The Lilly Library from A to Z
190 pages

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The Lilly Library from A to Z


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190 pages

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What do locks of Edgar Allan Poe's hair, Sylvia Plath's attractive handmade paper dolls, John Ford's Oscars, and Ian Fleming's James Bond 007 cigars have in common? They are just a few of the fascinating objects found in the world-famous Lilly Library, located on the campus of Indiana University Bloomington. In this beautifully illustrated A-to-Z volume, Darlene J. Sadlier journeys through the library's wide-ranging collections to highlight dozens of intriguing items and the archives of which they are a part. Read about life and death masks of John Keats, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Dreiser; Walt Whitman's last pencil; and vintage board games, mechanical puzzles, and even comic books. Among the more peculiar items are a pair of elk teeth and an eerily realistic wall-mount bust of Boris Karloff. Sadlier writes engagingly about the Lilly Library's major historical collections, which include Civil War diaries and a panopticon of the war called the Myriopticon; War of 1812 payment receipts to spies; and the World War II letters and V-mail of journalist Ernie Pyle. This copiously illustrated, entertaining, and educational book will inspire you to take your own journey and discover for yourself the wonders of the Lilly Library.


A. Armband


Automobile Catalogs

B. Ben-Hur Album and Broadside

Book Bindings

Boxer Codex


C. Campaign buttons and pin

Chez Panisse Menus

Cigars, Cigarettes

D. Dolls


E. Electropoise


F. Footwear

Fore-Edge Paintings


G. Games

H. Hair

I. Inca Portraits

Indians and Other Peruvians on Pith


J. Jigsaw and Non-Interlocking Educational Puzzles

The Jungle Theater Posters

Justice Cup and Other Puzzle Vessels

K. Keys, Knives, and Other Mechanical Puzzles

L. Lantern Slides

Livres d'Artiste

M. Makeup Case of Rita Hayworth


Masks (Life and Death)





N. Nobel Prize Medal and Other Objects

O. Oscars

P. Passports

Pencil and Pen



Printing Press and Calder & Boyars Printing Blocks

Q. Queen Elizabeth I Great Seal

Quick Draw McGraw Comics

R. Receipts


S. Scrapbooks


Stereoscopic Skin Clinic


T. Teeth



U. United World Federalists Promotional Stickers, Kit, Films, and Recordings

V. V-mail


Victorian Greeting Cards

W. Watercolors

Window shades



X. The letter "X"



Y. The Yellow Book (also known as Yellow Book)

Z. Zener Cards

Zinc and Other Metal Printing Plates



Publié par
Date de parution 09 août 2019
Nombre de lectures 1
EAN13 9780253042699
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 5 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0047€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.


