Dar es Salaam. Histories from an Emerging African Metropolis


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From its modest beginnings in the mid-19th century, Dar es Salaam has grown to become one of sub-Saharan Africa?s most important urban centres. A major political, economic and cultural hub, the city stood at the cutting edge of trends that transformed twentieth-century East Africa. Dar es Salaam has recently attracted the attention of a diverse, multi-disciplinary, range of scholars, making it currently one of the continent?s most studied urban centres. This collection from eleven scholars from Africa, Europe, North America and Japan, draws on some of the best of this scholarship and offers a comprehensive, and accessible, survey of the city?s development. The perspectives include history, musicology, ethnomusicology, culture including popular culture, land and urban economics. The opening chapter offers a comprehensive overview of the history of the city. Subsequent chapters examine Dar es Salaam?s twentieth century experience through the prism of social change and the administrative repercussions of rapid urbanisation; and through popular culture and shifting social relations. The book will be of interest not only to the specialist in urban studies but also to the general reader with an interest in Dar es Salaam?s environmental, social and cultural history.



Publié par
Date de parution 15 octobre 2007
Nombre de visites sur la page 3
EAN13 9789987081073
Langue English

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Dar es Salaam
Histories from an emerging African metropolis
Mkuki na Nyota Publishers DAR ES SALAAM
In association with
The British Institute in Eastern Africa N A I RO B I
 First published 2007
Mkuki na Nyota Publishers P.O. Box 4246 Dar es Salaam Tanzania
in association with
The British Institute in Eastern Africa P.O. Box 30710, 00100 GPO Nairobi Kenya
© James R. Brennan, Andrew Burton, & Yusuf Lawi 2007
Distributed worldwide outside N. America by African Books Collective PO Box 721, Oxford OX1 9EN, UK www.africanbookscollective.com orders@africanbookscollective.com Tel: +44 (0)1869 349110
Distributed in North America by Michigan State University Press 1405 South Harrison Road, Suite 25 Manley Miles Building East Lansing, MI 48823-5245, USA www.msupress.msu.edu msupress@msu.edu Tel: +1 517 355 9543
A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978 9987 449 70 5
Typeset in 10/11pt Baskerville by the British Institute in Eastern Africa
Introduction James R. Brennan and Andrew Burton
1 The Emerging Metropolis: A history of Dar es Salaam,circa 1862-2000 James R. Brennan and Andrew Burton
Part One Administering Urbanization: Regulation and its failures in colonial Dar es Salaam
2 Fueling the City: Dar es Salaam and the evolution of colonial forestry, 1892-1960 Thaddeus Sunseri
3 Race, Class and Housing in Dar es Salaam: The colonial impact on land use structure, 1891-1961 J.M. Lusugga Kironde
4 Between Segregation and Gentrification: Africans, Indians, and the struggle for housing in Dar es Salaam, 1920-1950 James R. Brennan
5 ‘Brothers by Day’: Policing the urban public in colonial Dar es Salaam, 1919-1961 Andrew Burton
6 Unpretentious Bars: Municipal monopoly and independent drinking in colonial Dar es Salaam Justin Willis
Part Two Competing Cultures in Colonial and Postcolonial Dar es Salaam
7 TheNgomaImpulse: From club to nightclub in Dar es Salaam Werner Graebner
8 Simba or Yanga?: Football and urbanization in Dar es Salaam Tadasu Tsuruta
9 In the ‘Age of Minis’: Women, work and masculinity downtown Andrew M. Ivaska
10 ‘I am a Partial Person’: The urban experience of rural music Stephen Hill
11 ‘Here’s a Little Something Local’: An early history of hip-hop in Dar es Salaam Alex Perullo
This book has its origins in a 2002 conference on ‘Dar es Salaam in the Twentieth Century’ organised by the British Institute in Eastern Africa and the Department of History, University of Dar es Salaam. We would like to thank both institutions for their support for the conference; and the presenters and participants who crowded into Dar es Salaam University’s Senate room for contributing to what was a highly stimulating exploration of Dar es Salaam past and present. While not all the conference papers were suitable for inclusion in a book on Dar es Salaam’s history, the presentations and the debates they provoked have nevertheless shaped this volume. Walter Bgoya expressed an early interest in publication of any proceedings arising from the conference, and we are grateful for his staunch support over the intervening years. Similarly, we would like to thank Paul Lane, the former Director of the BIEA, for his backing for this project. In acting as an informal (in other words, unpaid!) reader, Jim Giblin offered much appreciated feedback on the draft manuscript. We hope he was at least repaid by some insights into the city of his adoptive Segerea home. The editors would also like to thank our employers, the University of Dar es Salaam, the British Institute in Eastern Africa, and the School of Oriental and African Studies, alongside the British Academy, for their support during the editing of this volume. On behalf of the many contributors who have relied on their important collections on the city’s history, we would like to thank the staff of the Tanzania National Archive and the University of Dar es Salaam Library. In the preparation of the manuscript, and accompanying illustrations, we were most grateful for the desktop publishing and draftsman’s skills of Innocent Mwangi and Stephanie Wynne-Jones. Finally, as ever thanks must go to our spouses, Theresa Kircher, Paulette Jones and Firmina Raphael-Murru, for their patience, encouragement and support.
