International Human Rights and their Enforcement in Africa

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Whilst the establishment of the African human rights system was a good gesture that signalled the recognition of the value and essence of international human rights in the continent, a continuous study of the system has become necessary. This is particularly in light of the fact that the continent is in desperate need of well established and effective regional human rights enforcement mechanisms. At the moment, the regional human rights system is stuck between prospects and pitfalls because of the gap that exists between the promise of human rights and their actual realisation. By all means, this trend needs to be reversed. The main objective and purpose of this book is to underscore the challenges besetting the effective enforcement of international human rights law in Africa and the prospects and promises of an effective regional human rights system.

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Publié par
Date de parution 29 décembre 2011
Nombre de visites sur la page 1
EAN13 9789966530028
Langue English

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INTERNATIONALHUMANRIGHTSANDTHEIRENFORCEMENTINAFRICA
INTERNATIONALHUMANRIGHTSANDTHEIRENFORCEMENTINAFRICA
Morris Kiwinda Mbondenyi
Published by
LawAfrica Publishing (K) Ltd st Co-op Trust Plaza, 1 Floor Lower Hill Road P.O. Box 4260 - 00100 GPO Nairobi, Kenya Phone: +254 20 2722579/80 Fax: +254 20 2722592
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© Morris Mbondenyi 2011; LawAfrica ISBN 9966-1532-4-1
Copyright subsists in this work. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or means, or stored in a retrieval system of any nature without the prior publisher’s written permission. Any unauthorized reproduction of this work will constitute a copyright infringement and render the doer liable under both criminal and civil law.
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T C ABLE OF ONTENTS Dedication......................................................................... xiii Acknowledgements............................................................ xv Preface............................................................................... xvii List of Acronyms ................................................................ xix Table of Cases .................................................................... xxiii Table of Statutes................................................................. xxxi Introduction ...................................................................... 1 Part I: Philosophical and Historical Backgrounds of Human Rights in Africa Chapter 1: A Review of the Concept and Philosophy of Human Rights 1.1 Definition, Classification and Scope of Human Rights........................................................ 14 1.1.1 Definition of Human Rights................................... 14 1.1.2 Classification of Human Rights............................... 19 1.1.3 Scope of Human Rights ......................................... 21 1.2 Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights........... 23 1.2.1 Natural Law (Rights) Theory .................................. 24 1.2.2 Positivist Theory ..................................................... 28 1.2.3 Marxist Theory ....................................................... 31 1.3 Internationalisation of Human Rights ..................... 33 Chapter 2: Human Rights in Africa 2.1 Human Rights in Pre-colonial Africa ...................... 47 2.1.1 The Nature of Africa’s Pre-colonial Societies........... 49 2.1.2 Arguments on the Existence of Human Rights in Pre-colonial Africa .............................................. 55 2.1.3 The African Concept of Human Rights .................. 63 2.2 The Status of Human Rights in Africa during the Slave Trade Period ............................................. 75 2.3 Human Rights in Colonial Africa ........................... 78 2.3.1 The Status of Human Rights under the Indirect-rule System................................................ 79
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Morris Kiwinda Mbondenyi International Human Rights and their Enforcement in Africa
2.3.2 The Status of Human Rights under the Direct-rule/Paternalism System............................... 81 2.3.3 The Status of Human Rights under the Assimilation System ................................................ 82 2.4 Human Rights in Post-colonial Africa..................... 85 Chapter 3: Historical Dimensions of the African System on Human and Peoples’ Rights 3.1 The Emergence and Role of the OAU in Human Rights Protection in Africa......................... 98 3.2 The Emergence of Africa’s Regional Human Rights Mechanisms .................................... 103 3.3 The Evolution of the African Human Rights System to its Present Status ..................................... 111 3.3.1 The Transformation of the OAU to AU................... 113 3.3.2 The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) and the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) ............. 116 3.3.3 The Establishment of the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights .................................... 119 Part II: The Normative Instruments of the African System on Human and Peoples’ Rights
Chapter 4: The Constitutive Act of the African Union 4.1 Structure and Features of the Constitutive Act of the AU................................................................ 127 4.2 Human and Peoples’ Rights under the Constitutive Act ...................................................... 129 4.2.1 Human and Peoples’ Rights in the Objectives of the Constitutive Act ............................................ 131 4.2.2 Human and Peoples’ Rights under the Principles of the Constitutive Act ............................ 134
