Pan-Africanism or Pragmatism

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The Pan-Africanist debate is back on the historical agenda. The stresses and strains in the union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar since its formation some forty years ago are not showing any sign of abating. Meanwhile, imperialism under new forms and labels continues to bedevil the continent in ever-aggressive, if subtle, ways. The political federation of East Africa, which was one of the main spin-offs of the Pan-Africanism of the nationalist period, is reappearing on the political stage, albeit in a distorted form of regional integration. It is in this context that the present study is situated. Backgrounding the major dramas of the union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar this book studies the personalities involved and their politics, and includes an account of the Dodoma CCM conference that toppled President Jumbe. It is also a detailed legal analysis of the union incorporating powerful new material.

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Publié par
Date de parution 15 mai 2008
Nombre de visites sur la page 0
EAN13 9789987081059
Langue English

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PAN-AFRICANISM OR PRAGMATISM?
PAN-AFRICANISM OR PRAGMATISM?
Lessons of the Tanganyika–Zanzibar Union
Issa G. Shivji
Organisation for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa (OSSREA)
Mkuki na Nyota Publishers P. O. Box 4246 Dar es Salaam www.mkukinanyota.com
Published by: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers Quality Plaza Building Nyerere Road P. O. Box 4246 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Email: editorial.uhariri@mkukinanyota.com contact@mkukinanyota.com Website: www.mkukinanyota.com
In association with: Organisation for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa (OSSREA) P. O. Box 3171 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Email: ossrea@ethionet.et Website: www.ossrea.net
©
OSSREA 2008
OSSREA ISBN:
978-9994-455-21-8
Mkuki na Nyota ISBN:
978-9987-449-99-6
This and other Mkuki na Nyota Publishers titles are available outside Africa from: African Books Collective, P. O. Box 721, Oxford, OX1, 9EN, UK Website: www.africanbookscollective.com
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the author and publisher.
Abbreviations Acknowledgements Preface Introduction
TABLE OFCONTENTS
Chapter One Race, Class and Politics on the Eve of the Revolution Zama za Siasa Glimpses of state and class formation Historical antecedents The state and the ruling class The ethnic cleavage Classes The regional cleavage The rise of nationalisms The argument A decade of party politics Summing up Class struggles and ethnic ideologies The limits of nationalisms
Chapter Two The Revolution The insurrection On the eve of the insurrection The government camp The ‘rebel’ camp The international camp The 100-day revolution
v
vii ix xi xiii
1 1 1 5 5 8 10 13 17 18 18 20 33 33 39
41 41 41 42 46 51 55 57
vi
Table of Contents
The character of the revolution Babu: a social(ist) revolution? Nyerere: a nationalist revolution? What was ‘Zanzibar Revolution’?
Chapter Three The Union The context: East African unity The push: imperialist pressures The result: a pragmatic union Signing of the articles of union Ratification of the articles of union The interim framework of the union Summing up: the Union’s shaky foundations
Chapter Four Nyerere’s Interim Constitution and Karume’s Extra-Constitutionality The aftermath of the Union The rise of an autocrat The party-state The dismantling of the judiciary Eliminating opponents Economic populism The State of the Union The assassination of Karume The second interim constitution Financial autonomy and control Zanzibar, Tanzania and the currency board Bank of Tanzania and the People’s Bank of Zanzibar
Chapter Five Nyerere’s Vision and Jumbe’s Consolidation: The Birth of a Permanent Constitution (1972–1977) Jumbe consolidates power Reforming the ASP structure
62 63 66 68
69 69 69 72 76 76 82 94 97
101
101 101 106 107 110 112 117 120 120 124 129 130 133
143
143 143 145
Table of Contents
Jumbe’s ‘educated elite’ Judicial reforms The merger of the parties The making of the permanent Union Constitution Main features of the 1977 Constitution The nomenclature Single-party supremacy The Union Parliament The Government of Zanzibar The Special Constitutional Court Conclusion
Chapter Six Constitutional Opening and Closure: Jumbe’s Downfall (1979–1985) Constitutional foundation Restructuring the government Revolutionary committees The judiciary The ‘military’ The 1979 Zanzibar Constitution The making of the Constitution The downfall of Aboud Jumbe The crisis years (1981–1985) The crisis of the Union (1983–1984) The 1984 Constitution The aftermath of ‘pollution’ Salient features of the 1984 Constitution Conclusion: a preview of the next 20 years
Conclusion Lessons for Pan-Africanism The Pan-African project Imperialism and the formation of the Union Contradictions of nationalisms Constitutionalism and democracy
vii
149 150 152 163 170 170 171 172 177 179 180
181
181 181 183 183 185 186 186 187 201 201 205 225 225 227 230
235 235 235 241 244 247
viii
Table of Contents
Appendix Appendix 1: Legislative Power Law Appendix 2(i): Constitutional Law Decree No. 5 Appendix 2(ii): Decree indefinitely postponing Constituent Assembly Appendix 3: Articles of Union Appendix 4: Ratification Law passed by Tanganyika Parliament Appendix 5: Ratification Law purportedly passed by Zanzibar Legislature Appendix 6: Union law postponing the summoning of the Constituent Assembly
Bibliography
Index
255 255 258
260 261
265
274
283
285
299
ASP ASPYL ASU AU BoT CCM CC CIA CODESRIA
CUF EACB EACSO EAF FGR GDR GN
IMF LEGCO MP NEC NEPAD
NPSS OAU OSSREA
ABBREVIATIONS
Afro-Shirazi Party Afro-Shirazi Party Youth League Afro-Shirazi Union African Union Bank of Tanzania Chama cha Mapinduzi Central Committee of CCM Central Intelligence Agency (US spy agency) Council for the Development and Social Science Research in Africa Civic United Front East African Currency Board East African Common Services Organisation East African Federation Federal German Republic German Democratic Republic Government or General Notice depending on its purpose International Monetary Fund Legislative Council Member of Parliament National Executive Committee of CCM New Economic Partinership for African Development National Party of the Subjects of Sultan Organisation of African Unity Organisation for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa
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