Richard G. Lugar
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Richard G. Lugar


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123 pages

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In the senatorial election of 1976, the people of Indiana offered a gift not only to the nation but to the world. For 36 years, Richard G. Lugar tirelessly and with great deliberation worked to advance causes of peace, health, and economic prosperity at home and abroad. This included the widespread elimination of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons through the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program. Respected and even beloved for his global initiatives and bipartisan efforts, in 2013 Lugar was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in the United States and, in England, the rank of Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire.

Featuring insightful commentary and memorable photographs spanning the entirety of Senator Lugar's career, Richard G. Lugar: Indiana's Visionary Statesman is an indispensable companion to an exhibition of his papers at the world-famous Lilly Library at Indiana University.



1. Agriculture: Supporting America's Farms

2. Education: Advocating for US Students

3. Domestic Policy: Innovating and Negotiating America's Future

4. Nutrition: Feeding the World

5. Democracy: Championing Freedom Across the Globe

6. Foreign Policy: Preserving Global Order, Expanding American Power

7. Arms Control: Negotiating Security for the World

8. The Nunn-Lugar Program: Envisioning a Safer World




Publié par
Date de parution 01 février 2019
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9780253045355
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 16 Mo

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Indiana University Press and the Lilly Library
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Indiana University Press
The Lilly Library
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2019 by The Trustees of Indiana University
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ISBN 978-0-253-04532-4
1 2 3 4 5 24 23 22 21 20 19



1. Agriculture: Supporting America s Farms

2. Education: Advocating for Students

3. Domestic Policy: Innovating and Negotiating America s Future

4. Nutrition: Feeding the World

5. Democracy: Championing Freedom across the Globe 76

6. Foreign Policy: Preserving Global Order and Expanding American Power

7. Arms Control: Negotiating Security for the World

8. The Nunn-Lugar Program: Envisioning a Safer World


When the Indiana University Libraries acquired Senator Richard G. Lugar s papers, it also gained the opportunity to reflect on the legacy and vision of one of Indiana s most prominent, even iconic, political figures. Richard G. Lugar entered public service in 1964, when he was elected to the Indianapolis School Board. He then served two terms as mayor of Indianapolis before being elected to the US Senate in 1976. One of Lugar s early Senate campaign slogans was that he was not just a senator from Indiana, he was a senator for Indiana, and he indeed served as a senator for Indiana from 1977 until 2013. Those years make him the longest-serving senator in Indiana s history.
What makes his legacy, and his archival collection, so rich is not just the length of time that he served, but also the breadth of the vision that he brought with him to Washington, a vision that combines both local and global perspectives. Senator Lugar is proud of being a fifth-generation Hoosier and of working on his 604-acre family farm located in Marion County, because both of those things gave him his deep Indiana roots. However, he is equally proud of having been a Rhodes Scholar and having studied abroad at Oxford University, of overseeing fair and democratic elections in the Philippines, and of authoring groundbreaking legislation in the Senate that contributed to global nuclear disarmament. His Indiana roots allowed him to branch out and become a major figure on both the national and international arenas. Through his vision and foresight, he made an incalculable impact on the state, the nation, and the world.
The Richard G. Lugar Senatorial Papers collection is part of the Modern Political Papers unit of the Indiana University Libraries. The collection is striking in terms of both its depth and its breadth. Its extent is impressive, comprising as it does over one thousand boxes of materials in a wide variety of formats. In addition to paper documents, there are over one hundred boxes of objects and memorabilia, thousands of audiovisual items, and tens of thousands of photographs. The scope of the content is also impressive. Senator Lugar served for many years on the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry and on the Committee on Foreign Relations. He also served as a member of the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs; the Select Committee on Intelligence; and the Arms Control Observer Group. Materials cover topics that range from local Indiana issues to international affairs, from the problems of individual citizens to arms control treaties affecting the entire globe. They cover the agricultural concerns of rural areas and the urban affairs of big cities, big businesses and local shops, energy, health care, the economy, childhood nutrition, education initiatives, the environment and conservation, and more. And although the collection focuses on his Senate career, it still contains significant material from his early life and his tenure as mayor of Indianapolis.
In March 2019, an exhibition of items from the Senator s papers will celebrate his life, legacy, and vision. This book, Richard G. Lugar: Indiana s Visionary Statesman , serves as a companion piece to the exhibition. Properly speaking, it is not an exhibition catalog, but it showcases photographs and other materials contained in the archival collection, it discusses in depth many of the same themes and topics featured in the exhibition, and it joins the exhibition in celebrating the Senator s legacy.
Senator Lugar dedicated much of his career to forging bipartisan ties with other members of Congress, and in that same spirit, work on the exhibition highlights the collaborative relationships that are the specialty of the Indiana University Libraries. As the project archivist and curator, I could not have done my work without the support of many different units on campus. The exhibition is being hosted by the Lilly Library, a stunning venue with dedicated professionals. In addition to the talented team that works on the Richard G. Lugar collection with me, invaluable assistance has been provided by the Indiana University Press, the specialist in Modern Political Papers, the Indiana University Archives, the E. Lingle Craig Preservation Lab, the Moving Image Archive, the Ruth Lilly Auxiliary Library Facility, the Media Digitization and Preservation Initiative, the Born Digital Preservation Lab, Library Technologies, Libraries Communications, and Library Administration. The extensive nature of Senator Lugar s legacy inspires multiple groups to connect with each other!
As someone who moved to Indiana only in 2009, my own experience of Senator Lugar has come mainly through my work on the exhibition, this book project, and the archival collection. The picture of Richard G. Lugar that has emerged for me in going through the archival materials is that of a politician who made decisions based not on what was always politically expedient, but on what he considered to be the genuinely right thing to do. One who genuinely cared about his constituents, who enjoyed meeting them, and who made sure that the letters they wrote and the issues they raised were acknowledged and addressed. One who believed in financial reform, economy, and efficiency, but who also believed that there was always room for compassion and room to help those who were hungry or less fortunate. One who believed that the world s problems could be solved if we approached them with reasonable thinking and respect for each other. One who believed that the most important thing in politics was reaching out to others and making connections, whether those connections be across the aisle, or between his state and the world.

