Summa Contra Gentiles
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The Summa Contra Gentiles is not merely the only complete summary of Christian doctrine that St. Thomas has written, but also a creative and even revolutionary work of Christian apologetics composed at the precise moment when Christian thought needed to be intellectually creative in order to master and assimilate the intelligence and wisdom of the Greeks and the Arabs. In the Summa Aquinas works to save and purify the thought of the Greeks and the Arabs in the higher light of Christian Revelation, confident that all that had been rational in the ancient philosophers and their followers would become more rational within Christianity. This exposition and defense of divine truth has two main parts: the consideration of that truth that faith professes and reason investigates, and the consideration of the truth that faith professes and reason is not competent to investigate. The exposition of truths accessible to natural reason occupies Aquinas in the first three books of the Summa. His method is to bring forward demonstrative and probable arguments, some of which are drawn from the philosophers, to convince the skeptic. In the fourth book of the Summa St. Thomas appeals to the authority of the Sacred Scripture for those divine truths that surpass the capacity of reason. The present volume is the second part of a treatise on the hierarchy of creation, the divine providence over all things, and man’s relation to God. Book 1 of the Summa deals with God; Book 2, Creation; and Book 4, Salvation.



Publié par
Date de parution 01 janvier 1975
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9780268074821
Langue English

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Summa Contra Gentiles
Book Four: Salvation
Saint Thomas Aquinas
University of Notre Dame Press
Notre Dame
Translated, with an Introduction and Notes, by Charles J. O’Neil
Copyright © 1956 by Doubleday & Company, Inc.
University of Notre Dame Press edition 1975
Notre Dame, Indiana 46556
E-ISBN 978-0-268-07482-1
This e-Book was converted from the original source file by a third-party vendor. Readers who notice any formatting, textual, or readability issues are encouraged to contact the publisher at --> First published in 1957 by Hanover House as --> On the Truth of the Catholic Faith --> First paperback edition 1957 by Image Books --> Published by arrangement with Doubleday & Company, Inc. --> Manufactured in the United States of America --> Reprinted in 2009, 2010, 2012 --> Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data --> Thomas Aquinas, Saint, 1225?–1274. --> Summa contra gentiles. --> Reprint of the ed. published by Hanover House, Garden City, N.Y., under title: On the truth of the Catholic faith. --> Includes bibliographies. --> CONTENTS: book 1. God, translated, with an introd. and notes, by A. C. Pegis.—book 2. Creation, translated, with an introd. and notes, by J. F. Anderson. [etc.] --> 1. Apologetics—Middle Ages, 600—1500. I. Title. --> [BX1749.T4 1975] 239 75-19883 --> ISBN 0-268-01675-5 --> ISBN 0-268-01676-3 pbk. --> Summa Contra Gentiles, Book Four: Salvation --> ISBN 13: 978-0-268-01684-4 (pbk.: alk. paper) --> ISBN 10: 0-268-01684-5 (pbk.: alk. paper) --> ∞ This book is printed on acid-free paper. -->
1. Foreword
2. That there is generation, paternity, and sonship in the Divinity
3. That the Son of God is God
4. The opinion of Photinus on the Son of God, and its refutation
5. The opinion of Sabellius on the Son of God, and its refutation
6. The opinion of Arius about the Son of God
7. Refutation of the opinion of Arius on the Son of God
8. Solution of the authorities which Arius proposed for himself
9. Solution of the authorities of Photinus and of Sabellius
10. Arguments against divine generation and procession
11. How generation is to be understood in divinity, and what is said of the Son of God in Scripture
12. How the Son of God may be called the wisdom of God
13. That there is but one Son in the Divinity
14. Solution of the arguments against divine generation previously introduced
15. On the Holy Spirit, that He is in divinity
16. Arguments which made some think the Holy Spirit a creature
17. That the Holy Spirit is true God
18. That the Holy Spirit is a subsistent Person
19. How one must understand what is said about the Holy Spirit
20. On the effects attributed to the Holy Spirit in Scripture regarding the whole creation
21. On the effects attributed to the Holy Spirit in Scripture regarding the rational creature, so far as God’s gifts to us are concerned
22. On the effects attributed to the Holy Spirit in that He moves the creature to God
23. An answer to the arguments given above against the divinity of the Holy Spirit
24. That the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Son
25. Arguments of those who want to show that the Holy Spirit does not proceed from the Son and the answers
26. That there are but three Persons in divinity: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit
27. On the Incarnation of the Word according to the tradition of Scripture
28. On the error of Photinus about the Incarnation
29. On the error of the Manicheans about the Incarnation
30. On the error of Valentine about the Incarnation
31. On the error of Apollinaris about the body of Christ
32. On the error of Arius and Apollinaris about the soul of Christ
