Letters from the Governor
277 pages
English
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Letters from the Governor's Wife

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277 pages
English

Description

In 1859 the Finnish-Swedish aristocrat and naval officer, Hampus Furuhjelm arrived in Alaska as one of the Russian colony's last ambassadors. He brought with him his young wife Anna Furuhjelm, who wrote many long letters in English to her mother. These letters, for the first time, give us a vivid picture of everyday life in the colonial capital, Sitka, in the period shortly before the USA. took over Alaska. The letters have been edited and commented by Anna Furuhjelm's great-granddaughter, Anni Christensen.

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Informations

Publié par
Date de parution 04 novembre 2006
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9788779349056
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 3 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,003€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

Exrait

BERINGIANAisaseriesofpublicationsrelatingbroadlytotheexplorer VitusBering.ItsscopeencompassesDanishRussianrelations,exploration oftheNorthPacifi c,Russianeighteenthcenturycultureandhistory, Sibirianstudies,thehistoryofRussianAmerica.
SeriesEditor:PeterUlfMøllerattheSlavicDepartment,AarhusUniversity
ThelogooftheBERINGIANAseries,designedbyLotteBruunRasmussen,is afreevariationofVitusBering’scoatofarms.Its“bear”(German:Bär)and “ring”componentsaredrawnfromtheexplorer’ssurname.
LettersfromtheGovernor’sWife AViewofRussianAlaska18591862
EditedbyAnnieConstanceChristensen
WithanIntroductionandanEpiloguebyAnnieConstanceChristensenandPeterUlfMøller
AarhusUniversityPress
LettersfromtheGovernor’sWife.AViewofRussianAlaska18591862 ©AnnieConstanceChristensenandAarhusUniversityPress2005 Cover:LotteBruunRasmussen Coverillustration:AnnaandHampusFuruhjelminSt.Petersborg1859, cf.letterNo.11.BycourtesyofOliviaSderhjelm
ISBN8779349056
AarhusUniversityPress Langelandsgade177 DK–8200rhusN
www.unipress.dk
Tableofcontents
Editor’spreface .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
Introduction.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  Anarrangedmarriage .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  RussiansintheNewWorld .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  .  .  .  .  . Thepenultimategovernor.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  ..  .  .  .  .  . 
AnnaFuruhjelm’sLetters .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No1 HenriksdalFebruary2nd1859 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No2 FredrichshamnFebruary4th1859 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No3 St.PetersburgFebruary6th1859.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No4 St.PetersburgFebruary9th1859.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No5 St.PetersburgFebruary11th1859 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No6 St.PetersburgFebruary13th1859 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No7 St.PetersburgFebruary16th1859.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No8 St.PetersburgFebruary19th1859 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No9 St.PetersburgFebruary21st1859 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No10St.PetersburgFebruary23rd1859 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No11St.PetersburgFebruary25th1859 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No12DunaburgFebruary27th1859 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No13WarsawMarch4th1859.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No14DresdenMarch7th1859.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No15DresdenMarch13th1859 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No16LondonMarch19th1859 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No17CheltenhamMarch21st1859.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No18LondonMarch27th1859 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No19WoodsideApril1st1859.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No20Onboard“Magdalena”AtlanticApril13th1859.  .  .  .  .  .  .  . No21OnboardHMShip“Trent”April25th1859 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No22PanamaApril29th1859 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No23SanFranciscoMay18th1859 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 
7
9 9 12 17
23 23 26 27 30 31 32 34 34 37 38 39 40 41 42 45 46 48 50 53 55 61 64 69