Senator Richard G. Lugar s vision has inspired many people. It is his vision of connection, of wholeness, of doing what is right despite any difficulties, that is at the heart of the exhibition of his papers as well as of this book. Richard G. Lugar was not just a senator from Indiana, but he was also not just a senator for Indiana-he was a senator for the world.
Project Archivist, Richard G. Lugar Senatorial Papers
Indiana University Libraries
Special thanks to Mark Lubbers, Jay Branegan, and Chris Geeslin for their contributions to the book.
RICHARD G. LUGAR IS KNOWN FOR HIS LONG LIST OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS as a US senator. Responsible for authoring landmark legislation in areas such as agriculture and nuclear nonproliferation, he also led the campaign for historic democratic reform in South Africa and the Philippines, fought to defend nutrition and food security programs, developed multiple education and fitness initiatives, and tirelessly argued in favor of ending Americans dependence on oil and instead developing alternative sources of energy. He was widely respected by other senators as a true statesman, someone known for his honesty, integrity, reasonableness, and intelligence, and he dedicated his career to developing bipartisan ties between both parties.
However, even before he became a US senator, Lugar had garnered a national reputation and entered history books as one of the greatest mayors of the city of Indianapolis. As a youth, he was involved with his family s farm in Decatur Township in Marion County. He graduated first in his high school class at Shortridge High School in Indianapolis and first in his class at Denison University, and he became the first Denison University student to receive a Rhodes Scholarship to study at Oxford University. He married his college sweetheart and became a family man with four sons, turned his two struggling family businesses into successful enterprises, and devised a plan to help the Indianapolis public school system embrace desegregation during the civil rights era. In the Senate, Lugar would go on to be a long-time member and chair of the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry as well as the Committee on Foreign Relations. He also served on the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, as well as on the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Rather than a separate period of Senator Lugar s life, the pre-Senate years were the roots that informed his later career.
When relating his family history in documentaries and interviews, Richard G. Lugar often tells the story of his great-great-great-grandfather Adam Lugar, a Hessian mercenary soldier who came from Germany to fight against the American colonists in support of British rule. Fortunately, as Senator Lugar tells the story, Adam Lugar had the wisdom to embrace the Americans cause, and he left the Hessians in order to join the Revolutionary Army. When the Revolutionary War ended, he decided to stay in his new country and settle in Virginia. Eventually, Adam Lugar s son, George, left Virginia and came to Indiana, making Richard Lugar a fifth-generation Hoosier.
One of the great negotiators of our time Dick Lugar is the man who has meant more to our country than anybody I can possibly think of today, and he has a legacy of supporting the State of Indiana in any way he possibly could.
Senator Johnny Isakson, Senate Floor Speech
From his ancestors, Richard Lugar inherited a fighting spirit, an eagerness to discover new territories and experiences, and the ability to see beyond partisan dedication to a particular cause. Lugar was born on April 4, 1932, in Indianapolis to Bertha and Marvin Lugar, the eldest of three children. In April 1944, shortly after his twelfth birthday, Richard Lugar joined the Boy Scouts of America, attaining the rank of Eagle Scout two years later. In a letter dated February 21, 1989, to Mr. Chris Horton of Boy Scout Troop #103 in Cicero, Indiana, Senator Lugar pointed to his time in the Scouts as a formative period in his life, years that influenced both his later years when he served in the US Navy and in political life. Being a Scout encouraged in him a sense of leadership and an appreciation of nature, as well as the ability to adapt to a wide variety of circumstances. In later years, when Lugar ran for mayor of Indianapolis, he was sometimes dubbed the Boy Scout mayor, and in the 2018 documentary produced by WFYI television about Richard Lugar s life and career titled Richard Lugar: Reason s Quiet Warrior , Senator Sam Nunn pointed to Lugar s background as a Boy Scout as an indication of his reliability, trustworthiness, and integrity.