33. On the error of Apollinaris, who says there was no rational soul in Christ; and the error of Origen, who says the soul of Christ was created before the world
34. On the error of Theodore of Mopsueste and Nestorius on the union of the Word to man
35. Against the error of Eutyches
36. On the error of Macarius of Antioch, who holds there is but one will in Christ
37. Against those who said that the soul and body do not constitute a unity in Christ
38. Against those who put two supposits or hypostases in the one Person of Christ
39. What the Catholic faith holds about the Incarnation of Christ
40. Objections against faith in the Incarnation
41. How one should understand the Incarnation of the Son of God
42. That the assumption of human nature was most suited to the Word of God
43. That the human nature assumed by the Word did not pre-exist its assumption, but was assumed in the conception itself
44. That the human nature assumed by the Word in the conception itself was perfect in soul and body
45. That it became Christ to be born of a virgin
46. That Christ was born of the Holy Spirit
47. That Christ was not the son of the Holy Spirit in the flesh
48. That Christ must not be called a creature
49. Solution of the arguments against the Incarnation given above
50. That original sin is transmitted from the first parent to his descendants
51. Objections against original sin
52. Solution of the objections proposed
53. Arguments which seem to prove that God’s Incarnation was not suitable
54. That it was suitable for God to be made flesh
55. Answer to the arguments previously set down against the suitability of the Incarnation
56. On the necessity of the sacraments
57. The distinction of the sacraments of the Old and the New Law
58. On the number of the sacraments of the New Law
59. On baptism
60. On confirmation
61. On the Eucharist
62. On the error of the infidels about the sacrament of the Eucharist
63. Solution of the difficulties set down: first, about the conversion of the bread into the body of Christ
64. Solution of the objections made regarding place
65. Solution of the objections regarding accidents
66. Solution of the objections regarding action and passion
67. Solution of the objections regarding fraction
68. Solution of the authority introduced
69. On the kind of bread and wine that are to be used in this sacrament
70. On the sacrament of penance, and, first, that men after receiving sacramental grace are able to sin
71. That a man sinning after the grace of the sacraments can be converted by grace
72. On the necessity of penance and of its parts
73. On the sacrament of extreme unction
74. On the sacrament of orders
75. On the distinction of orders
76. On the episcopal power and that therein one is the highest
77. That the sacraments can be dispensed by evil ministers
78. On the sacrament of matrimony
79. That through Christ the resurrection of bodies is to come
80. Objections against the resurrection
81. Solution of the objections mentioned
82. That men will rise immortal
83. That among the risen there will be no use of food or sexual love
84. That the bodies of those who rise will be the same in nature
85. That the bodies of the risen will have another disposition
86. On the quality of glorified bodies
87. On the place of the glorified bodies
88. On the sex and age of the risen
89. On the quality of the risen bodies among the damned
90. How incorporeal substances may suffer from bodily fire
91. That immediately after their separation from the body the souls will receive punishment or reward
92. That the souls of the saints have after death an unchangeable will in the good
93. That after death the souls of the wicked have a will unchangeable in evil
94. On the immutability of will in souls detained in purgatory
95. On the immutability of wills commonly in all souls after their separation from the body
96. On the last judgment
97. On the state of the world after the judgment Subject Index 351 --> Index of Proper Names 357 -->
“quia etiam naturaliter homo homini amicus”
— SCG , IV, ch. 54 , ¶6
As the General Introduction has already pointed out, 1 St. Thomas makes it very plain that his work in Summa Contra Gentiles is divided into two principal parts. He tells us that this work should “first seek to make known that truth which faith professes and reason investigates” (I, ch. 9 , ¶3 ). It was to this part of his work that St. Thomas devoted SCG , I-III . He said that when this was accomplished one should “proceed to make known that truth which surpasses reason” (I, ch. 9 , ¶3 ). We will find the same division in SCG , IV. Here ( ch. 1 , ¶9 ) we are told that the discussion which has gone before aimed at acquiring a knowledge of divine things so far as the natural reason can achieve this through creatures. But, he says, there remains to him the task of discoursing on the “things revealed for belief” which “surpass the human understanding.”
The division of SCG into two chief parts, then, needs no further emphasis for the reader. Rather, to introduce him into the second of these two chief parts let us ask three questions. First, what is, in general, the content of this part which deals with things which “surpass the human understanding”? Second, if the content does, indeed, surpass human understanding, how can one “proceed to make known that truth which surpasses reason.” Th

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