Lilly Library
from A to Z
Lilly Library
from A to Z

This book is a publication of
an imprint of
Indiana University Press
Office of Scholarly Publishing
Herman B Wells Library 350
1320 East 10th Street
Bloomington, Indiana 47405 USA
2019 by Darlene J. Sadlier
All photographs by Jody Mitchell.
All rights reserved
No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Manufactured in China
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington), author. | Sadlier, Darlene J. (Darlene Joy), author.
Title: The Lilly Library from A to Z : intriguing objects in a world-class collection / Darlene J. Sadlier.
Description: Bloomington, Indiana : Indiana University Press, 2019. | Series: Well House books | Includes bibliographical references.
Identifiers: LCCN 2019008228 (print) | LCCN 2019010961 (ebook) | ISBN 9780253042682 (ebook) | ISBN 9780253042668 (cloth : alk. paper)
Subjects: LCSH: Library materials-Indiana-Bloomington-Catalogs. | Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington)-Catalogs.
Classification: LCC Z664.L55 (ebook) | LCC Z664.L55 L55 2019 (print) | DDC 025.2/109772255-dc23
LC record available at
1 2 3 4 5 24 23 22 21 20 19
For Jim
You will see this icon featured throughout. It indicates that the object is available to view in 3-D online. Visit to explore these 3-D images and more.
Introduction: On Wandering and Wonder
Automobile Catalogs
Ben-Hur Album and Broadside
Boxer Codex
Campaign Buttons and Pin
Chez Panisse Menus
Cigars, Cigarettes
Fore-Edge Paintings
Inca Portraits
Indians and Other Peruvians on Pith
Jigsaw and Noninterlocking Educational Puzzles
The Jungle Theater Posters
Justice Cup and Other Puzzle Vessels
Keys, Knives, and Other Mechanical Puzzles
Lantern Slides
Livres d Artistes
Makeup Case of Rita Hayworth
Masks (Life and Death)
Nobel Prize Medal and Other Objects
Pencil and Pen
Printing Press and Calder Boyars Printing Blocks
Queen Elizabeth I Great Seal
Quick Draw McGraw Comics
Stereoscopic Skin Clinic
United World Federalists Promotional Stickers, Kit, Films, and Recordings
Victorian Greeting Cards
Window Shades
The Yellow Book
Zener Cards
Zinc and Other Metal Printing Plates
List of 3-D Images
I owe thanks to many people at the Lilly Library who were helpful in suggesting and locating various objects for this book. The advice of conservator James Canary was essential for my writing about bookbindings, and his comments on that entry were especially helpful. Craig Simpson, former manuscripts archivist and now director of Special Collections and Archives at San Jos State University, called my attention to numerous items in the library s film collections, among them Lee Marvin s brogues from Point Blank that are in the John Boorman collection. Public services head Rebecca Baumann was gracious in sharing her own list of objects and suggesting other items for the volume. Public services librarian Isabel Planton brought me many objects to study, and curator of puzzles Andrew Rhoda provided useful information about key and knife trick puzzles. Reference and technical assistant Sarah Mitchell was an amazing and stalwart email correspondent, who replied to my countless questions about objects and archives. Digitization manager Zachary Downy and public services assistant Jody Mitchell were enthusiastic collaborators from the start. I am deeply grateful for Zach s supervision of the images that appear in this book and for Jody s creative staging and camera work.
Three individuals who deserve special thanks are retired from the Lilly Library: librarians Rebecca ( Becky ) Cape and David Frasier and former library director Breon Mitchell. Becky referred me to many unusual objects in the collections, made additions to my early A-to-Z list, and gave valuable comments on an initial draft of the manuscript. Dave prepared a large stack of handwritten note cards with suggestions of objects to include, and we had a pleasant time going over them in his favorite restaurant. Breon made several important recommendations for the book; we had many conversations in the library s reading room about his ongoing bilingual dictionaries project, and I appreciate his unwavering support.
Anyone who does research at the Lilly Library knows the importance of the young men and women who staff the reading room and bring us the materials requested. For over a year, I had the benefit of their dedicated service, as well as the pleasure of joining them in their curiosity at objects they brought to my table. Some are training to be librarians, while others are working on graduate degrees in the humanities. They are a talented group and were a delight to work with over the many months.
During my research I had conversations with Lilly Library director Joel Silver and associate director Erika Dowell. Joel reviewed my printing press commentary, and Erika provided essential permissions information. I wish to thank professor of English Christoph Irmscher for his close reading of the Audubon entry. Wen-ling Liu, librarian for East Asian and Tibetan studies at Indiana s Herman B Wells Library, provided translations of works in Chinese, for which I am deeply grateful. Rachel Stoeltje and Andy Uhrich of the Moving Image Archive enabled my viewing of several archival films. Digital humanities manager Tassie Gniady was a wonderful collaborator, and I am forever indebted to her and Katie Chapman for their time, energy, and creativity in producing the online 3-D supplement to this book.
I first shared the idea of this project with assistant provost for strategic campus advancement Helene O Leary, who at the time was assistant dean of libraries. She was instantly excited by the topic and thought it was perfect for a series to celebrate Indiana University s bicentennial in 2020. She encouraged me to talk to Indiana University Press director Gary Dunham, who supported my project from the start. I appreciate the professional care that he and Peggy Solic (acquisitions editor of Well House Books) gave to the manuscript as it journeyed into print. Rachel Rosolina (production manager/editor) and Carol McGillivray (Amnet editorial project manager) provided indispensable support during the copyediting process. Special thanks also to Kelly Kish, deputy chief of staff and the university s bicentennial director, for including the book as part of Indiana University Press s Well House imprint. Words cannot express my deep appreciation for senior artist and book designer Pamela Rude s stunningly beautiful artwork for the book, which accounts for so much of its interest.
My husband, James Naremore, Chancellors Professor Emeritus, read the entries as I wrote them, and the objects and my research were a regular part of our dinner conversations for more than two years. His insightful comments and editorial suggestions as well as his constant encouragement and loving support were invaluable to the writing of the book. The volume is dedicated to him.
Lilly Library
from A to Z
On Wandering and Wonder
F ounded in 1960, the Lilly Library on the campus of Indiana University Bloomington is a world-class rare books and manuscripts library. In addition to paper materials, it also houses a variety of unusual objects related to its individual research collections, including such things as dolls, life and death masks, jewelry, locks of famous hair, an authentic set of Spock ears, painted window shades, a Civil War-inspired panorama called the Myriopticon, and a scrapbook of Midwest wanted posters. These and many other fascinating objects are less well known to visitors than such holdings as the Gutenberg Bible, John Ford s Oscars, and the Shakespeare First Folio, but they all provoke interest; some are unique, some are charmingly odd, and others, even when apparently commonplace, exude a special aura because of the collections where they are found.
While books and manuscripts are the principle objects exhibited by the library, upon entering the main lobby visitors encounter an impressive full-size wooden printing press. The adjacent Slocum Room features numerous mechanical puzzles from different parts of the world, which the public is encouraged to manipulate. (These are only a tiny fraction of the estimated thirty thousand that compose the renowned Jerry Slocum puzzle collection.) In the nearby Lincoln Room sits a bronze bust of Abraham Lincoln by Gutzon Borglum, who sculpted the figures on Mount Rushmore, and a desk from Lincoln s Springfield office. Here and in the adjoining Elisabeth Ball Room, small cases often display other objects, such as samples from the estimated sixteen thousand miniature books from the Ruth E. Adomeit collection, John Ford s Academy Award for How Green Was My Valley , and locks of hair that belonged to Edgar Allan Poe and Sylvia Plath. (One of Poe s locks is encased in a handsome oval-shaped brooch with small pearls.)
The library s larger display spaces are devoted to changing exhibitions of books, manuscripts, and other intriguing material. For example, the 2015 exhibit 100 Years of Orson Welles: Master of Stage, Sound and Screen included not only Welles s screenplays, but also his hand-drawn set designs for his film version of Macbeth , his costume sketches for Five Kings , and a large, colorful broadside for his Mercury Theater productions of The Shoemaker s Holiday and Julius Caesar . The latter announces, You can t lose no matter which one you hit!
The Lilly Library regularly publishes catalogs devoted to individual collections and exhibits, but this book has a different aim. In many ways it is a personal tour or wandering through the library-an outsider s view, although it probably reflects my own research interests in cinema and the culture of the Portuguese-speaking world. It could never have been written without the help of the Lilly Library s talented staff, but it is not written for professional librarians or specialists. The audience I have in mind is a made up of educated or curious readers who may or may not have special interests. I have organized the contents almost whimsically by the letters of the alphabet, and for each letter I have allowed myself to jump from one topic to another, as a way of indicating the amazing scope of the collections and the wonder I felt at seeing their variety. I assume most people will not try to read the book straight through from A to Z. They can turn the pages, viewing the colorful illustrations and dipping into the text where they like, in the wandering and wonder spirit in which the volume was written. Readers can also dip into the online 3-D supplement that accompanies the book.
In my career as a faculty member at Indiana University, I learned early on about the wonder of many objects when former Lilly librarian Rebecca Becky Cape regularly scheduled time to talk to my students about the formidable Brasiliana collection. While students were impressed by the first editions of colonial Brazilian works we were reading in class, the showstoppers tended to be Theodor de Bry s sensationalized engravings of Tupi cannibal rituals and the colorful illustrated New World maps. Becky always added a few other items to the show-and-tell to apprise students of the broad scope of the collections. Miniature books and Ford s Academy Award were always a hit. Everyone loves donning the library s white cotton gloves to hold the Oscar, and its hefty weight-eight and a half pounds of metal-always surprises those who pick it up. Along with the Shakespeare First Folio, the statuette is one of the objects visitors most frequently request to see.
When I began thinking about writing this book, what interested me was not only the object as historical artifact, but also its part in the life story of the individual who owned it. In most of the commentary that follows, the object functions as a portal or avenue to the collection from which it derives. Consider, for instance, the James Bond 007 cigars, which lead to a discussion of the Ian Fleming papers. Some objects arrived at the library as individual acquisitions and therefore are not part of a personal collection. This category includes a few specially handcrafted bookbindings, one of the library s specialty areas. Among those discussed in the Bookbinding entry under the letter B is British artist Philip Smith s extraordinary gothic tower binding, replete with a glass eye, which he designed for J. R. R. Tolkien s The Silmarillion .
Some readers may ask what constitutes an object for my purposes. Are books, manuscripts, papers, receipts, broadsides, illustrations, drawings, and maps objects? My answer is yes, unless perhaps in an e-reader or online. That s why libraries need shelves or storage space to keep them. When we are absorbed in reading a book, we do not think of it as an object in the same sense as a bowl of flowers or a statue. It s object-ness becomes more obvious when it is rare or unusually designed, and for that reason the illustrations in the following pages tend to feature books, magazines, maps, cartoons, and individual pages that have a strong visual interest. My focus has not been on the history of books and printing, about which there is already a vast literature. I have simply taken the liberty of writing about objects that might strike a reader s interest, and I should emphasize that the things I have selected are only the tip of an iceberg.
I chose an A-to-Z organization, as opposed to a chronological one, and was inspired by calligrapher Coella Lindsay Ricketts s engraved alphabet plates and illustrations. Oftentimes I have brought together highly disparate items under a single letter of the alphabet. Consider the letter C , which covers such realia (objects) as campaign buttons and pins, Chez Panisse menus, the James Bond 007 cigars, and a pack of Tramp cigarettes named for Charles Chaplin. Perhaps no two objects better demonstrate the cultural extremes of the collections than the ones represented by the letter Q : Queen Elizabeth I s Great Seal and Quick Draw McGraw comic books.
A short list of unusual objects was compiled several years ago by an unknown staff member to whom I am extremely indebted. That list was the starting point for my research, during which I spent over a year diving deep into numerous small and large collections belonging to famous as well as ordinary citizens. The excellent library staff was fundamental in calling my attention to many of the objects that I write about. In making difficult choices, I have tended to favor items that concern the history of Indiana-its writers, artists, political figures, and interesting lesser-known people. Not surprisingly, many of the Lilly Library s collections, like those of composer-actor Hoagy Carmichael and politician-Hollywood censor Will Hays, have strong ties to Indiana. Among other native or adopted Hoosiers discussed in this book are presidential candidate Wendell Willkie; poet James Whitcomb Riley; activist couple Powers Hapgood and Mary Donovan; Lew Wallace, author of Ben-Hur ; Kurt Vonnegut; and the Ball family, known for producing the glass Ball jar.
The collections in the library are, as in most similar institutions, predominantly white and male because it was largely those with money, education, and full access to the public sphere who founded libraries and museums-a practice dating back to the centuries-old wundercabinets , or curiosity cabinets, which were private collections of objects from nature or the arts. The library does have a few major collections belonging to women, most prominently Ruth E. Adomeit and Elisabeth Ball, the latter of whom collected thousands of children s books and created fascinating assemblages of cutout dolls. And the library s trove of Latin American materials includes portraits of Inca leaders and a sizable collection of Indian and Peruvian figures painted on delicate pith paper. A few smaller collections, including that of Claudia Hill, offer insights into the African American experience. Among the Asian objects I discuss are a Chinese tapestry-covered six-foot scroll; the Boxer Codex hand-drawn illustrations; Chinese and Japanese export puzzles; and a bust of efficiency expert Harrington Emerson by Japanese American sculptor Isamu Noguchi. One of the library s acquisitions objectives is to bring greater diversity to the collections.
As someone who enjoys the material aspect of archival research, reading in the library s collections and looking at objects in their context has been a unique educational experience. It is my hope that the A-to-Z entries, which constitute my own wundercabinet of sorts, will provide enjoyment, information, and a greater sense of the Lilly Library s importance to us all.
O n Sunday, August 28, 1927, a massive funeral cortege accompanied the bodies of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti from the Langone Funeral Home on the Boston north side, where their bodies had been on view for their many supporters, to the Forest Hills Cemetery, where they were cremated. It was a long journey for the men s families and the tens of thousands of others who walked the March of Sorrow organized by the Sacco and Vanzetti Defense Committ ee. Chief among the mourners was committ ee secretary Mary Donovan, who had been arrested by police earlier for raising a placard in the Boston Common that read, Did you see what I did to those anarchistic bastards? -Judge Thayer. Red felt armbands with black lett ering that spelled out REMEMBER! JUSTICE CRUCIFIED ! August 22, 1927 were distributed to mourners, who were warned by local officials not to wear them until they crossed Scollay Square, the city s busy commercial center.
There is no indication whether the faded armband in the Lilly Library s Hapgood collection belonged to Donovan or to her soon-to-be husband, Powers Hapgood, who joined the defense committ ee in 1927. We might say that the single armband represents the twin spirit of the two young radicals, whose lives became intertwined in their defense of Sacco and Vanzetti. Like Donovan, Hapgood had been arrested more than once for protesting. On one occasion police sent him to a psychopathic hospital in hopes of changing his att itude; he was released by a panel of physicians who interviewed him and judged him to be perfectly sane. On August 27, 1927, one day before the funeral, he wrote to his mother about his and others arrests: One of my cases came up in court yesterday, also with John Dos Passos, Paxton Hibben and George Kraska. Hebbin was found not guilty but the rest of us were found guilty of sauntering and loitering and sentenced [a] $10.00 fine. Mary Donovan was arrested night before last for nothing at all but is now facing charges of blocking traffic, inciting to riot, and advocating anarchy.