As a youth, Richard and his brother, Tom, gained experience with their family farm. Their father purchased the 604-acre farm near Indianapolis in 1931. It provided the young Lugar boys with a valuable life lesson in the risks that farmers face. Senator Lugar relates the early initiation the boys received into the hazardous world of agriculture, stating, Early in our lives, the farm became a lesson in work and risk and reward. 1 He describes how he and Tom earned ten cents an hour pulling volunteer corn out of the bean fields. After they had saved up seventeen dollars in their piggy banks, their father came to them with a proposition: they could purchase one acre of his wheat field. The boys, thinking that this was a sure way to make a profit, agreed, but that year the White River flooded, taking with it their entire investment.
In addition to this painful lesson in finances, the farm also played a role in young Richard Lugar s political formation. Marvin Lugar purchased his farm during the height of the Great Depression, and he vehemently disagreed with President Franklin Roosevelt s agricultural policies. Richard Lugar describes how his father emphasized the shortcomings of Roosevelt s policies to anyone who would listen, and his dislike of Roosevelt was so strong, he refused to even accept a Roosevelt dime as change from cashiers. His father s beliefs about agriculture and his experiences as a farmer influenced the senator in later years, when he served as chair of the agriculture committee:
My father believed the farm was a business-the same as his livestock commission operation and his small factory. He believed that he should be able to make his own decisions in each of these businesses, even on the farm, which was hard work and very risky . Dad taught us well-both the risks and the rewards of farming. My experiences growing up on the farm taught me the importance of planning and hard work . I have managed [the farm] for the past 40 years since my father s death, and it has turned a profit every year. We grow corn, soybeans and black walnut trees. I spend as much time as I can pruning the young walnut trees I have planted. As chairman of the Senate Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Committee, I led the 1996 effort to end federal production controls and put into place the Freedom to Farm program. Each year as I make my own planting decisions based on the market, I remember my Dad, and appreciate my memories on the farm with him. 2
Senator Lugar spent every year of his Senate career as a member of the agriculture committee, and he often pointed out that he was one of the few senators on the committee who had ever actually worked on a farm. John Lugar, the senator s third son, has stated that the Scouts were a formative influence on his father, but that the family farm is really his essence. 3
When Richard Lugar graduated from Shortridge High School and began to attend Denison University in Granville, Ohio, Marvin Lugar wrote his son letters to keep him updated on how things were progressing on the farm. In addition to keeping in touch with his home life, Lugar was making other connections as well. He served as the co-president of the student body at Denison, sharing the office with another student, Charlene Smeltzer. In interviews, Senator Lugar relates how he heard through friends that when Charlene found out that she was going to have to share the governing position, she purportedly said that she had no intention of being pushed around by some pushy man! Lugar realized that he would have to cultivate a sense of diplomacy and tact in order for the student government to run smoothly.
Lugar s diplomacy seemed to have worked. After graduating from Denison, he went to Oxford University as a Rhodes Scholar, where he earned both a BA and an MA degree, studying politics, philosophy, and economics. Charlene attended graduate school at Northwestern University, where she earned an MA in philosophy. They married in 1956, not long after Lugar received his Oxford degrees and just before he volunteered to serve in the US Navy. Richard and Char developed a true partnership. When a group of people from the West Side of Indianapolis approached him in 1964 and asked him to run for the school board, he discussed the decision with Char. They decided that, with four young sons about to enter the Indianapolis public school system, they had an obligation to their community. Moreover, after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, they both felt that Richard had an obligation to engage in public service to his country. When Richard became a senator, Char sometimes traveled abroad with him. Senator Lugar was equally supportive of Char s interests in charitable causes, particularly her concern for the issue of birth defects.
