Drugs and Crime

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Description

Discussing illegal drugs without taking into account its criminal context is a difficult proposition. Certain questions come back repeatedly: Does doing drugs really lead to delinquency? Do some drugs have criminal properties? Why would a drug addict turn to crime? What are the best methods of intervention in dealing with individuals who have serious drug habits?




The third edition of Drogue et criminalité : Une relation complexe (Les Presses de l’Université de Montréal), translated here for the first time in English, presents an overview of the complex relationship between drugs and crime, avoids cursory affirmations to the effect that psychoactive substance use necessarily leads to crime. It also sheds light on the political and legislative contexts tied to drugs and offers an exceptional synthesis of the research literature of the past 20 years. The authors also discuss the increased attention to illegal drug users and people with addictions, and describe the different supports that are available to them.
Concevoir la question des drogues illicites en dehors de
leur contexte criminel est difficile. Certaines questions
reviennent immanquablement : prendre de la drogue
pousse-t-il vraiment à la délinquance ? Existe-t-il des
drogues aux propriétés criminogènes ? Pourquoi un
toxicomane se tourne-t-il vers la criminalité ? Quelles sont
les meilleures façons d’intervenir auprès des personnes
qui ont de graves problèmes de consommation ? 



Cette troisième édition présente la relation complexe
entre drogue et criminalité, évitant les énoncés
sommaires qui voudraient que l’usage de substances
psychoactives mène nécessairement au crime. Elle met
ainsi en lumière les contextes politiques et légaux liés
aux drogues et fait une synthèse exceptionnelle des
résultats de la recherche des vingt dernières années. Les
auteurs rendent compte de l’importance accrue qu’on
accorde désormais aux usagers de drogues illicites ainsi
qu’aux personnes dépendantes et ils décrivent les
différentes formes d’aide qui leur sont proposées.

Sujets

Informations

Publié par
Date de parution 13 mars 2018
Nombre de visites sur la page 5
EAN13 9780776626338
Langue English

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,015 €. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