Felt armband worn at the funeral of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti.
Hapgood and Donovan continued to speak out on behalf of the two Italian American anarchists, who were tried, found guilty of robbery and murder, and sentenced to death in the electric chair. The young couple remained defenders of the men s innocence and united in their political activism for the next two decades.
Born into a prosperous family who owned the Columbia Conserve Company cannery in Indianapolis, Powers Hapgood (1899-1949) went to private schools and graduated from Harvard in 1921. 1 By that time he had already worked as a manual laborer in various states, including jobs as a coal miner in Minnesota and Montana. Those experiences led to his position as an organizer hired by United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) to lead a strike in Pennsylvania mines between 1922 and 1923. Among the papers in the Lilly Library s Hapgood archive are numerous examples of broadsides or printed ephemera about rallies against the coal companies. One broadside critiques the court injunctions filed against the Pittsburgh mineworkers who were prevented from striking against companies that were hiring nonunion workers. Its bright-red headline, Coolidge-Injunctions and All Kinds of Hell, denounces in particular President Calvin Coolidge: Coolidge came to Pittsburgh, right into the heart of the struggle, and didn t say a word about it. But his federal judge and his United States Supreme Court did speak. Union-Smashing Injunctions have legalized evictions, made picketing illegal and organizing impossible. That s where the Government stands.
Paid for by the Pennsylvania-Ohio Miners Relief Committee, the broadside is an appeal for donations to support the striking workers, who had been evicted from company housing. One of five large scrapbooks in the Hapgood collection has an eviction notice dated April 29, 1922, issued to one of the miners by the Consolidation Coal Company in Somerset County, Pennsylvania. The scrapbook also contains photographs of tent cities that the miners built for their families. The caption under one photograph of a mother and her child states that they died from pneumonia not long after the picture was taken. Hapgood s job as an organizer lasted eighteen months, after which he went back to working in the mines.
In 1924, Hapgood traveled to England, France, Germany, and the Soviet Union, where he spent two years working and studying conditions in the mines there. Other printed material in the collection dates from time spent in England and includes colorful pro-Labour Party posters, Hapgood s published articles about the mining situations overseas, and his drafts written in 1925 and 1926 for a projected volume titled Diary of an American Miner Abroad.
Hapgood returned to the United States in 1926, joined the Socialist Party, and went back to work in the mines as an activist. In 1927, along with Mary Donovan, who by then was a rising labor activist, he became a central spokesperson in the struggle to save Sacco and Vanzetti. Hapgood and Donovan married shortly after the men s funeral and continued to speak out against injustice at memorials to commemorate the two men s lives. The archive contains several broadsides for these mass meetings. One urges workers to attend the rally to learn more about the new American Terror to the Working Class and liberty s peril. Another is sponsored by the Save the Union Committee, whose progressive agenda resulted in Hapgood being beaten up and prevented from taking his elected delegate seat at the 1928 UMWA convention in Indianapolis. Ultimately the tensions between Save the Union members, who were challenging John L. Lewis, then president of the International UMW, resulted in Hapgood s expulsion from the UMWA for being a Red. His lengthy typewritten reply to those charges along with a certificate of his union membership, which had been contested by Lewis, are also in the archive.
In a 1979 radio interview, Kurt Vonnegut recounted meeting Hapgood in 1930 in Indiana and thought he was one of the most absurdly idealistic people I ever met. But Vonnegut admired Hapgood, and years later he used him as inspiration for his character Kenneth Whistler, the organizer-hero in his labor movement novel Jailbird (1979). 2 In 1932, Hapgood ran unsuccessfully for governor of Indiana on the Socialist Party ticket. In the following years he worked on behalf of Southern tenant farmers, the United Auto Workers, the United Steel Workers, and the International Union of Marine and Shipbuilding Workers. Between 1941 and 1947, he was the Congress of Industrial Organizations regional director in Indiana.
The collection contains hundreds of letters to Hapgood from family, friends, and a range of individuals-some in the labor movement, and others who were familiar with his work. Among the immense correspondence are letters from John Galsworthy, Max Eastman, Alice Stone Blackwell (a suffragette, journalist, and ardent Sacco and Vanzetti supporter), and Eleanor and Franklin Roosevelt. Many of the letters from 1927 are replies to Hapgood s requests for donations to support a labor paper that he hoped to publish in Pittsburgh. Writing from California on July 18, 1927, Upton Sinclair was impressed with the proposal and provided a list of possible donors. Although unable to donate because of debts to his printer, he offered the following support: I will be very glad to have you run King Coal as a serial in your paper as a gift from me. Eleanor Roosevelt s gracious acknowledgment commends his worthwhile project but says that she is unable to offer monetary assistance. Scrapbooks in the collection document Hapgood s various experiences as a labor organizer as well as his work on Mary Donovan s campaign for governor of Massachusetts in 1928.
A separate Hapgood archive contains the papers of Mary Donovan Hapgood (1886-1973), whose activist skills were honed at an early age as the daughter of a Fenian supporter born in Ireland. A graduate of the University of Michigan in 1912, she worked first as a teacher and then turned to labor organizing, eventually becoming a tireless advocate in defense of Sacco and Vanzetti. A frequent visitor to the prison in Charlestown, Massachusetts, where the two men were held for seven years, she was a regular correspondent, especially with Vanzetti, whose many letters to her in the archive acknowledge her efforts on their behalf. An interesting undated handwritten note to her from Vanzetti, possibly passed to Donovan during one of her visits, provides her with instructions for outwitting the prison censors: If you want to tell me something that you do not wish the censor knows-cut in half a lemon, use a new pen point, and write between the written lines and margin. I will warm the paper and the words will become visible. To prove his point, Vanzetti included a short poem that he had penned in the juice of an orange and then warmed. The lines appear as a light-orange script in his note.
A steadfast friend, Donovan gave the eulogy at the Sacco and Vanzetti funeral, a copy of which is in the archive. It begins, Your execution is one of the blackest crimes in the history of mankind and concludes, In your martyrdom we will fight on and conqueror. In Boston (1927), Upton Sinclair s slightly fictionalized account of the infamous case, the author refers to Mary Donovan as the Joan of Arc of the defense cause. 3 But not everyone was pleased. An anonymous letter postmarked Boston, September 18, 1928, gives Donovan notice: Boston is always ready to see you off to Italy. The good old U.S.A. is no place for you.
In 1928, Mary Donovan was nominated by the Socialist Party for the Massachusetts governorship; although defeated, she remained a political activist alongside Powers Hapgood and continued her efforts for many years following his death. Some of her activities are documented in an unpublished autobiography in the archive titled No Tears for My Youth, which contains a long chapter on the Sacco and Vanzetti case. Other papers in the collection include correspondence, short stories with titles like No Agitator Wanted about workers and the labor movement, and over thirty years of notes about the Molly Maguires, a nineteenth-century Irish society that worked on behalf of Irish American coal miners in Pennsylvania.
On permanent display in the Lilly Library is the first edition of John James Audubon s (1785-1851) magnificent Birds of America , a four-volume work based on his original drawings and published by the author himself in London. The volumes were based on sets of prints sold to subscribers and were published between 1827 and 1838. In 1840 in New York, Audubon began publishing a less expensive seven-volume edition, completed in 1844. The first edition volumes are double elephant folios, a reference to their oversized format of more than 3 2 feet, while the US edition is a royal octavo, or smaller size, at 6 10 inches.
Weighing in at some two hundred pounds, the original leather-bound volumes contain a total of 435 color plates made by the London engraving and printing firm of Robert Havell and Son. The beautifully hand-colored illustrations of birds are organized according to species and begin with a strutting Meleagris gallopavo , better known as the wild turkey, replete with thick red wattle. According to Joseph Sabin s Dictionary of Books Relating to America , Audubon elected not to include any commentary with his prints to avoid a copyright law in England that required publishers to supply textual materials to public libraries free of charge. 4 In 1831, Audubon wrote his Ornithological Biography with the Scottish expert William MacGillivray. Based on his extensive journals and notes, this work served as the textual complement to the original drawings and ultimately appeared alongside the artwork in later editions.
Audubon was a trailblazer in wildlife art. Born in the French colony of Saint-Domingue in Hispaniola (present-day Haiti), he grew up in France and was taken by his father to the United States to avoid being later drafted into Napoleon s army. He lived on family property in Mill Grove, near Philadelphia, where he hunted, fished, and further developed his talent in wildlife drawing. He married Lucy Bakewell, daughter of a prosperous family in the area, who became a teacher and was his helpmate and support throughout his lifetime. Audubon was a merchant-businessman for several years until the 1819 crash led him into bankruptcy; his hunting skills helped feed his growing family. His bankruptcy was actually the catalyst for his life-changing decision to travel and document the nation s many birds. The result was an incomparable work of more than seven hundred species posed in natural settings and presented dramatically in life-size color format.