In the same way that Richard Lugar s early experiences on his family s farm prepared him for his later tenure on the agriculture committee, other experiences in this period laid the groundwork for a successful Senate career in other areas. When Lugar left to study at Pembroke College at Oxford University, it was his first trip abroad. It also turned out that he was the only American student at Pembroke. The opportunity presented by being a Rhodes Scholar not only enriched Lugar s mind and intellect, but it also provided him with a crash course in international relations. Being the only American at Pembroke was not a drawback for him, but an advantage, as it allowed him to become closer to the English students, rather than only socializing with other Americans. In what would become a hallmark of his later career, he was able to appeal to parties on both sides of the ocean; while at Oxford he was elected both the student body president of Pembroke College, in spite of being its only American, and the president of the Oxford American Students Association. 4 Later, as the mayor of Indianapolis, Richard and Char visited England again, this time as honored guests of the mayor of London. And his early experiences continued to serve him well as a senator when interacting with Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, Prime Minister John Major, and Queen Elizabeth II.
Richard G. Lugar studied at Oxford during a time when England had not quite fully recovered from the devastation of World War II, and also at a time when the Korean War was still in recent memory. It was inevitable, then, that his attention would turn toward military service. In a documentary film detailing his life and career titled Richard G. Lugar: United States Senator for Indiana , Lugar discusses conversations with other students who claimed that military service was not for them. According to Lugar, those students felt that they had too much to lose, that it would be a terrible tragedy if they were to lose their time or their lives to military service. These conversations disturbed him, and he stated, I felt they were inappropriate for people to whom much has been given. He decided to volunteer for the US Navy, and was eventually assigned to work as an intelligence briefer to Admiral Arleigh A. Burke, chief of Naval Operations under presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy. As Senator Lugar described it, he would read the secrets of secrets in the evening and prepare intelligence briefs for the Pentagon, which he delivered every morning via closed-circuit television. Eisenhower himself sometimes viewed Lugar s briefings, which he conducted in the room purportedly used by Roosevelt to broadcast his fireside chats. Lugar s time in the navy provided the future senator with additional international relations experience and also served him well later as a member of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence.
By 1960, both the family farm and the family business had been suffering due to Marvin Lugar s death in 1956. Honoring his sense of family commitment, Richard Lugar left naval service in order to return home and take part in running the two businesses. He became the vice president and treasurer of Thomas L. Green Company, a factory that produced manufacturing equipment for the baking industry. Richard and his brother, Tom, turned the struggling company into a profitable enterprise, mainly by emphasizing the importance of exporting their goods to foreign countries. Their factory became the first company in Indiana to receive the E Award, a national honor founded by President Kennedy for achievement in the field of industrial exports. The contacts that Richard Lugar made during this time proved valuable; when he traveled to the Philippines in 1986 as an election observer, he already had associates in the country due to the family s business. 5 Moreover, Richard Lugar took his experiences as a small business owner with him to the Senate, where they influenced his thinking on budgetary and tax matters. In a letter dated March 18, 1993, Senator Lugar wrote to his nephew, Todd Lugar, who by then worked at Thomas L. Green Company:
During my tenure in the United States Senate, I have argued the case for small business tenaciously because I am firmly convinced that net growth in new jobs and income for our country lies in the growth of entrepreneurship through small businesses and export sales. I was privileged to share in a total of only eight years of the 100 years which the Company celebrates, but I have used those experiences and subsequent testimony from Tom [Lugar] with considerable vigor in trying to improve conditions for all small businesses in America, with specific arguments taken from our business. 6
Lugar s experiences running Thomas L. Green Company led to him being asked to run for the Indianapolis Board of School Commissioners. Through his work on the school board, he tapped into federal funding to provide school lunches throughout Indianapolis public schools. Additionally, soon after he joined the board, his old high school, Shortridge, was in danger of becoming de facto segregated. His Shortridge Plan was an attempt to reverse this trend by establishing Shortridge as a college preparatory school, one to which any student in the city could apply. Within a short time, the school reached a student racial balance of approximately 50/50, all on a voluntary basis. The plan, however, was not popular with some members of the board, and Lugar lost his bid to become its president.