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Chapter 5: The African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights 5.1 Structure and Salient Features of the African Charter....................................................... 139 5.2 Individuals’ Rights under the African Charter.......... 145 5.2.1 Civil and Political Rights ........................................ 145 5.2.2.1 Right to Non-discrimination.................................. 145 5.2.1.2 Right to Life and Integrity of the Person ................ 150 5.2.1.3 Right against all Forms of Slavery, Slave Trade, Torture and Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment .............................................. 155 5.2.1.4 Right to Liberty and Security of the Person ............ 162 5.2.1.5 Right to a Fair Trial ................................................ 164 5.2.1.6 Right to Freedom of Conscience and Religion ........ 177 5.2.1.7 Right to Freedom of Expression ............................. 179 5.2.1.8 Right to Freedom of Association............................. 183 5.2.1.9 Right to Freedom of Assembly................................ 185 5.2.1.10 Right to Freedom of Movement ............................. 186 5.2.1.11 Right to Participate in the Government of One’s Country........................................................ 188 5.2.1.12 Right to Property ................................................... 191 5.2.2 Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ..................... 193 5.2.2.1 Right to Equitable and Satisfactory Conditions of Work ................................................ 195 5.2.2.2 Right to Health ...................................................... 196 5.2.2.3 Right to Education ................................................. 197 5.3 Collective and Peoples’ Rights under the Charter ............................................................. 199 5.3.1 Right to the Protection of the Family and other Related Rights .............................................. 202 5.3.2 Right to Self-determination.................................... 205 5.3.3 Right over Wealth and Natural Resources ............... 209 5.3.4 Right to Economic, Social and Cultural Development .......................................................... 211
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Morris Kiwinda Mbondenyi International Human Rights and their Enforcement in Africa
5.3.5 Right to Peace ........................................................ 213 5.3.6 Right to a General Satisfactory Environment .......... 215 5.4 Limitation of Rights under the African Charter....... 217 5.4.1 Limitation of Rights through Imposition of Duties................................................................. 218 5.4.2 Limitation of Rights through Internal Qualifications (Claw-back Clauses) ......................... 219 5.5 Duties under the African Charter ............................ 223 5.5.1 State’s Duty to Promote and Respect the Rights in the Charter.............................................. 223 5.5.2 State’s Duty to Guarantee the Independence of the Judiciary ....................................................... 225 5.5.3 Individual’s Duty to Respect the Rights of others ...................................................... 226 5.5.4 Individual’s Duty to Promote and Safeguard Respect and Tolerance ............................................ 226 5.5.5 Individual’s Duty to the Family and other Related Duties........................................................ 227 Chapter 6: The African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child 6.1 General Structure and Features of the Children’s Charter .................................................. 231 6.2 Rights under the Children’s Charter ....................... 234 6.2.1 Civil and Political Rights ........................................ 234 6.2.2 Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ..................... 244 6.3 Duties (Responsibilities) under the Children’s Charter .................................................. 252 Chapter 7: The Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa 7.1 General Structure and Features of the Protocol........ 258 7.2 Individuals’ Rights under the Protocol .................... 260 7.2.1 Civil and Political Rights ........................................ 260 7.2.2 Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ..................... 269
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7.3 Rights of Special Groups......................................... 272 Part III: Institutional Mechanisms of the African System on Human and Peoples Rights
Chapter 8: The African Union and its Organs 8.1 African Union’s Organs Involved in Regional Human Rights Enforcement.................... 281 8.2 African Union’s Programmes (Initiatives) with Human Rights Implications ............................ 289 8.2.1 Human Rights under NEPAD ................................ 289 8.2.2 Human Rights under the APRM............................ 292 8.2.3 A Critique of the NEPAD and APRM ................... 296 Chapter 9: The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights 9.1 Structure and Composition ..................................... 301 9.2 Mandate of the Commission ................................... 302 9.2.1 The Commission’s Promotional Mandate ................ 303 9.2.1.1 General Promotional Activities................................ 303 9.2.1.2 The State Reporting Mechanism ............................ 306 9.2.2 The Commission’s Protective Mandate.................... 311 9.2.2.1 Inter-state Communications Procedure ................... 312 9.2.2.2 Individuals (‘Non-state’) Communications Procedure ............................................................... 314 9.2.2.2.1 Submission of Individual Communications.............. 315 9.2.2.2.2 Admissibility of Individual Communications ........... 316 9.2.2.2.3 Procedure after a Communication has been Declared Admissible ................................................ 328 9.2.2.2.4 The Commission’s Recommendations on Communications .................................................... 330 9.2.2.2.5 Provisional (Interim) Measures and Remedies ......... 333