Meleagris Gallopavo , or wild turkey, from John James Audubon s Birds of America .
Audubon s perseverance, artistic talent, and ornithological expertise helped him secure financial backing for the drawings publication. In 1826, he left Lucy and their two sons for England, carrying with him a partial portfolio of his artwork. Bearing letters of introduction from friends in the United States, he met several well-to-do families who helped him gain still other introductions. In England and later Scotland, he displayed his drawings and lectured to general audiences and naturalist societies on the American frontier life and his search for new bird species. As he wrote to Lucy on December 9, 1826:
My situation in Edinburgh borders almost on the Miraculous. Without education and scarce one of those qualities necessary to render a man able to pass thro[ugh] the throng of the Learned here, I am positively look[ed] on by all the Professors and many of the Principal persons here as a very extraordinary man . My Drawings were put up in the splendid room [of the Royal Institution Society], all news Papers took notice of them in a very handsome manner, and having continued to do so constantly, the rooms have been well attended even when the weather has in least permitted. 5
His arrival in Britain coincided with the height of the Romantic movement, when novelists such as James Fenimore Cooper were enthralling readers with tales of the US frontier. To earn money to begin publishing his works, Audubon charged admission to his increasingly popular lectures, which, in turn, fueled greater sales interest in his art. Having engaged Havell and Son, he launched an initial subscription plan to sell small sets of five prints to buyers. 6 Once completed, the series totaled eighty-seven sets of prints. After Birds , he produced, with the help of his sons, John Woodhouse and Victor, and the Reverend John Bachman, his three-volume The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America (1845-1849).
Both the octavo Birds and the Quadrupeds are the focus of Audu-bon s ledger, recently acquired by the Lilly Library. It contains subscription lists with names and accounts for receivables, payables, and sundries for the period December 10, 1842, to February 14, 1844. These are penned in his son Victor s hand. Immediately following the lists is a curious page, seemingly in Audubon s own hand, on which is written Second Course and Acquisition use of words in little sentences. 7 Among the many terms jotted down are Indian ink, to wash, to catch, and to pilfer dainties. The page s purpose is unclear and may have served as a primer or simply a reminder for the aging Audubon, whose first language was French.
The ledger has a twofold purpose. If turned over and upside down, it begins with another long list of subscribers whose names are arranged according to US cities and states. A few are from outside the country, including the British Museum. But the most interesting part of this side of the ledger is the correspondence written in February 1845 on behalf of Audubon by his son Victor to procure additional specimens for the Quadrupeds from the Hudson Bay Company Audubon writes to the company s president:
Being now engaged upon a work upon the quadrupeds of N. America, in conjunction with the Birds John Bachman D.D., having processed all the specimens known to exist in this Continent I can at my advanced age go in pursuit of, I take the liberty of addressing you, to ask whether you can so far aid my humble efforts to illustrate the subject in question as to allow me the use of such specimens of the following animals in the possession of the Hudson Bay Company, assuring you that any specimens that may be loaned to me by that Honorable body shall be returned with all convenient speed to you, as soon as I have made drawings of them, provided you so desire .
This letter will be presented to you by our Minister at the Court of St. James[,] The Honorable Edward Everett [,] and in case it will not conflict with any regulation or principle of your Hon. Body, I will thank you to signify consent to my humble request through that gentleman, on which I will take measures to have the specimens I wanted, shipped to me and I will reship them to you in like manner as soon as I can draw them.
There follows a list of the many specimens Audubon needs, with requests for different measurements to be taken of each. There are two additional letters about this matter: one is addressed to Everett, who is in London and whom Audubon asks to hand deliver his letter to the Hudson President; the other is to Audubon s friend Thomas Burnell, who is asked to take these first two letters over to London. Burnell is also requested to check with the Zoological Society and shops in London for possible specimens.
The Audubon, as Birds of America is sometimes referred to, surprises and dazzles visitors, most of whom are familiar with the naturalist through the national and many regional conservation societies that bear his name. It is one of only two works that are on permanent library display, the other being the fifteenth-century Gutenberg Bible. A special glass display case was commissioned by the Friends of the Lilly Library to accommodate the double elephant folio, whose pages are turned regularly to showcase the beauty of its many prints. If turned weekly, the entire process requires eight and a half years.
The automobile and Indiana have a long history, dating back to the late nineteenth century. By the early twentieth century, Indiana rivaled Michigan as the nation s automotive center; it produced more than 250 makes of cars in some forty cities. The creation of the Indianapolis 500 in 1911 is directly tied to the state s early automotive industry, which peaked in the 1920s and fell into decline with the Depression and competition from Detroit. Among the cars once manufactured in the state were the Auburn, Cord, Packard, Pathfinder, and Stutz. The sales catalogs for these and other vintage luxury vehicles were part of collector Thomas T. Solley s (1924-2006) lifelong passion. A World War II veteran and the grandnephew of Josiah K. Lilly, Solley trained as an architect and worked for Eli Lilly Company in Indianapolis for ten years. But he was drawn to the world of art and left his practice to attend Indiana University at the urging of Henry Hope, director of the university s art museum. There he earned a master s degree in art history in 1966.
As he jokingly recalls in the introduction to his Prestige, Status and Works of Art: Selling the Luxury Car (2008), family and friends said that among the first words Solley uttered as a child was car. By the age of six, he was already collecting luxury automobile catalogs, which included ones for a 1926 Packard and a 1930 Lincoln. But US catalogs were only one part of Solley s interest. He describes youthful treks in Paris to automobile dealers and showrooms located on and off the Champs-Elysees. Born in New York City, he was also a regular at the New York Auto Shows held at the Grand Central Palace from the early 1930s until World War II. Later, as a US Army soldier fighting in the European Theater, he traded cigarette rations with Belgian and Parisian locals for catalogs of Germain and Panhard automobiles. These and thousands of other artfully produced catalogs constitute the invaluable collection assembled by Solley over his lifetime, which came to the Lilly Library between 2002 and 2003. The collection represents luxury automobile manufacturing in Europe and the United States, beginning in the late nineteenth century and running until World War II.
Some of the questions Solley addresses in his book have to do with the origins and history of the catalogs, and the related history of when and how the automobile became a status symbol. He is interested in the different ways that the ideas of prestige and luxury were conveyed in catalogs, whose purpose, he contends, was less about providing manufacturing specifications than dazzling potential buyers with automotive works of art. Until 1895, illustrations in catalogs were largely woodcuts. Gradually, catalogs assumed a richness and glamour, as can be seen in the materials for the 1926 Minerva, a Belgian luxury car touted as The Goddess of Automobiles. The Minerva was manufactured between 1902 and 1938, with the exception of a few years during World War I when, according to Solley, the company was stripped of its machinery by the Germans. The extant stylish and swift Minervas, equipped with silent Knight engines, were fitted with light firepower and used in hit-and-run attacks against the German forces. 8
Resumption of Minerva production began shortly after the war. By 1925, it and the Excelsior were regarded as the two premier luxury cars. The 1926 Goddess catalog is a good example of the way women often figured into the material. Whether as divine figures or earth-bound women in furs stepping out of mansions and into chauffeur-driven limousines, these female images seemed to eroticize automobiles and connect them to ideas of beauty. Minerva was the goddess of wisdom, the arts, and trade. Her elegantly recumbent figure, which appears on two 1926 catalog covers, emphasizes her sales instinct as she proffers the Chassis and the Saloon model. Women would regularly appear alongside cars in the catalogs (just as female models are used today at auto shows). The cover of the 1939 Buick Wonder Car of the Age contains a close-up of the car s sleek, shiny front grill. Behind the chrome grill, almost like a hood ornament, is a woman who smiles and waves.
An art connoisseur, Solley was captivated by the lengths to which manufacturers went to attract buyers through their catalogs. For example, the French catalog for the 1925 Voisin comes with a pair of 3-D glasses to view specially made illustrations of the car. Solley writes in detail about two other French catalogs for Lincoln models made in 1930 and 1931. In the Diamond Lincoln catalog, the name Lincoln is spelled out with sparkling pieces that look like rhine-stones. His description of the Blue Lincoln catalog bears repeating for information about its artful and innovative design: There are two cut-out pages; one shows the rear interior view through the rear window and the second, a tree-lined French road scene viewed from the driver s position with steering wheel, dash and windscreen framing the view. When opened, these pages show a full-page rear interior and the road scene printed on heavy card. 9