No24SanFranciscoMay29th1859.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No26SitkaJuly3rd1859 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  .  .  .  .  . No25Sitka5th1859.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No27SitkaAugust6th1859 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No28SitkaSeptember21st1859 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  .  .  .  . No29SitkaOctober20th1859 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . No30SitkaDecember4th1859.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No31SitkaFebruary2nd1860.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No33SitkaApril6th1860 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No34SitkaApril26th1860 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  .  .  .  .  . No35SitkaMay5th1860 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  .  .  .  .  . No36KodiakJune20th1860.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  .  .  .  .  No37KodiakJuly24th1860 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No38SitkaSeptember18th1860.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No39SitkaOctober16th1860 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No40SitkaDecember7th1860.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No41SitkaNewYear’sday1861.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No42SitkaMay3rd1861 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  .  .  .  .  . No43SitkaMay22nd1861 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  .  .  .  .  . No44SitkaMay261861..  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No45SitkaJuly7th1861.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No46SitkaSeptember25th1861.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No47SitkaDecember29th1861.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No48SanFranciscoFebruary2nd1862.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . No49SitkaMarch26th1862.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  No50SitkaApril28th1862 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  .  .  .  .  . No52SitkaSeptember21st1862 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  .  .  .  .
Epilogue.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
Bibliography.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
Indexofnames
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
Maps .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  ..  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
74 79 89 92 96 101 110 117 125 129 133 141 154 162 165 176 188 206 210 212 212 217 225 232 235 243 247
250
258
262
24, 25,276,277
Editor’spreface
AnnaFuruhjelm’sletterstohermotherAnnvonSchoultzformakindofdiaryof herfi rstyearsinAlaskaastheRussianGovernor’swife.Afewhoursaftertheir weddingonFebruary2nd1859,shedepartsforAlaskaonasledgewithherhusbandHampusFuruhjelmfromHelsinki,andwritesthefirstlettertohermotheronthe eveningofthesameday.HerlastletterNo.52wasleftunnishedonOctober17th 1862,asthenewsreachedAlaskathathermotherhaddied. TheletterswerenumberedbyAnnaherself.ExceptforNos.32and51,theyhave allbeenpreservedandarenowkeptinthearchiveoftheUniversityLibraryofÅbo, Finland(ÅboAkademisBibliotek,Handskriftsavdelningen,Furuhjelm,Annie14). BesidesAnna’sletters,therearetwoshortlettersfromhermaid,IdaHöerle. Alleditorialadditionsareinsquarebrackets.Abbreviatedwords,forinstance‘yr’, aregivenintheirfullform:‘y[ou]r’.Aquestionmarkimmediatelyafteraworddis-cerned[?],forexamplemeansthatIamnotcompletelysureIhavereadtheword correctly;twofullstopsfollowedbyaquestionmarkmany[..?]lips,forexample meansthatIhaveomittedanunreadableword.Thelettershavebeenslightlyab breviated.Somepassagesthatdiscussorinquireaboutfriendsbackhome,andalso someofAnna’smuchrepeatedreligiousreflectionshavebeenomitted.Allomissions aremarkedbythreefullstopsinsquarebrackets[…].TheshortlettersNos.7and 44havebeenomittedalltogetherforthatsamereason.Allunderlinedwordshave beenrenderedinitalics. Anna’sorthographyandpunctuationhasnotbeencorrected.Thepeculiaritiesin spellingthatcatchthemoderneyeareduetoarchaicspellingorhaste.Theortho-graphicalnormwasnotyetfullyestablished.Shewrites:‘desert’(forasweetcourse), ‘trowsers’,‘tare’for‘tear’.Parallelformsexisted,forinstance‘honour/honor’,‘ex pense/expence’,‘English/english’.AnnahadnoformaleducationinEnglish.For spellingproblems,sheconsulted“Grandmother’sspellingbook”(Letter33,cf.the presentedition,p.128).Misspellingoccurssinceshewritesquicklyandrarelyseems tofindtimetoreadwhatshehaswritten:‘govenor’,‘woud’,‘exellent’,‘probaply’, ‘discription’,‘for’for‘four’,‘bands’for‘banns’.Anotherpeculiarityisherindifference towritingdoubleorsingleconsonants:arrive/arive,(to)nish/nnish,innocent/ inocent’,‘British/Brittish’,‘occasion/occassion’,‘droll/drol’,‘summer/sumer’.Some slighterrorshavebeencorrected,suchas‘to’for‘do’,‘that’for‘than’,‘in’for‘it’. AnnaoftenusesSwedish,GermanorFrenchwordsandexpressions.Theyprob-ablycometomindbecauseshehasspokentheselanguagesfrequently,orbecause
8
letters from the governor’s wife
theyseemtoexpressherthoughtsbetter.Inthefirstcasetheyareeasytotranslate, butinthesecondthetranslationmightseemsomewhatawkward. Thefollowingabbreviationshavebeenusedintheeditorialtext:Swed./ish,Fr./ ench,Ger./man,Rus./sian,RACRussianAmericanCompany. TheRussiansstillusedtheoldJuliancalendaratthistime.AnnaFuruhjelmoften writesadateinboth‘old’and‘newstyle’.Inthe19thcentury,thedifferencebetween themwas12days. Allinformationaboutpersonsmentionedintheletters,isgivenintheindexof names. IwouldliketothankTheDanishResearchCouncilfortheHumanitiesandAarhus UniversityResearchFoundationformakingthepublicationofmygreatgrandmoth er’sletterspossible.MoreoverIwouldliketoexpressmygratitudetoLeifLudwig Albertsen,DorisMetzner,HannaandMartinEhrensvärd,JulianLewisandmypre-cioushusbandJørgenChristensenforinvaluablehelpindecipheringgothicGerman handwritingandillegibleEnglishwords,andtranslatingandeditingallthathadto bewritteninEnglish.