JAMES R. BRENNANis Lecturer in African History at the School of Orien-tal and African Studies (SOAS), University of London. He received his Ph.D. in African History from Northwestern University in 2002. He has published a number of articles and book chapters on nationalism and urbanization in Tanzania, and is currently researching the historical role of radio and other mass media in Eastern Africa’s political culture. ANDREW BURTONis an Honorary Research Associate of the British Insti-tute in Eastern Africa, currently based in Addis Ababa. He has published widely on East African urban history. His publications includeAfrican Underclass: Urbanisation, crime and colonial order(Oxford & Dar es Salaam, 2005) and the edited collection,The Urban Experience in Eastern Africa,c.1750-2000(Nairobi, 2002). He is now working on the history of youth, urbanization and delin-quency in Eastern Africa. WERNER GRAEBNERhas worked in East African music for over twenty years, and currently heads the Jahazi Media record label. Among the numerous CDs and tapes of East African music that he has produced is the recent Rough Guide to the Music of Tanzania. He is also author of several book chapters and articles on East African music. STEPHEN HILLthe Office of Fellowships as wellis Associate Director of as Lecturer in the Department of Anthropology at Northwestern University. He is an ethnomusicologist specializing in music, nationalism, and competi-tion in Tanzania. His publications include ‘“Mchezo Imelala (Our Dance Has Slept)”: Music, Modernity, and Economic Change in Umatengo, Tanzania’, in Gregory Barz and Frank Gunderson (eds.)Mashindano!: Competitive Music Per-formance in East Africa(Dar es Salaam: Mkuki na Nyota, 2000), and ‘The Death of Mganda?: Continuity and Transformation in Matengo Music’, inAfrica Today48/4 (2001), 27-42. ANDREW M. IVASKAis Assistant Professor of History at Concordia Uni-versity in Montreal. He holds a Ph.D. from the University of Michigan (2003) in African History and has published a number of articles and chapters on th gender, global culture, youth and the state in 20 century Tanzania. He is currently completing a book tentatively entitled,Cultured States: Gender, Youth and Modern Style in 1960s Dar es Salaam, to be published by Duke University Press.