1926 catalog for the Belgian Minerva, The Goddess of Automobiles.
Associations between speed, aerodynamics, and the Lincoln are the focus of the later 1936 Lincoln Zephyr V-12 catalog. The cover art shows an airplane pilot admiring a Zephyr that is traveling on the road below his plane. The image suggests not only the car s speed, which seems to match the plane s own, but also its captivating, streamlined allure.
Thomas Solley s relationship with Indiana University extended far beyond his master s degree. In 1968, he was named assistant director of the university s art museum, and three years later he assumed the directorship, a position he held until 1986. During his tenure, the museum designed by I. M. Pei was built; at its 1982 dedication, Solley was presented with the first Indiana University Medal for outstanding service. In later years, he received the President s Medal for Excellence (1997) and an honorary doctor of fine arts degree (2002). He was a man who wore many hats as administrator, academic, and philanthropist. He donated artworks from his private collection to the museum and was an avid collector of photographs by, among others, Henri Cartier-Bresson, Richard Avedon, Berenice Abbott, Edward Steichen, Weegee, and Robert Mapplethorpe.
Solley s great fondness for his vintage catalog collection, which also included hundreds of coach builder catalogs, is evidenced in his writings and by the fact that he wanted the collection to remain intact and accessible to the public. As he wrote with obvious pride in the acknowledgments to Prestige, Status and Works of Art : My entire collection has been donated to and will eventually constitute the Automotive Collection of The Lilly Library of Indiana University, one of the great rare book collections in the United States. The acceptance of the collection by the Lilly Library will assure its preservation and safekeeping in the future. 10
A mong the many distinguished Indiana figures whose papers are housed in the Lilly Library is the lawyer, Union general, governor, statesman, and best-selling author Lew (Louis) Wallace (1827-1905). Wallace is famous for writing the novel Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ (1880), the story of a wrongly enslaved Jewish prince whose struggle for freedom leads him to Christianity. Ben-Hur became the best-selling novel of the nineteenth century and, in the early decades of the twentieth century, was second only to the Bible in popularity. 1 In 1899, it was adapted for the stage in a six-act play that was a long-running Broadway hit replete with chariot race. The road version played around the country for over two decades. Future western star William S. Hart appeared in the original production as the Roman tribune Messala, who was Ben-Hur s boyhood friend and later his enemy. In his autobiography, Hart remembers one visiting theatrical producer s comment at the final dress rehearsal: Boys, I m afraid you re up against it-the American public will never stand for Christ and a horse race in the same show. He also writes about his memorable meeting with Wallace after the first performance: I was sent for and complimented by the author, General Lew Wallace. His exact words were: Young man, I want to thank you for giving me the Messala that I drew in my book. 2
Taking advantage of the play s early success on Broadway, in 1900 the producers marketed an elaborately designed Ben-Hur Souvenir Album that is part of the Lilly Library s Wallace collection. The album s cover art features a scene in brilliant colors depicting a twoman chariot race. The back cover is more subdued, with images of a warrior s shield, a Roman sword and scabbard, a chain with slave manacles, and an olive branch. Appearing above these emblems of war, slavery, and victory is the shining star that guided the Magi to the Christ child. Held together by a red silk ribbon, the album s glossy pages contain numerous photographs of scenes from the play intercalated with other pages on which dialogue appears. Examples of photographs include the prelude scene, where the Magi follow the star, and an image from Act III showing Ben-Hur in the house of Simonides in Antioch, where the old man speaks of his desert encounter with the Wise Men seeking protection from King Herod: They had been led by a wondrous star in the East, one from Egypt, one from the land of the Greeks, and one from farthest Ind; and guided by the star they had found in a village of Judea a child who was borne King of the Jews. Such, at least, their tale.
Other Ben-Hur objects in the Wallace collection include a massive broadside announcing the play s February 1902 run at the Illinois Theater in Chicago. It promotes growing international appeal, which will engirdle the earth, and includes notices of current runs in Sydney and London as well as negotiations for Germany, France and Russia. The broadside s super-size is consistent with this and other over-the-top rhetoric referring to the play as the greatest dramatic achievement in all Theatrical History. As if such breathtaking tributes were not enough, ten long testimonies, or encomiums absolutely without parallel, are printed to support the red boldface banner headline from the Chicago News : We Shall Never Have Another Play Like Ben-Hur. The play s popularity with audiences inspired the Ben-Hur motor car, which appeared in 1917. But unlike the speeding chariot emblematic of the play, response to the motor car was tepid, and its production was short-lived.