So instead, Lugar became the mayor of Indianapolis. In 1967, he won his first mayoral election. A relative newcomer to politics, the thirty-five-year-old defeated a sitting incumbent mayor, John J. Barton, to become the first Republican mayor of Indianapolis in almost twenty years, and one of the few Republican mayors of a major metropolitan center in the country. In 1971, he won his bid for reelection and served his second term as mayor. The first time he ran, he beat his opponent by a margin of nine thousand votes. The second time, he won by a margin of fifty-four thousand votes.
Lugar s popularity as mayor was based on the many changes he made in Indianapolis and his dedication to urban renewal. The late 1960s and early 1970s were a period of difficulty for urban centers across the nation, as more and more citizens left city centers to settle in the suburbs, thereby creating a drain on a city s resources. Lugar was determined to revitalize the Indianapolis downtown as the heart of the city. In order to accomplish this plan, he negotiated for the approval of a controversial proposal called Unigov, which was essentially a plan for a unified city-county government. Under Unigov, the city of Indianapolis and the surrounding areas of Marion County would be merged in several aspects. Most notably, they would share the same tax base and would share many similar services. Some voices were sharply critical of the proposal, but its ultimate result was that it streamlined services, created civic pride and social unity, and brought more businesses and jobs to the city. Indianapolis experienced a true urban renewal under Mayor Lugar.
The Unigov plan was so unique and so successful that it garnered national attention for Mayor Lugar, who became a known figure on the national stage. Indianapolis was named an All-America City for its healthy economy. At a meeting of the National League of Cities, Lugar defeated New York City mayor John V. Lindsay in a stunning upset victory to become the organization s vice president and then president. At the time, it was an almost unheard of accomplishment that the young mayor of a midsized city could unseat the mayor of New York. Years later, in his first appointment as a freshman senator on the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, Senator Lugar would negotiate a plan to help New York City avoid bankruptcy.
Around the same time that Lugar unseated Lindsay on the National League of Cities, he also attracted the attention of the White House. In February 1970, Richard Nixon visited Indianapolis with his cabinet and urban advisors, and Lugar was named to the president s Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations. The young mayor was dubbed Nixon s favorite mayor, and there were even rumors that Nixon might choose Lugar to replace Spiro T. Agnew as his vice presidential running mate when he ran for reelection in 1972. That was not to be, but Lugar was invited to deliver a speech at the 1972 Republican National Convention.
Richard Lugar s success as mayor of Indianapolis was based in large part on the success of Unigov, but it was also based on his other initiatives and the genuine care and concern he expressed for the city and its people. He spent his first official day as mayor, January 1, 1968, fulfilling a campaign promise to close down dumps in the city that allowed open burning, which created smoke and environmentally unhealthy conditions. He disbanded the city s complaints department, and instead all concerns from citizens went straight to the mayor s office. He worked to repair the city s roads, clean up its parks, and beautify its neighborhoods. He created a task force that found ways to bring thousands of jobs to the city, he created summer programs that served thousands of young people, and he endorsed the renovation of the historic City Market. He was fully invested in the life of the city and its people. When Lugar decided not to seek reelection for a third term in 1975, the city honored him with tributes both large and small. The Richard G. Lugar Senatorial Papers collection contains a group of five thick bound volumes of letters that Lugar received thanking him for his service to the city. Many of the letters express the sentiment that Lugar s efforts and energy had restored their faith in politicians and in the political process.
As early as 1969, some national newspapers were singling Richard Lugar out as a politician to keep an eye on. By 1972, rumors were circulating that he was a potential vice presidential candidate, and even that he was considering a bid for the presidency. In 1974, however, he decided to run as a senator for Indiana.
Lugar s first campaign for the senate was against Birch Bayh, who was already a two-time incumbent at that point. Many times during the campaign season, the two candidates ran neck and neck; in the end, Lugar lost to Bayh, but by a fairly narrow margin of 51 percent to 46 percent. Two years later, however, Richard Lugar succeeded in the primaries over a former governor of Indiana to become the Republican nominee for senator. He ran against Democrat Vance Hartke, who was seeking reelection for a fourth term. This time, Lugar triumphed by a margin of 59 percent to 40 percent, thus starting his career as Indiana s long-serving US senator.