ÅrhusMay2005 AnnieConstanceChristensen
Introduction
AnarrangedmarriageAfter1830,itseemstohavebeenanunwrittenrulethatanyoneappointedgovernor ofRussianAmericahadtobringawifewithhim.TheBoardofDirectorsofthe RussianAmericanCompanywantednomistressesinthegovernor’shouseatSitka. Itwasamatterofupholdingthedignityandmoralsofthecolonialadministration therepresentativeofRussianempireandChristiancivilisationintheseremote partsoftheworld. GovernorsofthecoloniesinAlaskawerenormallyappointedforaperiodoffi ve years,andtheBoardcouldverywellimaginetheprivationsandtemptationscon-nectedwithbeingalonesomemanatthisnorthernoutpostofcivilisation,without aspouseofEuropeanupbringingandChristianbelieftostandbyhisside.When thefirstRussianmissionariesarrivedinAlaskain1794topreachthegospeltothe heathens,theywereappalledtondtheircompatriotsfurhuntersandmerchants1 livinginunconjugal,orevenpolygamousrelationshipswithnativewomen. Oneof theearlygovernorsleftbehindanativemistressandtheirthreeillegitimatechildren 2 onreturninghomeafterhisterminAlaska. ArrivingatSitkain1830,BaronFerdinandWrangelwasthefirstgovernortobring hiswifewithhimfromRussia.“Hercomingwasaneventofsomeimport,forthe youngbaronesstransformedlifeintheroughfrontiercapital.Theold‘castle’which wastheChiefManager’sresidencenowfeaturedformaldinnersandballs.Thecasual relationshipsofcompanyemployeeswiththelocalwomengavewaytopermanent 3 wedlock,andtheoldroisteringsociallifeofthetownacquiredahighertone”. All laterRussiangovernorsofAlaskaweretofollowtheWrangels’example.Married appointeesbroughttheirwives,andunmarriedonesfacedthetaskoffindingawife 4 beforetheirdepartureforSitka. Inearly1858JohanHampusFuruhjelm,anunmarriedRussiannavaloffi cerof Finnishbirth,receivedaproposalfromtheRussianAmericanCompanytobecome thenextgovernorofRussianAmericaforatermofveyears,from1859.HewasthenharbourmasterofthePortofAian,agloomyplaceontheeasterncoastofSi-beria.HehadservedtheresinceOctober1855(from1856asCaptainoffi rstrank).
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Bolkhovitinov19971999,1,p.268. Pierce1986,p.11. Pierce1986,p.13. Pierce1986,p.40.
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letters from the governor’s wife
DescribingsociallifeinAianinalettertooneofhisfriends,Furuhjelmwrote:“Apart fromthreemarriedbookkeepers,onedittopriestandonedittojuniorcommissioned officer,Aianisinhabitedonlybyworkerswiththeirwives.Nevertheless,Ihavefrom timetotimearrangedadanceforthelocalfops.Theydancevigorouslywiththeir 5 ownandeachothers’wives–theonlyladiesinAian.” Intheautumnof1857Furuhjelm’stwounmarriedsistersarrivedunexpectedlyat AianbyshipfromFinland.Theyhadbeensentaroundtheworldtotheirunmarried brother,who–intheopinionoftheirelderbrotherOtto–wasmostabletoprovide forthem.Thesisters’unexpectedarrivalseemstohaveupsetanybuddingmarriage plansthe36yearoldbachelormayhavehad.InFebruary1858,Furuhjelmwrote tohisbenefactorandfriendArvidAdolfEtholén,anotherFinlanderwhohadbeen GovernorofAlaska(from1840to1845),informinghimofhisdecisiontoaccept thepostofGovernor.Laterintheletter,Furuhjelmconfi des:“Ihadveryseriously consideredgoingtoFinlandforaperiodoftimetogetmarried,butnow,afterthe arrivalofmysisters,Ihavegivenuptheidea,sincesistersandwiveswillnever agree,astheysay”.Moreover,heconcludedwithironyandresignation:“Imust consequentlyendmydaysasanold,sulkybachelor.ButeveninthismatterIconsole myselfthateverythinghappensforthebestandthatIcanliveasamonk,ifIhave 6 to,whichIhavealreadyproved”. Thewayofthemonk,however,wasnotreallyanoptionforafuturegovernorof Alaska.ButtimewasrunningoutforFuruhjelm.SinceAianhadnothingtooffer bywayofasuitablepartner,itwasquiteclearthathisoneandonlyopportunityto getmarriedbeforegoingtoSitkawouldoccurwhenhecametoSt.Petersburgto receivehisinstructions.HearrivedintimeforhisofcialappointmentbytheBoardofDirectors,whichtookplaceonDecember1(oldstyle),1858.Asforfindingawife beforehisimminentdeparture,hehadtorelyontheadviceandservicesofgood societyinHelsinki(Swed.Helsingfors),inspiteofthefactthathehadnotsetfoot thereforeightyears.Andgoodsocietydidnotlethimdown.BythetimeHampus arrivedintheRussiancapital,asuitablecandidatefortheroleofgovernor’swifein Alaskahadalreadybeensingledout.HernamewasAnnaElisabethvonSchoultz. AlthoughshebelongedtooneofHelsinki’snoblefamilies,shewasneverthelessa 7 newcomerinFinlandandmorecosmopolitanthanmostofherFinnishrelatives. AnnawasbornonMarch4,1836inKarlskrona,animportantnavalharbourin southernSweden.Herfather,NilsGustafvonSchoultz(18071838),wasofFinnish stock,buthisbranchofthefamilyhadmovedtoSwedenwhenFinlandbecameapart oftheRussianEmpirein1809.Nilsappearstohavebeenaverycharmingyoung
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CopyofanundatedletterfromFuruhjelm,probablyfrom1856orearly1857,inthe editor’spossession. CopyofaletterfromFuruhjelmtoEtholén,February26,1858(oldstyle),intheedi tor’spossession. AnnieFuruhjelm1932,p.107.