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DRUGS AND CRIME
DRUGS AND CRIME A Complex Relationship
Thîrd edîtîon, revîsed and expanded
Serge Brochu, Natacha Brunee and Chanta Pourde
Transated by Juîe da Sîva
Unîversîty o Ottawa Press 2018
The University of Ottawa Press (UOP) is proud to be the oldest of the francophone uni -versity presses in Canada and the only bilingual university publisher in North America. Since 1936, UOP has been “enriching intellectual and cultural discourse” by producing peer-reviewed and award-winning books in the humanities and social sciences, in French or in English.
Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication
Brochu, Serge [Drogue et criminalité. English] Drugs and crime: a complex relationship / Serge Brochu, Natacha Brunelle and Chantal Plourde; translated by Julie da Silva. — Third edition, revised and expanded.
Translation of: Brochu, Serge. Drogue et criminalité. Includes bibliographical references. Issued in print and electronic formats. ISBN 978-0-7766-2632-1 (socover) ISBN 978-0-7766-2633-8 (PDF) ISBN 978-0-7766-2635-2 (Kindle) ISBN 978-0-7766-2634-5 (EPUB)
 1. Drug abuse and crime. 2. Criminals—Drug use. I. Brunelle, Natacha, 1971-, author II. Plourde, Chantal, 1970-, author III. Title. IV. Title: Drogue et criminalité. English HV5801 B7613 2018 364.2’4 C2018-900808-3 C2018-900809-1
Legal Deposit: First Quarter 2018 Library and Archives Canada © University of Oawa Press 2018
Printed and bound in Canada
Copy editing: Proofreading: Typeseing: Cover design:
Robbie McCaw Susan James Édiscript enr. Édiscript enr.
Originally published asDrogues et criminalité. Une relation complexe. Troisième édition revue et augmentée, Presses de l’Université de Montréal, 2016
The University of Oawa Press gratefully acknowledges the support extended to its publishing list by the Government of Canada, the Canada Council for the Arts, the Ontario Arts Council, and the Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences through the Awards to Scholarly Publications Program and by the University of Oawa.
Tabe o Contents
List of Figures and Tables ..................................................................... ix
Acknowledgments................................................................................. xi
Introduction ............................................................................................ Illegal Psychoactive Substances in Canada ................................. Drug Use and Criminal Behaviour ..............................................
1 2 3
CHAPTER 1 Links Between Drugs and Crime in Facts and Figures.................... 5 Youth................................................................................................. 6 Adults ............................................................................................... 9 Justice-involved Individuals .................................................. 9 Drugs in Prison ........................................................................ 12 Substance-dependent Individuals......................................... 15
CHAPTER 2 Drugs: A Detailed Criminogenic Prole............................................. Selected Important Denitions..................................................... Intoxication and Criminal Behaviour .......................................... Cannabinoids ........................................................................... Stimulants ................................................................................. Cocaine............................................................................... Amphetamine-type Stimulants ...................................... Benzodiazepines ...................................................................... Heroin and Other Opioids ..................................................... Hallucinogens .......................................................................... Drug Interactions ..................................................................... Victimization While Under the Inuence of a Psychoactive Substance .......................................................... The Role of Intoxication ................................................................. Dependence and Criminal Behaviour ......................................... How Users Support Their Habit........................................... Crime as an Income-generating Activity.............................. Acquisitive Crime.............................................................
19 20 22 22 26 26 28 30 32 33 34
35 38 38 39 40 41
Tracking.......................................................................... 43 Other Lucrative Criminal Activities .............................. 46 Links Between Dependence and Criminal Activity........... 46
CHAPTER 3 The Legal and Political Landscape ..................................................... The Road to Repression ................................................................. Globalization of Trade............................................................. Prohibition ................................................................................ The War on Drugs ........................................................................... Action Against Drug Producers ............................................ Action Against Drug Importers and Distributors............... Action Against Users .............................................................. Europe .............................................................................................. The Netherlands ...................................................................... Portugal ..................................................................................... The Americas ................................................................................... The United States ..................................................................... Uruguay .................................................................................... Canada....................................................................................... Dierent Concepts and Approaches........................................... Normalizing the Relationship With Users ..................................
CHAPTER 4 Proximal and Distal Models: A Static Conceptualization ................ Proximal Elements .......................................................................... Goldstein’s Tripartite Model .................................................. The Psychopharmacological Model ..................................... The Economic-Compulsive Model........................................ The Systemic Model ................................................................ Non–Mutually Exclusive Types of Crime ............................ The Inverse Proximal Model .................................................. Distal Elements................................................................................
51 51 51 54 56 56 57 60 65 66 67 69 69 70 70 73 74
79 79 80 80 83 87 92 93 96
CHAPTER 5 Trajectories: A Dynamic Conceptualization ....................................... 101 The Evolving Drug–Crime Relationship .................................... 102 Deviant Trajectories ........................................................................ 104 Experimentation and Occasional Use .................................. 105 Frequent Use ............................................................................ 106