Tom (left) and Richard (right) Lugar with their mother Bertha in July 1938.

In 1944, shortly after his twelfth birthday, Richard Lugar became a Boy Scout. He eventually attained the rank of Eagle Scout. He was sometimes dubbed the Boy Scout mayor by the press, but he credits the organization with instilling in him many values that were important throughout his life.

Richard Lugar as a student at Denison University. A handwritten inscription on the back by an unknown person states, Denison U. 1953. Beta Military Ball. Dick Lugar dressed as the President Ike! Even then he knew where he was headed. *Note sign on golf bag. The sign on the golf bag seems to say General Eisenhower. Years later, when he served in the navy as an intelligence briefer, Lugar would deliver reports to Eisenhower via closed-circuit television.

Charlene Lugar and Richard Lugar with President Richard Nixon. During his tenure as mayor of Indianapolis, Richard Lugar was known as Nixon s favorite mayor.

Business card of Mayor Richard G. Lugar. Lugar was the mayor of Indianapolis for eight years, from 1968 to 1976. Under his tenure, Indianapolis was named an All-America City by the National Civic League based on the health of its economy and numerous other factors.

US Army soldiers take a break from filming the television spot The U.S. Soldier in the U.K. to chat with students at Pembroke College at Oxford University. Among them is Richard Lugar, far right, who was studying at Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar. After hearing his fellow students dismiss the idea of military service, Lugar decided it was his obligation to volunteer for duty.

Richard Lugar shakes hands with Mayor Morris Settles. In his first term as mayor, Richard Lugar negotiated for the passage of a controversial plan called Unigov for a new form of consolidated city-county government that unified the governmental functions of the city of Indianapolis and the surrounding areas of Marion County. Morris Settles, the mayor of Lawrence, Indiana, located in Marion County, was one of the plan s opponents.

Senator Richard Lugar visits Thomas L. Green Company, the family business where Lugar worked for eight years before becoming the mayor of Indianapolis. With him are his brother, Tom Lugar (right), and Tom s son Todd Lugar (left).

Mayor Lugar s Unigov program gained him national recognition, including Indianapolis being named the host city of the First International Conference on Cities held in 1971.

Mayor Lugar with black firefighters from the Indianapolis Fire Department.

Mayor Richard Lugar and his family in the reviewing stands at the Indianapolis 500 Festival parade on May 25, 1975.

Charlene and Richard Lugar at the nominating convention that kicked off Richard Lugar s 1974 campaign run for the Senate. Lugar lost that bid to incumbent Senator Birch Bayh by a margin of only five percent of the vote. Two years later, he would be successful and defeat incumbent Vance Hartke by a margin of nineteen percent of the vote.

Mayor Richard Lugar participates in a ribbon-cutting ceremony at the opening of a Goodyear tire store in Indianapolis in August 1975. One of Richard Lugar s chief goals upon taking over as the mayor was to revitalize the local economy and attract new businesses and jobs. His Unigov plan, which consolidated city and county government, achieved those aims.

Senator Lugar prunes trees on his family farm in August 1991. As a young boy, Lugar worked on the farm and continued to do so and manage operations even while serving in the Senate.
Meeting with Indiana Farm Bureau delegates, 1991. The Indiana Farm Bureau calls itself The Voice of Indiana Agriculture and provides guidance to its members on issues such as property rights and taxation. It also sponsors an annual state convention. Senator Lugar often spoke at Indiana Farm Bureau events and met with delegates.