Broadside announcing Ben-Hur s February 1902 run at Chicago s Illinois Theater.
There were several movie versions of Ben-Hur , beginning with a 1907 silent short whose credible chariot race was filmed on a New Jersey beach. Local firemen were used as drivers, and their horses pulled the chariots. Made without the Wallace estate s permission, it provoked a landmark court case-one that ultimately made film companies responsible for securing rights for books still in print. In 1925, director Fred Niblo made the MGM silent epic with Hollywood heartthrob Ram n Novarro as Ben-Hur and former matinee idol Francis X. Bushman as Messala. In 1959, William Wyler made MGM s 212-minute blockbuster with an all-star international cast headed by Charlton Heston, who just three years earlier had played Moses in The Ten Commandments . Heston s athletic performance as a galley slave, warring gladiator, and victorious charioteer earned him the Academy Award for best actor.
In addition to an estimated one thousand stills from the earlier 1925 movie, the collection includes several over-sized theatrical posters with scenes from the 1959 film. Smaller, more personal items include an elaborately designed invitation for a special premiere at the Indiana Theatre, held in Bloomington on January 18, 1961. The invitation s cover boasts the chariot race scene painted by artist Ben Stahl-an image that became a chief promotional device for MGM. The handwritten instructions inside the invitation request that guests arrive promptly at 7:15 p.m. bearing their invitation, which guaranteed free admission. Among other Ben-Hur memorabilia are vintage postcards that suggest the degree of Wallace s popularity after the book s release. One is a photograph of the Ben-Hur beech tree at Wallace s home in Crawfordsville, Indiana, under which, according to Wallace s note to a friend, he wrote a large portion of the book. Other vintage cards show a picture of an older and heavily mustachioed Wallace at work in his study; in another, a garland-like image of tiny horse-drawn chariots surrounds an oval-shaped portrait of an elderly General Wallace.
Perhaps the jewel of the collection is the original manuscript of the novel, which Wallace penned in purple ink. Josiah K. Lilly Jr. donated it in the 1950s as part of his large gift of books and papers to Indiana University; the collection is now housed in the Lilly Library. Unfortunately the manuscript was missing a number of pages that Wallace s grandson speculated had been removed by Wallace himself for a special edition. When the Lilly Library was dedicated in 1960, one of the invited speakers was Fredrick Adams Jr., director of the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York. At one moment in his lecture, he departed from script to announce, to everyone s amazement, that the Morgan had the missing pages in its collection and was donating them to the Lilly Library so that the manuscript would be complete. 3
Wallace s career had many pathways. He was a prolific author of many other books besides Ben-Hur . Principal among them are The Prince of India, or, Why Constantinople Fell (1893), which is a thousand-page novel about the Ottoman Empire that took him thirteen years to write, and his autobiography, Lew Wallace , which appeared in 1906, the year of his death. He was an Indiana state senator, a Union Army colonel who was promoted to the rank of major-general during the Civil War, and a governor of New Mexico (1878-1881). In 1881, he was appointed minister to Turkey, where he served for four years. His massive archive contains a large collection of letters from his publishers and from others who knew him in his various professions or corresponded with his estate. They include Abraham Lincoln, William Tecumseh Sherman, Prince Rudolf of Austria, fellow Hoosier Charles William Fairbanks (vice president under Theodore Roosevelt), fellow Hoosier and novelist Booth Tarkington, Mexican president Porfirio D az, Broadway theater owner and producer Lee Shubert, and Hollywood film producer Kenneth Macgowan. Among the other papers in the collection are those of his wife, Susan Arnold Elston Wallace (1830-1907), who was a poet, and of his son, Henry Lane Wallace (1853-1926), and his grandson, Lewis Wallace (1891-1949).
Among the Lilly Library s large collection of bookbindings are two extraordinary examples by British artist Philip Smith (1928-) representing his interest in the mytho-poetic and spiritual. The most unusual and dramatic is his 1983 sculpture-binding and case for J. R. R. Tolkien s posthumously published The Silmarillion (1977), which tells the story of three legendary jewels called silmarills and their role in the creation of the universe known as E . Crowned with shapes resembling ancient stalagmites, Smith s hand-tooled and multicolored binding sits in a case that also functions as a stand for the book s display. The stand has an adjustable base that allows the book to be raised even higher above the case. In this position, the book and case resemble an ancient tower or castle. The binding s predominantly dark-blue and purple colors and the glass eye embedded on the spine enhance the book s magnificent eeriness.
The binding represents Smith s experiment with a process he invented called maril, a word derived from Tolkien s silmarill. Smith describes the process as follows: By mixing scraps and fragments of leather parings and compressing them, a block or thick tile is created. Parings from the surfaces can be taken at different angles and used to produce configurations and textures to build up images along with conventional parings for onlays or inlays. 4 The book alone stands slightly over a foot tall and is much taller when inserted in the case.
Smith s 1983 Hands II sculpture binding for The New Testament and Psalms 1959 edition is less ornate but no less inspired. Both the hands created to hold the book, modeled after Smith s own, and the book s cover are made of dark-brown leather. The binding has two positions: when the hands are brought together as if in prayer, the book is closed; when the hands are drawn apart, the pages open and can be turned. When opening and closing the binding, the viewer s hands similarly open and close. There is a deeply spiritual aspect to Smith s design as two pairs of hands, one artistic and the other human, are joined in reading and prayer.
A very different style of bookbinding was practiced by the Belgian artist Paul Bonet (1889-1971), who brought an Art Deco sensibility to bindings for innovative French writers such as Paul Val ry, Paul Fort, and Francis Carco. A much admired and prolific artist, he created with a talented staff more than 550 bindings for the French publisher Gallimard over a period of twenty-six years. 5 Bonet s stars and beams onlays on his 1939 dark-blue leather binding for Val ry s La soir e avec Monsieur Teste (1906; Monsieur Teste ) are one of his signature designs. Arranged in a pattern not unlike a mathematical diagram, they complement Val ry s solipsistic protagonist, who devotes himself to scientific and philosophical contemplation of his own mental processes.