JOSEPH MUKASA LUSUGGA KIRONDEis Associate Professor in Land/ Urban Economics, Department of Land Management and Valuation, Uni-versity College of Lands and Architectural Studies (UCLAS), Dar es Salaam. His research interests include Land and Urban Development Policy, Urban Poverty, and Governance. His publications include ‘The Regulatory Frame-work, Unplanned Development and Urban Poverty: Findings from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania’,Land Use Policy23 (2006), 460-72, and ‘Understanding land vi
markets in African urban areas: the case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania’,Habitat International(2000), 151-65. 24 YUSUF Q. LAWItheSenior Lecturer in History and former Head of  is Department of History at the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. He is currently Deputy Director of the Centre for Continuing Education at the University. Dr. Lawi teaches and researches environmental and social history of Africa as well as a course on methodology and techniques in historical research. Apart from publishing several articles and book chapters, he has co-published a book and co-edited two others. His latest article, published in the Journal of African History, examines the local ecological consequences of Tan-zania’s Operation Vijiji during the mid-1970s. ALEX PERULLOis Assistant Professor of Anthropology and African Stud-ies at Bryant University in the United States. He received his Ph.D. from the Department of Folklore and Ethnomusicology at Indiana University. He has written articles on Tanzanian popular culture and intellectual property rights, and is currently completing a manuscript on the music industry in Tanzania. The ethnography, titledProducing Song:Popular Music, Creative Practices, and Tan-zania’s Music Industry, examines the ways artists, producers, music distributors, and others formed independent radio stations, recording studios, perform-ances spaces, as well as established copyright law, in Dar es Salaam during the post-liberalization period. THADDEUS SUNSERIis Associate Professor of African History at Colo-rado State University. He received his Ph.D. in African History from the Uni-versity of Minnesota (1993). He is the author ofVilimani: Labor Migration and Rural Change in Early Colonial Tanzania, 1884-1915(Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Social History of Africa Series, 2002), and articles on the social and economic history of Tanzania under German rule. He is currently working on a social history of forests in Tanzania since 1850.
TADASU TSURUTAis Associate Professor at Kinki University, Japan. His publications include ‘Popular Music, Sports, and Politics: A Development of Urban Cultural Movements in Dar es Salaam, 1930s-1960s’,African Study Monographs 24/3, Moral Economy: Notes onand ‘African Imaginations of Indigenous Economic Concepts and Practices in Tanzania’,African Studies Quarterly(2006). He is currently working on the history of female 9/1&2 dance associations in urban Tanzania.
JUSTIN WILLISis currently the Director of the British Institute in Eastern Africa and Reader in History, University of Durham. Dr Willis’ research on the social history of alcohol in East Africa was recently published asPotent Brews(Oxford and Nairobi, 2002). His earlier monograph,Mombasa, the Swahili and the Making of the Mijikenda(Oxford, 1993), examines Mombasa’s pre-colo-nial and early colonial history. He is currently working on the history of elec-tions in Eastern Africa.
James R. Brennan and Andrew Burton
In the century and a half since its founding in the 1860s, Dar es Salaam has evolved from a minor mainland haven of Zanzibar’s Sultan Majid to become a sprawling, socially diverse city of major regional importance. The past hundred and forty years have witnessed the initially fitful, though seemingly inexorable, growth of a Tanzanian metropolis. By the end of the second millennium AD, Dar es Salaam had expanded to become East Africa’s largest 1 urban centre. It is currently enjoying a period of particular vibrancy. Large swathes of the city centre are being transformed in a construction boom unprecedented since independence. Residential estates, catering for all classes, are extending the built-up area to the north, south and west. Liberalization from the late 1980s has seen the reinvigoration of a previously moribund urban economy. While the distribution of profits may be as unequal as ever, the commercial face of the city has changed dramatically—frommachinga hawking the latest electronic gadgets at roadside junctions, to the emporiums of Kariakoo crammed with imported goods, to the more sedate malls of Msasani catering for Dar es Salaam’s old and new rich. The past decade or so has also witnessed something of a creative renaissance. Local media have flourished: electronic media such as radio and television stations, and the press in the shape of the plethora of conventional daily and evening papers, and a diverse array of magazines and other publications catering to local demands. Meanwhile, although the city has long been renowned for its vibrant local music scene, it has recently been at the heart of a regional phenomenon inbongo flava(deriving its name from the colloquial term for the city itself), an adaptation of western ‘urban contemporary’ music that has been exported with great success to other urban centres throughout East Africa and beyond. The socio-economic and cultural vibrancy of contemporary Dar es Salaam is also reflected by an upsurge in academic interest. While Dar es Salaam, considering its national and regional role, was for long curiously neglected, over the past decade or so it has been the subject of research in a variety of social science disciplines, and a published literature on the city is now gradually proliferating. As one of Africa’s fastest growing major cities in the second half of the twentieth century, it is an historical exemplar of socio-economic and cultural change associated with rapid urbanization. Moreover, both this historical context and dramatic political and (especially) economic liberalization 1