Neighbourhood food and physical activity environments in England, UK: does ethnic density matter?

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In England, obesity is more common in some ethnic minority groups than in Whites. This study examines the relationship between ethnic concentration and access to fast food outlets, supermarkets and physical activity facilities. Methods Data on ethnic concentration, fast food outlets, supermarkets and physical activity facilities were obtained at the lower super output area (LSOA) (population average of 1500). Poisson multilevel modelling was used to examine the association between own ethnic concentration and facilities, adjusted for area deprivation, urbanicity, population size and clustering of LSOAs within local authority areas. Results There was a higher proportion of ethnic minorities residing in areas classified as most deprived. Fast food outlets and supermarkets were more common and outdoor physical activity facilities were less common in most than least deprived areas. A gradient was not observed for the relationship between indoor physical activity facilities and area deprivation quintiles. In contrast to White British, increasing ethnic minority concentration was associated with increasing rates of fast food outlets. Rate ratios comparing rates of fast food outlets in high with those in low level of ethnic concentration ranged between 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.55 (Bangladeshi) and 2.62, 1.46-4.70 (Chinese). Similar to White British, however, increasing ethnic minority concentration was associated with increasing rate of supermarkets and indoor physical activity facilities. Outdoor physical activity facilities were less likely to be in high than low ethnic concentration areas for some minority groups. Conclusions Overall, ethnic minority concentration was associated with a mixture of both advantages and disadvantages in the provision of food outlets and physical activity facilities. These issues might contribute to ethnic differences in food choices and engagement in physical activity.

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Publié le 01 janvier 2012
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Molaodiet al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity2012,9:75 http://www.ijbnpa.org/content/9/1/75
R E S E A R C HOpen Access Neighbourhood food and physical activity environments in England, UK: does ethnic density matter? 1* 11 21 Oarabile R Molaodi, Alastair H Leyland , Anne Ellaway , Ade Kearnsand Seeromanie Harding
Abstract Background:In England, obesity is more common in some ethnic minority groups than in Whites. This study examines the relationship between ethnic concentration and access to fast food outlets, supermarkets and physical activity facilities. Methods:Data on ethnic concentration, fast food outlets, supermarkets and physical activity facilities were obtained at the lower super output area (LSOA) (population average of 1500). Poisson multilevel modelling was used to examine the association between own ethnic concentration and facilities, adjusted for area deprivation, urbanicity, population size and clustering of LSOAs within local authority areas. Results:There was a higher proportion of ethnic minorities residing in areas classified as most deprived. Fast food outlets and supermarkets were more common and outdoor physical activity facilities were less common in most than least deprived areas. A gradient was not observed for the relationship between indoor physical activity facilities and area deprivation quintiles. In contrast to White British, increasing ethnic minority concentration was associated with increasing rates of fast food outlets. Rate ratios comparing rates of fast food outlets in high with those in low level of ethnic concentration ranged between 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.061.55 (Bangladeshi) and 2.62, 1.464.70 (Chinese). Similar to White British, however, increasing ethnic minority concentration was associated with increasing rate of supermarkets and indoor physical activity facilities. Outdoor physical activity facilities were less likely to be in high than low ethnic concentration areas for some minority groups. Conclusions:Overall, ethnic minority concentration was associated with a mixture of both advantages and disadvantages in the provision of food outlets and physical activity facilities. These issues might contribute to ethnic differences in food choices and engagement in physical activity. Keywords:Obesity, Ethnicity, Neighbourhoods, Deprivation, Fast food outlets, Supermarkets, Physical activity facilities, Built environments
Introduction Obesity is a major public health concern with serious implications for the sustainability of healthcare systems globally. In the UK, the adult prevalence has risen dra matically over the last 25 years [1], with twothirds now overweight or obese. Ethnic differences in obesity in adulthood are widely known [2]. There is also growing awareness of this disparity in childhood, particularly for
* Correspondence: oarabile@sphsu.mrc.ac.uk 1 MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, 4 Lilybank Gardens, G12 8RZ, Glasgow, UK Full list of author information is available at the end of the article
Black Caribbean and Black African girls [3]. Studies have shown area of residence to be associated (independently of individual socioeconomic circumstances) with obes ity and physical inactivity [47]. Increasing exposure to obesogenic environments are thought to be a key influ ence on these trends as the physical and social infra structure of neighbourhoods could discourage healthy lifestyles [8]. Neighbourhoods are assumed to affect obesity risk by influencing energy intake and energy ex penditure. Some UK studies of the general population have shown that deprived areas may be less well served with physical activity facilities [9] whilst others have
© 2012 Molaodi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.