Philip Smith s sculpture-binding and case for J.R.R. Tolkien s The Silmarillion .
More innovative in design is Bonet s 1933 three-dimensional cover for the 1927 edition of Paul Fort s Les ballades fran aises: Montaigne, for t, plaine, mer (The French ballads: Mountain, forest, plain, sea). The book has a two-part binding. The inner binding, made of aquamarine-colored calf, has four different designs hand-tooled in gold. The designs are ultramodern symbols for the mountain, forest, plain, and sea imagery about which Fort wrote. The individual symbols are repeated in separate rows on the order of separate lines of a poem. There are four rows, each made up of a different symbol repeated five times. The outer binding consists of five horizontal aluminum bars covered in a royal-blue fabric. In each of the spaces between the bars appears one of the words montaigne , for t , plaine , and mer , which are also made of aluminum. Like the inner binding, the outer fits both front and back, although it swings separately; when opened, the book has a 3-D look. On the book s spine is the title Les ballades fran aises in aluminum. The volume is featured in the Lilly Library s online publication Beyond Illustration: The Livre d Artiste in the Twentieth Century . 6
The city, a symbol of modernity, adorns Bonet s binding (undated) for Francis Carco s book titled Rue Pigalle: Lithographies en couleurs de Vert s (1927; Rue Pigalle: Color lithographs of Vert s), a tribute to the bohemian theatrical district where Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Vincent van Gogh, and Pablo Picasso once lived. The book has a textured and rich dark-brown morocco leather binding featuring a nighttime skyline with outlines of buildings and signs. Tooled in gold, the skyline appears on the front and back of the binding. The signs indicate bars, hotels, and theaters with names like La Lune Rousse (The Red Moon), Royal, and Le Paradis. A bit of dark humor is suggested by a sign for [L]e Rat Mort (The Dead Rat). Overlaid on the front skyline is the image of a tall building with hand-tooled windows and a front door. Made of different, smoother leather, the overlay gives the binding a two-dimensional effect. The boards or binding s interior contain colorful hand-designed street maps of Pigalle that pinpoint the location of the places on the skyline.
The British-born bookbinder Michael Wilcox (1939-) is amply represented in the library by his beautifully designed works for classics by Homer, Edgar Allan Poe, Mary Shelley, Robert Browning, and James Joyce, among other writers. Wilcox s covers are strongly influenced by the texts, as exemplified by his 1991 design for a two-volume copy of Ulysses (San Francisco: Arion Press, 1988). In a letter to Jeremy Norman, who commissioned the work, Wilcox explained how he combined ideas from the book s narrative with lines and colors that evoked Ireland. To represent the Ireland of the times, he selected dark-green leather for the binding s exterior and bright green for the interior. Other Irish touches included Celtic-like curls and interlacings in the tooled designs. The binding for the first volume features the character Stephen Dedalus walking with an ashplant stick while surrounded by a flock of seagulls in flight. The image refers to the Proteus chapter, which concerns Dedalus s thoughts as he strolls along the seashore at Sandycove in Dublin. The back features Leopold Bloom and a building topped with minarets. This back image refers to the Lotus Eaters chapter, where Bloom contemplates a Turkish bath in an oriental-style building referred to as the mosque of baths. The front of the second volume features a scene from the novel s penultimate chapter, Ithaca ; it shows Dedalus and Bloom walking side by side as they approach Bloom s house on 7 Eccles Street. Enveloped by intersecting Jewish and Christian symbols, the lapsed Catholic Dedalus joins the secular Jew Bloom, who, like Ulysses, ends his wandering and finally returns home. The back of the binding features an outline of Molly Bloom super-imposed over a stand of trees. The design refers to the novel s final chapter, Penelope, in which the weary Bloom lies in bed next to his wife, his head at her feet, and sleeps while she speaks in a long, erotic interior monologue.
Wilcox s 2002 tapestry-like cover for the English translation of F. Sarre s Islamic Bookbinding (1923) is an homage to the beauty and skill of Eastern bookbinding. The central image of a Middle Eastern artisan crafting a binding suggests a bit of fantasy: the furled rug beneath him resembles a flying carpet. All the figures on the binding are posed with books, whether they are in the act of reading, playing music, or preparing materials for bindings. A cosmos of flora and fauna, with flying birds and jumping deer, surrounds the various human figures. Wilcox playfully uses open books as saddles on the animals to refer to the source of leather for the bindings. Vines with leaves also sprout books.
Perhaps Wilcox s best-known piece is his 1978 binding of Edgar Allan Poe s Tales of Mystery and Imagination , with its intricate black-and-white illustrations by Harry Clark (London: George G. Harrap, 1919). In the book Twelve Bindings , the book designer and publisher W. Thomas Taylor recalls his first encounter with a Wilcox work and how it changed his perception of fine binding from being a mere decoration to being an essential part of the book:
I still remember with amusement the first time I saw a Michael Wilcox binding. It was at an antiquarian book fair, as I recall, and the scene was Roderick Brinckman s booth, tended by Glynis Barnes. Glynis had a look on her face that flitted between amusement and panic as two men engaged in a heated argument over a book in her display case. After they left, still snarling, I asked what all the fuss was about. It was the usual sort of thing, two dealers arguing over who had the right to buy a book that both spotted before the fair opened. There was no need to ask which book it was; when I looked in the case, one stood out like a gem of startling brilliance. It was a copy of Poe s Tales of Mystery and Imagination , illustrated by Harry Clark, bound in black morocco leather with terra-cotta onlays forming a frightening series of overlapping masks, with details delineated in swirling patterns of gold dots. The effect was arresting . The design was alive and energetic, the finish flawless, almost intimidating. This was a binding that not only added to the book, it completed it. 7
The arresting masks, with their skeletal-like oblong faces and open mouths, evoke Edvard Munch s The Scream , except that instead of forming an o , the open mouths are turned downward in a grimace. Both artists suggest horror and anguish, but Wilcox s masks also convey something otherworldly and ancient, with their lacy facial markings similar to delicately rendered tribal tattoos from the past.
The US artist Timothy C. Ely (1949-) takes a different approach to bookbinding. The book as a whole is his art project. Often referred to as books-manuscripts, his works straddle the usually distinct fields of fine binding, associated with rare book libraries and museum art. A long-time admirer of Ely s work, former Lilly Library director Breon Mitchell is largely responsible for the library s collection of Ely s works, which increases in number each year as a result of a special commission to the artist. Ely s approach to art features maps, diagrams, and other shapes that are intricately designed and are often accompanied by a hieroglyphics-style script that he calls cribriform.
One of his most beautiful books, titled The Flight into Egypt (1985), was influenced by a trip his grandfather described in a notebook that he kept during the time between the two world wars. A central image in the book is a map spreading over two pages. Although the land on the page is identifiable as the Middle East, there is something vague and mysterious about the region-as if it were being seen through a dream, or perhaps through the grandfather s eyes as he wrote about his travel experience. A small photograph of Ely s grandfather appears in the land mass, around which circles have been drawn-as if Ely were honing in on the very spot that his relative visited long ago. In keeping with many of his other works, Ely makes ample use of symbols, especially the triangle with its obvious association to the pyramids. The dreamy cartography is marked with circles and straight lines that resemble trajectories but seem to lead nowhere in particular.
In 2012, Ely produced Lifte , whose designs draw heavily from science fiction and fantasy. The front of the binding, with its three separate pieces on a dark-blue background, resembles a rocket ship after launch. Inside the book are intricately designed space stations and ships-a flying flotilla that appears on grids with neither latitude nor longitude, and without other markings except for a strip of symbolic script.
In 2007, Ely visited the Lilly Library to look at the different bindings in the collection. According to An Embryo , the book he produced after that visit and that he dedicated to Breon Mitchell and conservator James Canary, he studied thirty works, paying special attention to gold-tooled bindings. His use of small gold insets for his binding was inspired by what he referred to as the transformative experience of what he saw, one that changed his life. It is a small and beautifully designed book whose floating symbols on the binding suggest a cosmos or galaxy in formation and thus new life.

