logical and
emotional content drawn from the peculiar composition, the images implied by the
reasoning, aposiopesis and suspense.
A macro-composition in PE does not conform to strict norms. The structure of
texts is mainly based on free reasoning, which may be substituted by other types of
rendering, such as narration, description. Typically, PE texts include a heading,
introduction, main part and ending; an epigraph may also be included. However, not all
of these parts of a text are strictly obligatory as it depends on the author’s intention
whether a text is going to contain all the structural parts or just reflect an unfinished
flow of ideas or simply provide a description of the state. The style analysis of the
heading shows that texts named as essays are typically non-completed, and frequently
include an implication. The abundance of implications as a sign of literary style is also
determined by the use of an epigraph, non-existing ending, aposiopesis. However,
essays with a stricter structure can also be found. This is indicated by the problem-
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????oriented interrogative headings as well as ending offering specific suggestions. The
research data of the macro-composition of PE indicate that the essay includes features
of both, the analytical and expressive sub-style, and sometimes has the tendency
towards the literary style.
Meanwhile the PE speculates not only on the issues relevant to the society but
also to the author himself / herself, the description and narration can also be interwoven;
this determines the synthesis of automated and actualized expression: the abstracts,
neutral syntactical structures typical to the reasoning are used alongside the actualized
linguistic expression. Its occurrence is predetermined by such aspects of the function of
effect as evaluation of the relevant issue, communication with the addressee (hereinafter
– appellate effect), and an attempt to speak more expressively.
The evaluation of a relevant issue is more frequently rendered by using lexical
means (interjections, connotative lexis, phraseological units, semantic devices) – this is
the main expression of evaluation. Another expression (the major part of syntactic
devices) is rarely used for rendering evaluation – usually a specific evaluation is
perceived by the usage of several syntactic devices. In some cases syntactic devices
only supplement the explicit evaluation.
To create the appellate effect in PE different expressive means are used, which
are typical to the spoken dialogue – morphological (synonymy of persons and tenses),
syntactic (rhetorical devices), and other supplementary means (featuring the shade of
speech). The means rendering the appellate effect are not equal in terms of the relation
with the reader. The use of morphological synonyms (cf. pronouns tu, j s (Eng. you
(informal and formal variations respectively)), rhetorical devices (especially addresses)
as if implies a direct communication, attempts to eliminate space restrictions;
meanwhile a different expression (e. g., featuring the shade of spoken (everyday)
vocabulary) usually creates the impression of a spontaneous speech, of the familiar
speech tone typical to the informal spoken language.
Traditionally, the essay texts do not occur in the circumstances typical to
“newspaper” genres when a text has to be created very quickly, but rather on their own
accord, leisurely. A major part of PE creators are persons related to creative activities;
therefore, more original expressive means are employed to express speculations; clichés
are avoided. To this end various lexical means (synonyms, phraseological units,
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