Regular Use .............................................................................. 107 Addiction .................................................................................. 110 Factors That Inuence the Progression and Maintenance of Deviant Trajectories.................................................................... 112 The Substance Itself ................................................................. 112 Income ....................................................................................... 113 Environment ............................................................................ 113 Traumatic Events ..................................................................... 114 Reduction, Cessation, and Interruption ...................................... 115 Peer Pressure ........................................................................... 115 Internal Pressure ...................................................................... 116 Organizational Pressure ......................................................... 116 Deviant Environment Pressures ............................................ 116 Women’s Distinctive Trajectory .................................................... 117
CHAPTER 6 Deviant Lifestyles: An Integrated Conceptualization ...................... 123 The Integrative Model ................................................................... 124 Risk Factors...................................................................................... 125 Deviant Lifestyles ........................................................................... 126 Degrees of Permeation ........................................................... 128 Stages of Progression .............................................................. 128
CHAPTER 7 Treating Addicts in the Criminal Justice System ............................... 139 Access to Treatment ........................................................................ 139 Punishment or Rehabilitation? ..................................................... 140 "Nothing Works”..................................................................... 141 The Punitive Post-Martinson Era .......................................... 141 “What Works?”........................................................................ 142 Treating Drug Dependence in Oenders.................................... 143 Drug Courts.............................................................................. 143 Post-sentencing Treatment ..................................................... 145 Cognitive-Behavioural Programs .......................................... 147 Therapeutic Communities and Boot Camps ....................... 148 Peer Support and Twelve-Step Groups................................ 150 Methadone Maintenance Programs ...................................... 150 Motivational Interviewing..................................................... 152 Co-occurring Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders................................................................................... 152
Ingredients for Treatment Success................................................ 153 Screening and Assessment ..................................................... 154 Personalized Plans ................................................................... 155 Relapse Prevention .................................................................. 156 Motivation ................................................................................ 156 Judicial Pressure ..................................................................... 158 The Therapeutic Relationship ....................................................... 161 Adequate Treatment Duration............................................... 162 Aercare.................................................................................... 163 Extension of Social Control ........................................................... 164 The Real Client ......................................................................... 165 Boundaries and Bridges ......................................................... 166
Conclusion ............................................................................................. 171 The Drug–Crime Relationship ..................................................... 173 Who? .......................................................................................... 173 Why?.......................................................................................... 174 What?......................................................................................... 174 How Can Society Intervene?.................................................. 175 Implementing Appropriate Policies ............................................. 175 Providing Suitable Care ................................................................. 177
References ............................................................................................... 179
Authors and Translator ......................................................................... 225
Lîst o Fîgures and Tabes
FigURE 3.1.Drug-related oences reported by police in Canada from 1993 to 2013 ................................................................................... 61 FigURE 3.2.Oences reported by police in Canada from 1993to 2013 and drug-related oences for the same period.................... 61 FigURE 3.3.Drug-related oences as a proportion of totaloences reported by police in Canada from 1993 to 2013................ 62 FigURE 3.4.Number of police-reported oences related to possession, tracking, production, and distribution of drugs in Canada in 2013, by substance............................................................... 62 FigURE 3.5.Prevalence of cannabis consumption and prevalence of arrests for simple cannabis possession from 2004 to 2012 in Canada ..................................................................................................... 63 FigURE 3.6.Simple cannabis possession oences as a percentage of the number of cannabis users in Canada from 2004 to 2012 ....... 64 TàblE 3.1.Number of cannabis-related oences and number of cannabis users (previous twelve months) reported in 2012 in Canada, by province ......................................................................... 65 FigURE 4.1.A proximal conceptualization: Goldstein’s tripartite model ....................................................................................................... 80 FigURE 4.2.The psychopharmacological model............................... 81 FigURE 4.3.The economic-compulsive model.................................. 84 FigURE 4.4.The contemporary economic-compulsive model........ 85 FigURE 4.5.The systemic model.......................................................... 90 FigURE 4.6.Goldstein: Three non–mutually exclusive types ofdrug–crime relationships ...................................................................... 93 FigURE 4.7.The inverse proximal model........................................... 96 FigURE 4.8.Distal model: biopsychosocial factors........................... 97 FigURE 5.1.Experimentation and occasional use............................. 106 FigURE 5.2.Frequent use...................................................................... 107 FigURE 5.3.Regular use........................................................................ 109 FigURE 5.4.Addiction........................................................................... 111 FigURE 6.1.Core integrative model.................................................... 125 FigURE 6.2.Onset stage........................................................................ 130 FigURE 6.3.Deviant involvement stage............................................. 131 FigURE 6.4.Mutual reinforcement stage............................................ 133 FigURE 6.5.Economic-compulsive stage........................................... 134
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