Michael Wilcox s binding of F. Sarre s Islamic Bookbinding .

Michael Wilcox s binding of Edgar Allan Poe s Tales of Mystery and Imagination .
A book in codex form contains folded sheets. The Boxer Codex is a late-sixteenth-century example composed of seventeen narratives and hand-colored drawings about the Asian Pacific. It is part of the Charles R. Boxer collection, a world-class archive of rare books and manuscripts about the Spanish, Portuguese, and Dutch empires. Boxer (1904-2000) was a young army officer in the mid-1920s when he began collecting; by the mid-1930s, as a seasoned British military intelligence officer stationed in Japan, he had assembled a substantial library for his articles about the Portuguese in Asia, the seventeenth-century Anglo-Dutch wars, and the activities of the Dutch East India Company. Stationed in Hong Kong when World War II began, he was wounded and captured when the Japanese attacked the city in 1941 and was a POW until the war s end. The Japanese seized his collection for the Imperial Library in Tokyo, but after his release, Boxer was able to recover most of his library. By the time he left the military in 1947, he had written dozens of articles on the European presence in Asia.
Boxer s reputation was such that when he left military life he was offered the Cam es Chair at King s College in London, where he taught until 1967. Among the books he published while in London were The Christian Century in Japan (1951), about the Jesuit presence in Nagasaki prior to their ouster by the Japanese in 1650, and The Golden Age of Brazil (1962), a classic study of the country s colonial history. Following retirement from King s College, Boxer accepted an open-ended visiting professorship in the Department of History at Indiana University, where he offered seminars in the Lilly Library on colonial Brazil and other topics relating to the Iberian overseas empires. In 1972, he and Heitor Martins, now professor emeritus of Spanish and Portuguese at Indiana, helped former Lilly librarian Maryellen Bresie mount a large exhibition to commemorate the 150 years of Brazilian independence. Many of the works displayed were from Boxer s own collection, which the Lilly Library gradually acquired during and after Boxer s tenure at Indiana. Rare editions from Martins s own collection were also exhibited and are now part of his own collection in the library. 8
Among the rich trove of colonial materials in the Boxer collection, and one of the library s most valued pieces, is the beautifully illustrated Manila codex bearing Boxer s name. Boxer acquired the codex in 1947, when it was placed on sale with the rest of Lord Ilchester s Holland House library. Dated circa 1590, the rice-paper manuscript contains seventy-five colored drawings of the peoples of China, the Philippines, Java, the Moluccas, the Ladrones, and Siam. There are nearly one hundred other, smaller drawings of birds, animals, and fantastic creatures, as well as a large fold-out illustration of a Spanish ship. The ship appears off the coast of one of the Ladrone Islands and is encircled by local inhabitants in canoes. According to Boxer, the artwork is Chinese. 9
Derived from different sources and written in Spanish, the estimated 275 pages of illustrated text comment on the region s people, their customs and costumes, wildlife both real and imagined, and the Spanish presence as portrayed in the images. There is speculation that the codex was originally owned by Luis P rez Dasmari as, the son of the governor-general of the Philippines, who succeeded his father in the post after the latter was killed in 1593. 10 That possible provenance may explain why Boxer removed and bound eight pages from his Luis Dasmari as manuscript, titled Auto de las crueldades del Rey de Siam (1599-1600; Edict on the King of Siam s cruelties), and placed them at the back of the codex.
The Auto was an example of the kinds of reports that overseas colonial administrators were required to write and send back to the Crown. The codex was akin to that genre, and its illustrations, rich in color and detail and only marginally influenced by European styles, offered even more important insights into the Asian Pacific culture. The drawings of male and female couples illustrate the racial and ethnic diversity of inhabitants, as well as objects of value they hold in their hands. In addition to the gold and silver hilts of swords usually held by men, there are necklaces, fans, intricately designed baskets, books, sashes, and jeweled waistbands. Historian Carlos Quirino s following brief description of a Bisayan couple makes their ornamentation seem not all that removed from modern-day use: The men and women have their ears open [pierced] in many places, and in these openings the men and women place many things and gold ornaments made very exquisitely, as they have among them gold artisans for this purpose who work on filigree choicely and with much benefit. Some look like roses and these are worn only by women and are called pomaras . Others are like round rings worn by men and women who call them panicas . Some wear three or four pairs of such rings in their ears, which they can do because they have so many holes. 11

Illustrated foldout from the Boxer Codex .
In 2016, George Bryan Souza and Jeffrey S. Turley published a transcription and English translation of the codex. A year later, a team of visiting researchers to the library conducted a spectrum analysis to determine the origins of pigments used in the illustrations. Their research to date has identified dyes made of indigo, cinnabar, and azurite.
In addition to many rare manuscripts, the Boxer collection contains the numerous awards, medals, and honorary doctorate certificates that Boxer received in recognition of his life s work. There is also a large correspondence from colleagues around the world, as well as from St. Louis-born author Emily Hahn (1905-1997), who met Boxer in Hong Kong and supported him during his captivity by the Japanese. 12 They were married after his release and had two daughters together. Hahn was a journalist who traveled the world and wrote candidly about her experiences in her many articles and books. In China to Me (1935), she describes her relationship with the three Soong sisters (who married financier H. H. Kung, Sun Yat-sen, and Chiang Kai-shek) and her opium addiction. Later, she wrote a separate book on the Soongs titled simply The Soong Sisters (1941). The Lilly Library also has Hahn s papers.
Unconventional for her times, Hahn left England, where Boxer was teaching, and returned to live in the United States, where she had a long career at the New Yorker . She was famous not only for her travel writings but also for her cigar smoking. As a young journalist in 1950s Brazil, Heitor Martins met Boxer and Hahn when they were visiting his hometown of Belo Horizonte. Martins recalls the encounter with the couple because Hahn was the first woman he ever saw puffing on a cigar.
In 2005, the Lilly Library held an exhibition titled Emily Hahn: A Life of Adventure and Writing featuring photographs of Hahn with a cigar and a 1964 Walt Kelly Pogo cartoon tribute titled A Box of Cigars for the Woman in the Balcony, Miss Emily-Walt. In addition to her books, family photographs, and letters from Boxer, various publishers, long-time friend Rebecca West, and many others, the exhibition displayed drawings from her collection by James Thurber, who was her colleague at the New Yorker . Hahn was a prolific letter writer, and a selection of her correspondence was published for the exhibition. Its title, Love Mickey , refers to the name her mother had affectionately called her since childhood and that she used when writing to her family.

Bronze bust of Abraham Lincoln by Gutzon Borglum.
Of the many busts in the Lilly collections, perhaps the best known to visitors is the bronze of Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) in the Lincoln Room. The beautifully sculpted head, with its deep-red patina, was the work of Gutzon Borglum, who sculpted Mount Rushmore along with Luigi Del Bianco and others on his staff. The 1908 bust is one of a limited edition by Borglum, who made busts of numerous US leaders, but who seemed to prefer working with stone on a massive scale. In the 1920s, Borglum was a Koncilium knight in the Ku Klux Klan-a membership that stands in stark contrast to the politics of the Civil War president associated with the abolition of slavery in the US.
There are seven other Lincoln busts in the library, including two large head-and-shoulders pieces with visages quite different from Borglum s craggy yet noble head. One is by Leonard Volk, based on his life mask of Lincoln made in 1860. Volk s more youthful and clean-shaven Lincoln is Romanesque, with shoulders and upper arms loosely draped in neoclassical fashion. Another cast of a bearded Lincoln, formally attired and with a downward gaze, resembles the president s image on the Lincoln Memorial.